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Guru–shishya tradition

Index Guru–shishya tradition

The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara ("lineage"), denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism (Tibetan and Zen tradition). [1]

92 relations: Acharya, Advaita Vedanta, Aghori, Akhara, Apprenticeship, Archetype, Architecture, Arjuna, Avatar, Āgama (Hinduism), Ātman (Hinduism), Śramaṇa, Śruti, Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti, Bodhi, Bodhisattva, Brahmacharya, Brahman, Buddhahood, Buddhism, Chillum (pipe), Dakshina, Dalai Lama, Dashanami Sampradaya, Diksha, Drona, Ekalavya, God, Godman (India), Guru, Guru–shishya tradition, Gurukula, Hanuman, Hindu, Hindu texts, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, India, Indian martial arts, Indian religions, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Jainism, Jan van der Lans, Kacchera, Karna, Kaula, Kaupinam, Krishna, Langota, ..., Lineage (Buddhism), Mahabharata, Manusmriti, Meditation, Moksha, Mundaka Upanishad, Music, Mysticism, Nath, Oral tradition, Parampara, Parashurama, Paul Schnabel, Pranayama, Rama, Ramayana, Sadhu, Samavartanam, Sampradaya, Sanskrit, Saranagati, Shaktipat, Shiva, Siddhanta, Sikhism, Sin, Spirituality, Tantra, Theravada, Thumb, Tibetan Buddhism, Transference, Upanishads, Vaishnavism, Vajrayana, Vedanga, Vedas, Wasp, Western esotericism, Yajna, Yama (Hinduism), Yoga. Expand index (42 more) »


In Indian religions and society, an acharya (IAST) is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters; founder, or leader of a sect; or a highly learned person or a title affixed to the names of learned people.

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Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

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The Aghori (Sanskrit aghora) are a small group of ascetic Shaiva sadhus.

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Akhara or Akhada (Sanskrit and Hindi: अखाड़ा, shortened to khara Hindi: खाड़ा) is an Indian word for a place of practice with facilities for boarding, lodging and training, both in the context of Indian martial artists or a sampradaya monastery for religious renunciates in Guru–shishya tradition.

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An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.

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An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.

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Āgama (Hinduism)

The Agamas (Devanagari: आगम, IAST) are a collection of scriptures of several Hindu devotional schools.

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Ātman (Hinduism)

Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.

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Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".

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Shruti or Shruthi (श्रुति;; IPA/Sanskrit) in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism.

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Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).

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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".

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Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".

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In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.

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Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".

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In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.

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In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Chillum (pipe)

A chillum, or chilam, is a straight conical pipe with end-to-end channel, traditionally made of clay and used since at least the eighteenth century by Hindu monks, known as sadhus in India.

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Dakshinā,, or दक्षिणा), is a Sanskrit word found in Buddhist, Hindu and Jain literature where it may mean any donation, fees or honorarium given to a cause, monastery, temple, spiritual guide or after a ritual. It may be expected, or a tradition or voluntary form of daana. The term is found in this context in the Vedic literature. It may mean honorarium to a guru for education, training or guidance.

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Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama (Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma) is a title given to spiritual leaders of the Tibetan people.

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Dashanami Sampradaya

Dashanami Sanyasi (IAST "Tradition of Ten Names") is a Hindu monastic tradition of "single-staff renunciation " (ēkadaṇḍisannyāsi) generally associated with the Advaita Vedanta tradition.The disciples of Adi Shankaracharya are also called "Dash Nam Sanyasi" as the Title is further divided into ten groups viz.

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Deekshya (Sanskrit: दीक्षा in Devanagari,, Tamil: தீட்சை) also spelled deeksha or deeksa in common usage, translated as a "preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony", is giving of a mantra or an initiation by the guru (in Guru–shishya tradition) of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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In the epic Mahabharata, Droṇa (द्रोण) or Droṇācārya or Guru Droṇa or Rajaguru Devadroṇa was the royal preceptor to the Kauravas and Pandavas; an avatar of Brihaspati.

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Ekalavya (English: ékalavya) means self learned person, is a character from the epic The Mahābhārata.

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In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Godman (India)

Godman is a colloquial term used in India for a type of charismatic guru.

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Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.

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Guru–shishya tradition

The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara ("lineage"), denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture and religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism (Tibetan and Zen tradition).

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Gurukula (gurukula) was a type of residential schooling system in ancient India with shishya (students) living near or with the guru, in the same house.

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Hanuman (IAST: Hanumān, Sanskrit: हनुमान्) is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama and one of the central characters in the various versions of the epic Ramayana found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu texts

Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian martial arts

Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

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Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.

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Jan van der Lans

Johannes (Jan) Maria van der Lans (10 July 1933 – 6 July 2002) was a Dutch professor in the psychology of religion at the Catholic University of Nijmegen (now called Radboud University Nijmegen).

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Kachera (ਕਛੈਰਾ) are specially designed, shalwar- undergarments with a tie-knot ("naala".

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Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण, IAST transliteration: Karṇa), originally known as Vasusena, is one of the central characters in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, from ancient India.

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Kaula, also known as Kula, ("the Kula practice") and ("the Kaula conduct"), is a religious tradition in Shaktism and tantric Shaivism characterised by distinctive rituals and symbolism connected with the worship of Shakti.

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Kaupinam (Devanagari: कौपिनम), kaupina (Devanagari: कौपिन) or langot (Devanagari: लंगोट) is an undergarment worn by Indian men as a loincloth or underclothing, usually by pehalwan exercising or sparring in dangal at traditional wrestling akharas.

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Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.

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Langota or Langoti is a traditional style of Indian loincloth for men.

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Lineage (Buddhism)

A lineage in Buddhism is a line of transmission of the Buddhist teaching that is "theoretically traced back to the Buddha himself." The acknowledgement of the transmission can be oral, or certified in documents.

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The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

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The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.

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Mundaka Upanishad

The Mundaka Upanishad (मुण्डक उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit Vedic text, embedded inside Atharva Veda.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nath, also called as Natha, are a Shaivism sub-tradition within Hinduism.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Parampara (Sanskrit: परम्परा, paramparā) denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Vedic culture and Indian religions such as Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism.

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Parashurama (Sanskrit: परशुराम, IAST: Paraśurāma, lit. Rama with an axe) is the sixth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism.

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Paul Schnabel

Paul Schnabel (born July 17, 1948 in Bergen op Zoom) is a Dutch sociologist and the director of an agency of the Dutch government called Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (Netherlands Institute for Social Research), usually abbreviated as SCP (or SCPB).

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Prāṇāyāma (प्राणायाम) is a Sanskrit word alternatively translated as "extension of the prāṇa (breath or life force)" or "breath control." The word is composed from two Sanskrit words: prana meaning life force (noted particularly as the breath), and either ayama (to restrain or control the prana, implying a set of breathing techniques where the breath is intentionally altered in order to produce specific results) or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw out (as in extension of the life force).

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Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.

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The Samavartana (समावर्तन), also known as, is a rite of passage in the ancient texts of Hinduism performed at the close of the Brahmacharya period and marked the graduation of the student from Gurukul (school).

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In Hinduism, a sampradaya (Sanskrit: सम्प्रदाय IAST) can be translated as ‘tradition’, 'spiritual lineage' or a ‘religious system’.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sharanagathi or Prapatti (Sanskrit for "surrender"), in the devotional school of Hindu denominations known as Vaishnavism, is the process of total surrender to God (Vishnu or Krishna).

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Shaktipat or Śaktipāta (Sanskrit, from shakti - "(psychic) energy" - and pāta, "to fall")Abhinavagupta, The Kula Ritual, as Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantrāloka, John R. Dupuche, page 155 refers in Hinduism to the conferring of spiritual "energy" upon one person by another.

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Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.

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Siddhānta, a Sanskrit term denoting the established and accepted view of any particular school within Indian philosophy.

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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.

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Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.

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The thumb is the first digit of the hand.

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.

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Transference (Übertragung) is a theoretical phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of the feelings a person has about a second person to feelings the first person has about a third person.

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The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

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Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.

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The Vedanga (वेदाङ्ग, "limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times, and has been connected with the study of the Vedas.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.

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Western esotericism

Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.

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Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.

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Yama (Hinduism)

In Hinduism, Yama (यम) is the lord of death.

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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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Chela (Disciple), Chela (Shishya), Chela (shishya), Guru Chela Dynamic, Guru Shishya parampara, Guru principle, Guru shishya, Guru-Shishya, Guru-Sishya tradition, Guru-chela belief system, Guru-chela dynamic, Guru-chela relationship, Guru-chela tradition, Guru-shishya parampara, Guru-shishya tradition, Shishya, Sishya, Sishya parampara, Sisya, Śishya, Śiṣya.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru–shishya_tradition

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