218 relations: Activator (genetics), Adenoid, Adsorption, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Family Physician, Annals of Internal Medicine, Antigen-presenting cell, Antiviral drug, APOBEC3G, Apoptosis, Aspartic protease, Base pair, Belgian Congo, Biological Chemistry (journal), Biology, Blood, Blood donation, Bond cleavage, Breast milk, Bushmeat, Caister Academic Press, Cameroon, Cancer, Capsid, CCR5, CD3 (immunology), CD4, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell-mediated immunity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central chimpanzee, Central nervous system, Chemokine, Childbirth, Chimpanzee, Chlorocebus, Circumcision and HIV, Clade, Clathrin, Co-receptor, Colonialism, Commensalism, Common chimpanzee, Complementary DNA, CXCR4, Cytoplasm, Cytotoxic T cell, DC-SIGN, ..., Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dendritic cell, Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors, DNA, Donald McNeil Jr., Downregulation and upregulation, Drug development, Drug resistance, ELISA, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Env (gene), Envelope glycoprotein GP120, Enzyme, Epigenetic clock, ERCC1, Ethiopia, Evolution, FEZ1, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, Furin, Fusion gene, Gay-related immune deficiency, Gene, Genetic diversity, Genetic recombination, Genetic variability, Genital ulcer, Genome, Genus, Glycan, Glycoprotein, Golgi apparatus, Gp41, Group-specific antigen, Haemophilia, Haiti, HIV Rev response element, HIV tropism, HIV vaccine, HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS denialism, Human T-lymphotropic virus, IER3, Immune system, Immunofluorescence, Incubation period, India, Indonesia, Infectivity, Integrase, Integrin, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, International Reviews of Immunology, Ivory Coast, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Journal of General Virology, Kaposi's sarcoma, Kenya, Kinshasa, Lentivirus, LGBT community, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid bilayer, Long terminal repeat, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Luc Montagnier, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, Macrophage, Malawi, Management of HIV/AIDS, Medical research, Messenger RNA, MHC class I, MHC class II, Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases, Microglia, MicroRNA, Morphology (biology), Mozambique, Mucous membrane, Mutation rate, Nanometre, National Institutes of Health, Nef (protein), Neuron, New World monkey, NF-κB, Nigeria, Night monkey, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid test, Old World monkey, Opportunistic infection, Orthoretrovirinae, P24 capsid protein, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Polymerase chain reaction, Post-exposure prophylaxis, Pre-ejaculate, Pre-exposure prophylaxis, Pregnancy, Primate, Prostitution, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Provirus, Public health intervention, Pyroptosis, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Retroviral Psi packaging element, Retrovirus, Rev (HIV), Reverse transcriptase, Ribonuclease, RNA, RNA splicing, RNA virus, Robert Gallo, Science (journal), Semen, Senegal, Sense (molecular biology), Sex education, Sexual intercourse, Sexual partner, Sexually transmitted infection, SH3 domain, Simian immunodeficiency virus, Sooty mangabey, South Africa, Stromal cell-derived factor 1, Structure and genome of HIV, Syncytium, Syphilis, T cell, T helper cell, Tanzania, Tat (HIV), The New York Times, Tissue tropism, Trans-activation response element (TAR), Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Translation (biology), Uganda, University of California, San Francisco, Vaginal lubrication, Viral envelope, Viral load, Viral synapse, Virulence, Virus, Virus latency, Vpr, Weakness, West Africa, Western blot, Western gorilla, Western lowland gorilla, White blood cell, World AIDS Day, Zimbabwe, Zoonosis. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.
The adenoid, also known as a pharyngeal tonsil or nasopharyngeal tonsil, is the superior-most of the tonsils.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
American Family Physician is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays antigen complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene that belongs to the APOBEC superfamily of proteins.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aspartic proteases are a catalytic type of protease enzymes that use an activated water molecule bound to one or more aspartate residues for catalysis of their peptide substrates.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Biological Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on biological chemistry.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components).
Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T cell co-receptor helps to activate both the cytotoxic T cell (CD8+ naive T cells) and also T helper cells (CD4+ naive T cells).
In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central chimpanzee or tschego (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee (one of the closest living relatives to humans, along with the bonobo).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chlorocebus is a genus of medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys.
Male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from women to men.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR-4) also known as fusin or CD184 (cluster of differentiation 184) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCR4 gene.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin) also known as CD209 ('''C'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiation 209) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD209 gene.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Many major physiological processes depend on regulation of proteolytic enzyme activity and there can be dramatic consequences when equilibrium between an enzyme and its substrates is disturbed.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Donald Gerard McNeil Jr. (born February 1, 1954 San Francisco, California) is a science and health journalist for the New York Times.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Env is a viral gene that encodes the protein forming the viral envelope.
Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.
DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERCC1 gene.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FEZ1 gene.
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (born 30 July 1947) is a French virologist and Director of the Regulation of Retroviral Infections Division (Unité de Régulation des Infections Rétrovirales) and Professor at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France.
Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene.
A fusion gene is a hybrid gene formed from two previously separate genes.
Gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) was the original name for a disease currently known as AIDS.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, syphilis, chancroid, or Chlamydia trachomatis.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Gp41 also known as glycoprotein 41 is a subunit of the envelope protein complex of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Group-specific antigen, or gag, is the genetic material that codes for the core structural proteins of a retrovirus.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a highly structured, ~350 nucleotide RNA segment present in the Env coding region of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNAs.
HIV tropism refers to the cell type that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and replicates in.
An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HIV/AIDS denialism is the belief, contradicted by conclusive medical and scientific evidence, that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The human T-lymphotropic virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).
Radiation-inducible immediate-early gene IEX-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IER3 gene.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection.
Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses.
International Reviews of Immunology is an international peer-reviewed medical journal that covers basic and translational research in immunology and related fields.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
The Journal of General Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research into viruses affecting animals, plants, insects, bacteria, and fungi, including their molecular biology, immunology, and interactions with the host.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow") is a genus of retroviruses that cause chronic and deadly diseases characterized by long incubation periods, in the human and other mammalian species.
The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Long terminal repeats (LTRs) are identical sequences of DNA that repeat hundreds or thousands of times found at either end of retrotransposons or proviral DNA formed by reverse transcription of retroviral RNA.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Los Alamos (Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods" or "The Poplars") is a town in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States that is recognized as the birthplace of the atomic bomb––the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II.
Luc Antoine Montagnier (born 18 August 1932) is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a cellular adhesion molecule found on lymphocytes.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
MHC class I molecules are one of two primary classes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (the other being MHC class II) and are found on the cell surface of all nucleated cells in the bodies of jawed vertebrates.
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
Microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases are pharmacologic agents and chemical substances that are capable of killing or destroying certain microorganisms that commonly cause human infection (for example, the human immunodeficiency virus). Microbicides are a diverse group of chemical compounds that exert their activity by a variety of different mechanisms of action. Multiple compounds are being developed and tested for their microbicidal activity in clinical trials. Microbicides can be formulated in various delivery systems including gels, creams, lotions, aerosol sprays, tablets or films (which must be used near the time of sexual intercourse) and sponges and vaginal rings (or other devices that release the active ingredient(s) over a longer period). Some of these agents are being developed for vaginal application, and for rectal use by those engaging in anal sex. Although there are many approaches to preventing sexually transmitted diseases in general (and HIV in particular), current methods have not been sufficient to halt the spread of these diseases (particularly among women and people in less-developed nations). Sexual abstinence is not a realistic option for women who want to bear children, or who are at risk of sexual violence. In such situations, the use of microbicides could offer both primary protection (in the absence of condoms) and secondary protection (if a condom breaks or slips off during intercourse). It is hoped that microbicides may be safe and effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission during sexual activity with an infected partner.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over time.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Nef (Negative Regulatory Factor) is a small 27-35 kDa myristoylated protein encoded by primate lentiviruses.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae).
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
A nucleic acid test (NAT) or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is a technique utilized to detect a particular nucleic acid, virus, or bacteria which acts as a pathogen in blood, tissue, urine, etc.
The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a family of catarrhines, the only family in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Orthoretrovirinae is a subfamily of viruses belonging to Retroviridae, a family of enveloped viruses that replicate in a host cell through the process of reverse transcription.
p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid.
Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. carinii) is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Post-exposure prophylaxis, also known as post-exposure prevention (PEP), is any preventive medical treatment started after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent the infection from occurring.
Pre-ejaculate (also known as pre-ejaculatory fluid, pre-seminal fluid or Cowper's fluid, and colloquially as pre-cum) is a clear, colorless, viscous fluid that is emitted from the urethra of the penis during sexual arousal.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of drugs to prevent disease in people who have not yet been exposed to the disease-causing agent.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
A public health intervention is any effort or policy that attempts to improve mental and physical health on a population level.
Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Retroviral Psi packaging element is a cis-acting RNA element identified in the genomes of the retroviruses Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
Rev is a transactivating protein that is essential to the regulation of HIV-1 protein expression.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Robert Charles Gallo (born March 23, 1937) is an American biomedical researcher.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual partners are people who engage in sexual activity together.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
The SRC Homology 3 Domain (or SH3 domain) is a small protein domain of about 60 amino acid residues.
Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are retroviruses that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates.
The sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) is an Old World monkey found in forests from Senegal in a margin along the coast down to Ghana.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), also known as C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), is a chemokine protein that in humans is encoded by the CXCL12 gene on chromosome 10.
The genome and proteins of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium.
The HIV trans-activation response (TAR) element is an RNA element which is known to be required for the trans-activation of the viral promoter and for virus replication.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.
Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume.
Viral synapse (or virological synapse) is a molecularly organized cellular junction that is similar in some aspects to immunological synapses.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
Vpr is a Human immunodeficiency virus gene and protein product.
Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
The western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) is a great ape—the type species as well as the most populous species of the genus Gorilla.
The western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) is one of two subspecies of the western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) that lives in montane, primary and secondary forests and lowland swamps in central Africa in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988, is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who have died of the disease.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
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