158 relations: Aeon, Alabaster, Algeria, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anhydrite, Araripina, Archean, Argentina, Arsenic, Asia, Australia, Bassanite, Biological membrane, Blackboard, Botryogen, Brackish water, Brazil, Brewing, Brine, Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Calcination, Calcite, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium sulfate, Canada, Cave of the Crystals, Chemical formula, Chemical synthesis, Chihuahua (state), China, Concentration, Concrete, Copper, Crete, Crystal, Crystal twinning, Dairy product, Desalination, Desert rose (crystal), Distillation, Drywall, England, England in the Middle Ages, Europe, Evaporite, Fertilizer, Flue-gas desulfurization, ..., Fort Dodge, Iowa, Fouling, France, Germany, Gesso, Grajaú, Maranhão, Greek language, Gypcrust, Gypsum block, Gypsum recycling, Halite, Hard water, Hardness comparison, Heat exchanger, Herbert Hoover, Hermann–Mauguin notation, Hot spring, Hydrate, Hydrogen bond, Hydrothermal circulation, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Johann Friedrich Mayer (agriculturist), Kalannie, Western Australia, Kalimantan, Kutai, Lead, Lead carbonate, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mead, Mesopotamia, Mexico, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Monoclinic crystal system, Montmartre, Moon, Mortar (masonry), Naica Mine, Nanofiltration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Monument (United States), Native copper, New Mexico, Nottingham alabaster, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oman, Opportunity (rover), Pakistan, Paris, Permissible exposure limit, Phosphogypsum, Plaster, Plaster City, California, Portland cement, Pyrite, Quarry, Recommended exposure limit, Red River of the North, Redox, Reverse osmosis, Russia, Sand, Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, Saudi Arabia, Science (journal), Scratch hardness, Scribe, Sculpture, Sedimentary rock, Selenite (mineral), Selenium, Sodic soil, Sodium chloride, Soil, Soil conditioner, Soil Science Society of America, Solubility, South Australia, Space group, Spain, Spar (mineralogy), Stratum, Sulfate, Sulfate minerals, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Thailand, Tofu, Traditional Chinese medicine, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Vein (geology), Volcano, Water of crystallization, Water potential, Western Australia, White Sands National Monument, Winnipeg, Zuiderzee Works. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
The word aeon, also spelled eon (in American English) and æon, originally meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eternity".
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Araripina is a Brazilian municipality in the state of Pernambuco.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bassanite is a calcium sulfate mineral with formula CaSO4·0.5(H2O) or 2CaSO4·H2O.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
A blackboard (also known as a chalkboard) is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with sticks of calcium sulfate or calcium carbonate, known, when used for this purpose, as chalk.
Botryogen is a hydrous magnesium sulfate mineral with formula: MgFe3+(SO4)2(OH)·7H2O.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cave of the Crystals or Giant Crystal Cave is a cave connected to the Naica Mine at a depth of, in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chihuahua), is one of the 32 states of Mexico.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Desert rose is the colloquial name given to rose-like formations of crystal clusters of gypsum or baryte which include abundant sand grains.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration).
Fort Dodge is a city in and the county seat of Webster County, Iowa, United States, along the Des Moines River.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gesso ("chalk", from the gypsum, from γύψος) is a white paint mixture consisting of a binder mixed with chalk, gypsum, pigment, or any combination of these.
Grajaú is a municipality in the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gypcrete or gypcrust is a hardened layer of soil, consisting of around 95% gypsum (calcium sulfate).
Gypsum block is a massive lightweight building material composed of solid gypsum, for building and erecting lightweight fire-resistant non-load bearing interior walls, partition walls, cavity walls, skin walls and pillar casing indoors.
Gypsum recycling is the process of turning gypsum waste into recycled gypsum hereby generating a raw material that can replace virgin gypsum raw materials in the manufacturing of new products.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
There are a large number of hardness testing methods available (e.g. Vickers, Brinell, Rockwell, Meyer and Leeb).
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman and politician who served as the 31st President of the United States from 1929 to 1933 during the Great Depression.
In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Johann Friedrich Georg Hartmann Mayer (September 21, 1719 – March 17, 1798) was a German Reformed pastor and agricultural reformer,Rudolf Vierhaus (2006) Kraatz - Menge. K. G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Company, p. 824 who is considered one of the most important writers on agriculture of his time.
Kalannie is a small town in the Shire of Dalwallinu, in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, approximately north-east of the state capital, Perth.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
Kutai is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native people of the region, who have their own language of the same name and their own rich history.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Montmartre is a large hill in Paris's 18th arrondissement.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
The Naica Mine of the Mexican state of Chihuahua, is a working mine that contains extremely large selenite crystals.
Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent membrane filtration process used most often with low total dissolved solids water such as surface water and fresh groundwater, with the purpose of softening (polyvalent cation removal) and removal of disinfection by-product precursors such as natural organic matter and synthetic organic matter.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A national monument in the United States is a protected area that is similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States.
Native copper is an uncombined form of copper that occurs as a natural mineral.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nottingham alabaster is a term used to refer to the English sculpture industry, mostly of relatively small religious carvings, which flourished from the fourteenth century until the early sixteenth century.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Phosphogypsum refers to the calcium sulfate hydrate formed as a by-product of the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock.
Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.
Plaster City is an unincorporated community in Imperial County in the U.S. state of California.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
The Red River (Rivière rouge or Rivière Rouge du Nord, American English: Red River of the North) is a North American river.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Santa Eulalia is a town and seat of the municipality of Aquiles Serdán, in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scratch hardness tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Selenite, satin spar, desert rose, and gypsum flower are four varieties of the mineral gypsum; all four varieties show obvious crystalline structure.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Sodic soils are characterized by a disproportionately high concentration of sodium (Na) in their cation exchange complex.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.
The Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), is the largest soil-specific society in the United States.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spar is an old mining or mineralogy term used to refer to crystals that have readily discernible faces.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In chemistry, water of crystallization or water of hydration or crystallization water is water molecules that are present inside crystals.
Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
White Sands National Monument is a United States national monument located in the state of New Mexico on the north side of Route 70 about southwest of Alamogordo in western Otero County and northeastern Doña Ana County.
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada.
The Zuiderzee Works (Zuiderzeewerken) is a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century.