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Index Gymnosperm

The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. [1]

72 relations: Agathis, Araucariaceae, Archegonium, Bennettitales, Carboniferous, Clade, Conifer cone, Convergent evolution, Cupressaceae, Cycad, Cycadales, Cycadidae, Cycas, Devonian, Douglas E. Soltis, Embryophyte, Ephedra (plant), Fern, Fertilisation, Flagellum, Flowering plant, Gametophyte, Gene duplication, Ginkgo, Ginkgoaceae, Ginkgoales, Ginkgoidae, Glossopteridales, Gnetidae, Gnetophyta, Gnetum, Greek language, Holocene, Integument, Kalligrammatidae, Leaf, Lumber, Lycopodiophyta, Mecoptera, Mycorrhiza, Nageia, Nail polish, Neontology, Ovary (botany), Ovule, Pamela S. Soltis, Paraphyly, Perfume, Phylum, Picea abies, ..., Pinaceae, Pinales, Pinidae, Pinophyta, Plant, Podocarpaceae, Pollen tube, Proboscis, Progymnosperm, Pteridospermatophyta, Sciadopitys, Soap, Spermatophyte, Taxaceae, Taxon, Taxus, Torreya, Varnish, Vascular plant, Welwitschia, Welwitschiaceae, Zamiaceae. Expand index (22 more) »


Agathis, commonly known as kauri or dammar, is a genus of 22 species of evergreen tree.

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Araucariaceae - known as araucarians - is a very ancient family of coniferous trees.

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An archegonium (pl: archegonia), from the ancient Greek ἀρχή ("beginning") and γόνος ("offspring"), is a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants, producing and containing the ovum or female gamete.

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Bennettitales (also known as cycadeoids) is an extinct order of seed plants that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct in most areas toward the end of the Cretaceous (i.e. they existed around 252 to 66 million years ago), although some Bennettitales appear to have survived into Oligocene times in Tasmania and eastern Australia.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Conifer cone

A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Cupressaceae is a conifer family, the cypress family, with worldwide distribution.

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Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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Cycadales is an order of seed plants that includes all the extant cycads.

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Cycadidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass comprises the cycads, which include the two families Cycadaceae and Zamiaceae.

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Cycas is the type genus and the only genus recognised in the family Cycadaceae.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Douglas E. Soltis

Douglas Soltis is a Distinguished Professor in the Laboratory of Molecular Systematics & Evolutionary Genetics, (Soltis lab.) Florida Museum of Natural History and Department of Biology at the University of Florida.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Ephedra (plant)

Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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The Ginkgoaceae is a family of gymnosperms which appeared during the Mesozoic Era, of which the only extant representative is Ginkgo biloba, which is for this reason sometimes regarded as a living fossil.

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Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.

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Ginkgoidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass contains the single extant genus Ginkgo under order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoaceae.

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Glossopteridales is an extinct order of plants belonging to Pteridospermatophyta, or seed ferns, also known as Arberiales and Ottokariales.

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Gnetidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass comprises the gnetophytes.

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Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).

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Gnetum is a genus of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.

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Kalligrammatidae, sometimes known as kalligrammatids or kalligrammatid lacewings, is a family of extinct insects in the order Neuroptera (lacewings) that contains twenty genera and a number of species.

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A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.

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Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.

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Mecoptera (from the Greek: mecos.

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A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

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Nageia is a genus of conifers belonging to the podocarp family Podocarpaceae.

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Nail polish

Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Ovary (botany)

In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Pamela S. Soltis

Pamela Soltis is an American botanist.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Perfume (parfum) is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects, and living-spaces an agreeable scent.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Picea abies

Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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The Pinaceae (pine family) are trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces.

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The order Pinales in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, comprises all the extant conifers.

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Pinidae is a subclass of Equisetopsida in the sense used by Mark W. Chase and James L. Reveal in their 2009 article "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III." This subclass comprises the conifers.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Podocarpaceae is a large family of mainly Southern Hemisphere conifers, comprising about 156 species of evergreen trees and shrubs.

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Pollen tube

A pollen tube is a tubular structure produced by the male gametophyte of seed plants when it germinates.

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A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.

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The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.

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The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).

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Sciadopitys verticillata, koyamaki, or Japanese umbrella-pine, is a unique conifer endemic to Japan.

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Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.

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The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.

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Taxaceae, commonly called the yew family, is a coniferous family which includes seven genera and about 30 species of plants, or in older interpretations three genera and 7 to 12 species.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Torreya is a genus of conifers comprising six or seven species placed the family Taxaceae, though sometimes formerly placed in Cephalotaxaceae.

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Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Welwitschia is a monotypic gymnosperm genus, comprising solely the distinctive Welwitschia mirabilis.

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Welwitschiaceae is a family of plants of the order Gnetales with one living species, Welwitschia mirabilis, found in southwestern Africa.

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The Zamiaceae are a family of cycads that are superficially palm or fern-like.

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Redirects here:

Gymnospermae, Gymnospermophyta, Gymnosperms, Gymosperm.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperm

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