In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Anonymity, adjective "anonymous", is derived from the Greek word ἀνωνυμία, anonymia, meaning "without a name" or "namelessness".
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In the context of an HTTP transaction, basic access authentication is a method for an HTTP user agent (e.g. a web browser) to provide a user name and password when making a request.
Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is a technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software movement.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
Canvas fingerprinting is one of a number of browser fingerprinting techniques of tracking online users that allow websites to identify and track visitors using HTML5 canvas element instead of browser cookies or other similar means.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.
Click fraud is a type of fraud that occurs on the Internet in pay-per-click (PPC) online advertising.
Cross-site request forgery, also known as one-click attack or session riding and abbreviated as CSRF (sometimes pronounced sea-surf) or XSRF, is a type of malicious exploit of a website where unauthorized commands are transmitted from a user that the web application trusts.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications.
In web security, cross-site tracing (abbreviated "XST") is a network security vulnerability exploiting the HTTP TRACE method.
In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use.
Digest access authentication is one of the agreed-upon methods a web server can use to negotiate credentials, such as username or password, with a user's web browser.
DNS spoofing, also referred to as DNS cache poisoning, is a form of computer security hacking in which corrupt Domain Name System data is introduced into the DNS resolver's cache, causing the name server to return an incorrect result record, e.g. an IP address.
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document.
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
DuckDuckGo (DDG) is an Internet search engine that emphasizes protecting searchers' privacy and avoiding the filter bubble of personalized search results.
A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Edbrowse is a combination text editor, web browser, and mail client that runs in command-line mode.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
An electronic mailing list or email list is a special use of email that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) is one of several Java APIs for modular construction of enterprise software.
Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
A webform, web form or HTML form on a web page allows a user to enter data that is sent to a server for processing.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
The ETag or entity tag is part of HTTP, the protocol for the World Wide Web.
The HTTP (originally a misspelling of referrer) is an HTTP header field that identifies the address of the webpage (i.e. the URI or IRI) that linked to the resource being requested.
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
Information privacy, or data privacy (or data protection), is the relationship between the collection and dissemination of data, technology, the public expectation of privacy, and the legal and political issues surrounding them.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
Internet privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to oneself via of the Internet.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
A Java servlet is a Java program that extends the capabilities of a server.
John C. Klensin is a political scientist and computer science professional who is active in Internet-related issues.
JSON Web Token (JWT, sometimes pronounced) is a JSON-based open standard (RFC 7519) for creating access tokens that assert some number of claims.
HTTP header fields are components of the header section of request and response messages in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
Local shared objects (LSOs), commonly called Flash cookies (due to their similarities with HTTP cookies), are pieces of data that websites which use Adobe Flash may store on a user's computer.
Louis J. Montulli II (best known as Lou Montulli) is a programmer who is well known for his work in producing web browsers.
In computing, a magic cookie, or just cookie for short, is a token or short packet of data passed between communicating programs, where the data is typically not meaningful to the recipient program.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
MCI, Inc. (d/b/a Verizon Business) was an American telecommunication corporation, currently a subsidiary of Verizon Communications, with its main office in Ashburn, Virginia.
Microsoft Silverlight (or simply Silverlight) is a deprecated application framework for writing and running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash.
A name server is a computer application that implements a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
The Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P) is an obsolete protocol allowing websites to declare their intended use of information they collect about web browser users.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
Privacy and Electronic Communications Directive on Privacy and Electronic Communications, otherwise known as ePrivacy Directive (ePD), is an EU directive on data protection and privacy in the digital age.
Privacy International (PI) is a UK-based registered charity that defends and promotes the right to privacy across the world.
Project Zero is the name of a team of security analysts employed by Google tasked with finding zero-day vulnerabilities.
In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.
The Public Suffix List is a catalog of certain Internet domain names.
On the World Wide Web, a query string is the part of a uniform resource locator (URL) containing data that does not fit conveniently into a hierarchical path structure.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints and properties based on HTTP.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
In computing, the same-origin policy is an important concept in the web application security model.
Secure cookies are a type of cookie that are transmitted over encrypted HTTP connections.
A security hacker is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network.
In computer science, in particular networking, a session is a semi-permanent interactive information interchange between two or more communicating devices, or between a computer and user (see login session).
In computer network security, session fixation attacks attempt to exploit the vulnerability of a system that allows one person to fixate (find or set) another person's session identifier.
In online marketing, a shopping cart is a piece of e-commerce software on a web server that allows visitors to an Internet site to select items for eventual purchase, analogous to the American English term "shopping cart."Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Reibstein (2010).
In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.
In interface design, a tabbed document interface (TDI) or Tab is a graphical control element that allows multiple documents or panels to be contained within a single window, using tabs as a navigational widget for switching between sets of documents.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
With reference to a given (possibly implicit) set of objects, a unique identifier (UID) is any identifier which is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.
A web beacon or web bug is one of various techniques used on web pages or email, to unobtrusively (usually invisibly) allow checking that a user has accessed some content.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A web cache (or HTTP cache) is an information technology for the temporary storage (caching) of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce server lag.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
Web storage, sometimes known as DOM storage (Document Object Model storage), provides web application software methods and protocols used for storing data in a web browser.
Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a website.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an API in the form of an object whose methods transfer data between a web browser and a web server.
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