68 relations: Allophone, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Army Specialized Training Program, Aspirated consonant, Beijing dialect, Bernhard Karlgren, Bopomofo, China, Chinese classics, Chinese language romanization in Taiwan, Classical Chinese, Close front rounded vowel, Concise Dictionary of Spoken Chinese, Diacritic, Emeritus, Epiphenomenon, Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Henan, Hmong language, Hong Kong, International Organization for Standardization, Language, Latin alphabet, Latinxua Sin Wenz, Lewis Carroll, Library of Congress, Lin Yutang, Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage, Linguistics, Luo Changpei, Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, Morpheme, National Languages Committee, Old Chinese, Orthography, Phoneme, Pinyin, Princeton University Press, Qian Xuantong, R-colored vowel, Retroflex consonant, Romanization, Romanization of Chinese, Romanization of Japanese, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Shiing-Shen Chern, ..., Simplified Wade, SOAS, University of London, Sonorant, Spelling in Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Standard Chinese, Taiwan, Through the Looking-Glass, United Nations, University of London, University of Oregon, Voice (phonetics), Wade–Giles, Walter Simon (sinologist), Warring States period, Wey (state), Written vernacular Chinese, Yang Lien-sheng, Yuen Ren Chao. Expand index (18 more) » « Shrink index
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) was a military training program instituted by the United States Army during World War II to meet wartime demands both for junior officers and soldiers with technical skills.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
Klas Bernhard Johannes Karlgren (15 October 1889 – 20 October 1978) was a Swedish Sinologist and linguist who pioneered the study of Chinese historical phonology using modern comparative methods.
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
There are a large number of romanization systems used in Taiwan (officially the Republic of China).
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Concise Dictionary of Spoken Chinese (1947), which was compiled by Yuen Ren Chao and Lien Sheng Yang, made numerous important lexicographic innovations.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Emeritus, in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, or other person.
An epiphenomenon (plural: epiphenomena) is a secondary phenomenon that occurs alongside or in parallel to a primary phenomenon.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Hmong (RPA: Hmoob) or Mong (RPA: Moob), known as First Vernacular Chuanqiandian Miao in China, is a dialect continuum of the West Hmongic branch of the Hmongic languages spoken by the Hmong of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, northern Vietnam, Thailand, and Laos.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latinxua Sin Wenz (also known as Sin Wenz, Latinxua Sinwenz, Zhongguo Latinxua Sin Wenz, Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz or Latinxua) is a little-used romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lin Yutang (October 10, 1895 – March 26, 1976) was a Chinese writer, translator, linguist, philosopher and inventor.
Lin Yutang's Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Usage (1972), compiled by the linguist and author Lin Yutang, contains over 8,100 character head entries and 110,000 words and phrases, including many neologisms.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Luo Changpei (Lo ch'ang P'ei; 9 August 189913 December 1958) was a Chinese linguist.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
The National Languages Committee was established in 1928 by the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan (ROC) with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) in the Republic of China.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Qian Xuantong (1887—January 17, 1939) was a Chinese linguist and professor of literature at National Peking University, and along with Gu Jiegang, one of the leaders of the Doubting Antiquity School.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shiing-Shen Chern (October 26, 1911 – December 3, 2004) was a Chinese-American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to differential geometry and topology.
Simplified Wade, abbreviated SW, is a modification of the Wade–Giles romanization system for writing Standard Mandarin Chinese.
SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR) can be divided into its treatment of initials, finals and tones.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Oregon (also referred to as UO, U of O or Oregon) is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Ernest Julius Walter Simon CBE FBA (10 June 189322 February 1981) was a German sinologist and librarian.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei (Old Chinese: *ɢʷat-s), commonly spelled Wey to distinguish from the larger Wei (魏) state, was an ancient Chinese state that was founded in the early Western Zhou dynasty and rose to prominence during the Spring and Autumn period.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Yang Lien-sheng (July 26, 1914November 16, 1990) who often wrote under the name L.S. Yang, was a Chinese-American sinologist and professor at Harvard University.
Yuen Ren Chao (3 November 1892 – 25 February 1982) was a Chinese-American linguist, educator, scholar, poet, and composer, who contributed to the modern study of Chinese phonology and grammar.
Guoyu Luomazi, Guoyu Romazi, Guóyu Luómazì, Gwoyeu Luomaatzyh, Gwoyeu romatzyh, Kuo-yu Lo-ma-tzu, Kuo-yue Lo-ma-tzu, Kuo-yü Lo-ma-tzu, Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (1928), National Phonetic Alphabet II, National Romanization.