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Guru Arjan

Index Guru Arjan

Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003. [1]

57 relations: Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Ahmad Sirhindi, Akbar, Akbarnama, Amritsar, Asceticism, Bhai Gurdas, Dasvand, Goindval, Golden Temple, Gurbani, Gurdwara, Gurdwara Dera Sahib, Guru Amar Das, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Hargobind, Guru Ram Das, Hukam, India, Infidel, Jahangir, Jerome Xavier, Jihad, Jizya, John F. Richards, Kartarpur, India, Khatri, Khusrau Mirza, Kirtan Sohila, Lahore, Lahore Fort, Langar (Sikhism), Lisbon, Manuscriptology, Masand, Mata Bhani, Mian Mir, Mina (Sikhism), Mughal Empire, Nanakshahi calendar, Nāma, Pakistan, Pashaura Singh (Sikh scholar), Punjab, Ravi River, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sikh, Sikh gurus, Sikhism, Sodhi, ..., Sukhmani Sahib, Tarn Taran district, Tarn Taran Sahib, The New Cambridge History of India, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri, W. H. McLeod, Walled City of Lahore. Expand index (7 more) »

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak

Shaikh Abu al-Fazal ibn Mubarak (ابو الفضل) also known as Abu'l-Fazl, Abu'l Fadl and Abu'l-Fadl 'Allami (14 January 1551 – 12 August 1602) was the Grand vizier of the Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign in three volumes, (the third volume is known as the Ain-i-Akbari) and a Persian translation of the Bible.

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Ahmad Sirhindi

Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) was an Indian Islamic scholar, a Hanafi jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order.

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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

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The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor (r. 1556–1605), commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abul Fazl who was one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court.

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Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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Bhai Gurdas

Bhai Gurdas (ਭਾਈ ਗੁਰਦਾਸ; 1551 – August 25, 1636) was an influential Sikh figure, writer, historian and preacher.

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Dasvand literally means "a tenth part" and refers the act of donating ten percent of one's harvest, both financial and in the form of time and service such as seva to the Gurdwara and anywhere else.

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Goindwal (ਗੋਇੰਦਵਾਲ), also known as Goindwal Sahib, is located in Taran Taran district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in India about 23 km from Tarn Taran Sahib.

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Golden Temple

Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

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Gurbani (ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ) is a Sikh term, very commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib.

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A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.

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Gurdwara Dera Sahib

Gurdwara Dera Sahib (Punjabi and) is a Sikh temple in Lahore, Pakistan, which commemorates the spot where the 5th guru of Sikhism, Guru Arjan Dev, died in 1606.

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Guru Amar Das

Guru Amar Das (5 May 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Hargobind

Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Ram Das

Guru Ram Das (1534–1581) was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.

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Hukam (ਹੁਕਮਿ.) is a Punjabi word derived from the Arabic hukm, meaning "command" or "divine order." In Sikhism, Hukam represents the goal of becoming in harmony with the will of God and thus attaining inner peace.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.

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Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

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Jerome Xavier

Jerome Xavier, born Jerónimo de Ezpeleta y Goñi (1549 – June 27, 1617), was a Spanish Jesuit missionary into the Mughal court of Akbar (1542–1605), and his son Jahangir.

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Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.

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John F. Richards

John F. Richards (November 3, 1938 - August 23, 2007) was a historian of South Asia and in particular of the Mughal Empire.

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Kartarpur, India

Kartarpur is a town near the city of Jalandhar and is located in the Doaba region of the state.

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Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.

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Khusrau Mirza

Khusrau Mirza (Urdu:; 16August 1587 – 26 January 1622) or Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

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Kirtan Sohila

Kirtan Sohila is a night prayer in Sikhism.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.

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Langar (Sikhism)

Langar (ਲੰਗਰ) (kitchen) is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, caste, gender, economic status or ethnicity.

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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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Manuscriptology is another word for codicology, namely the study of history and literature through the use of hand-written documents.

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A Masand was a representative and tithe collector in Sikhism.

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Mata Bhani

Bibi Bhani (19 January 1535 – 9 April 1598) was daughter of Guru Amar Das, the third Sikh Guru and the wife of Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru and the mother of Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Sikh Guru.

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Mian Mir

Baba Sain Mir Mohammed Sahib (c. 1550 – 22 August 1635), popularly known as Mian Mir or Miyan Mir, was a famous Sufi Muslim saint who resided in Lahore, specifically in the town of Dharampura (in present-day Pakistan).

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Mina (Sikhism)

Minas (ਮੀਣੇ) is a term coined by orthodox Sikhs for a sect of Sikhism that followed Baba Prithi Chand (1558–1618), the eldest son of Guru Ram Das after the younger brother Guru Arjan was officially made the next Guru.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Nanakshahi calendar

The Nanakshahi (ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ).

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Nāma is the Sanskrit for "name".

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pashaura Singh (Sikh scholar)

Pashaura Singh is a religious studies scholar who has written several books on Sikh scriptures and history.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee

The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikh gurus

The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.

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Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.

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Sodhi is a caste from the Punjab region, a subdivision of the Khatri caste.

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Sukhmani Sahib

Sukhmani Sahib (ਸੁਖਮਨੀ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is usually translated to mean Psalm of Peace is a set of 192 padas (stanzas of 10 hymns) present in the Guru Granth Sahib, the main scripture of Sikhism from Ang 262 to Ang 296 (about 35 count).

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Tarn Taran district

Tarn Taran district is one of the districts in the Majha region of Punjab in North-West Republic of India.

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Tarn Taran Sahib

Tarn Taran Sahib is a town in the Majha region of the state of Punjab, in northern India.

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The New Cambridge History of India

The New Cambridge History of India is a major multi-volume work of historical scholarship published by Cambridge University Press.

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Tuzuk-e-Jahangiri or Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (تزک جهانگیری) is the autobiography of Mughal Emperor Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir (1569-1627).

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W. H. McLeod

William Hewat "Hew" McLeod (2 August 1932 – 20 July 2009) was a New Zealand scholar who wrote about Sikh history and culture.

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Walled City of Lahore

The Walled City of Lahore (اندرون شہر, "Inner City"), also known as Old City, forms the historic core of Lahore, Pakistan.

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Arjan Dev, Arjan dev, Arjun Dev, Death of Guru Arjan, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Guru Arjan Dev ji, Guru Arjun, Guru Arjun Dev, Guru Arjun Dev Ji, Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Sri Guru Arjan, Sri Guru Arjan Dev, Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ ਦੇਵ.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guru_Arjan

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