179 relations: Aerobiology, Algae, Altitudinal zonation, Ammonia, Anaerobic organism, Annual plant, Anostraca, Aquatic plant, Archaea, Atmosphere, Backwater (river), Bacteria, Basidiomycota, Bat, Bayou, Benthic zone, Biennial plant, Biological life cycle, Bioluminescence, Biome, Biosphere, Biotic index, Biotope, Brackish water, Brassica, Bromus tectorum, Carbon cycle, Cell (biology), Centaurea solstitialis, Chemosynthesis, Chicago, Climate, Cloud, Cold seep, Colonisation (biology), Columbidae, Conservation biology, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Couch's spadefoot toad, Coyote, Crustacean, Cyanobacteria, Deforestation, Delichon, Demersal zone, Desert, Desiccation, Detritivore, Diapause, Drainage basin, ..., Earthquake, Ecological niche, Ecology, Ecotourism, Endemism, Epiphyte, Estuary, Extinction, Food, Food chain, Forest, Fox, Fresh water, Gastropoda, Geomorphology, Glacier, Grassland, Great Lakes, Habitat conservation, Habitat destruction, Habitat fragmentation, Halotolerance, Helaeomyia petrolei, Herbivore, Host (biology), Hot spring, Hydrilla, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Ice sheet, Intertidal zone, Introduced species, Invasive species, Invertebrate, Kelp forest, Killifish, Lake, Lake Whillans, Latin, Lichen, Light, List of life zones by region, Local extinction, Magma, Mariana Trench, Marine habitats, Marine snow, Marsh, Merriam-Webster, Mesophile, Metamorphosis, Methane, Microbial mat, Microfauna, Microorganism, Microphallus turgidus, Mississippi River, Moisture, Mollusca, Moss, Mouse, Mudflat, Mussel, Myrmica, Natural environment, Nitrogen cycle, Organism, Palaemonetes pugio, Parasitism, Pelagic zone, Peregrine falcon, Photic zone, Pieris rapae, Pioneer species, Plankton, Polar regions of Earth, Pollen, Polychaete, Pond, Population ecology, Precipitation, Predation, Raccoon, Rat, Reef, Restoration ecology, River, Salt pan (geology), San Quintin kangaroo rat, Scuba diving, Sea urchin, Seagrass, Seaweed, Seed, Shoal, Skunk, Soil, Solar irradiance, Sparrow, Species, Spore, Squirrel, Steppe, Stream, Subsidence, Substrate (biology), Subtropics, Swallow, Symbiosis, Tar pit, Tectonic uplift, Temperate climate, Temperature, The New York Times, Thelebolus, Thymus (plant), Tide pool, Tropics, Tsunami, University of California, Davis, Urchin barren, Vegetation type, Vernal pool, Volcano, Wallemia ichthyophaga, Wildfire, Wildflower, Wildlife corridor, Zebra mussel. Expand index (129 more) » « Shrink index
Aerobiology (from Greek ἀήρ, aēr, "air"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Altitudinal zonation in mountainous regions describes the natural layering of ecosystems that occurs at distinct altitudes due to varying environmental conditions.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Anostraca is one of the four orders of crustaceans in the class Branchiopoda; its members are also known as fairy shrimp.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
A backwater is a part of a river in which there is little or no current.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
In usage in the United States, a bayou (or, from Cajun French) is a body of water typically found in a flat, low-lying area, and can be either an extremely slow-moving stream or river (often with a poorly defined shoreline), or a marshy lake or wetland.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
A biennial plant is a flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic Index (also called "Family Biotic Index") is a scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it.
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
Bromus tectorum, known as drooping brome or cheatgrass, is a winter annual grass native to Europe, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa, but has become invasive in many other areas.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Centaurea solstitialis, yellow star-thistle, is a member of the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean Basin region.
In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals -- more commonly abbreviated to just the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention and CMS COP is known as Global Wildlife conference—aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
Couch's spadefoot toad or Couch's spadefoot (Scaphiopus couchii) is a species of North American spadefoot toad (family Scaphiopodidae).
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Delichon is a small genus of passerine birds that belongs to the swallow family and contains three species named as house martins.
The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean (or deep lake) consisting of the part of the water column near to (and significantly affected by) the seabed and the benthos.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
Diapause, when referencing animal dormancy, is the delay in development in response to regularly and recurring periods of adverse environmental conditions.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities (fragmentation) in an organism's preferred environment (habitat), causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay.
Halotolerance is the adaptation of living organisms to conditions of high salinity.
The petroleum fly, Helaeomyia petrolei, is a species of fly from California, USA.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
Hydrilla (Waterthyme or hydrilla) is a genus of aquatic plant, usually treated as containing just one species, Hydrilla verticillata, though some botanists divide it into several species.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
A killifish is any of various oviparous (egg-laying) cyprinodontiform fish (including families Aplocheilidae, Cyprinodontidae, Fundulidae, Profundulidae and Valenciidae).
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Whillans is a subglacial lake in Antarctica.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The climate and ecology of different locations on the globe naturally separate into life zones, depending on elevation, location, and latitude.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
The marine environment supplies many kinds of habitats that support marine life.
In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
A mesophile is an organism that grows best in moderate temperature, neither too hot nor too cold, typically between.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
Microfauna (Ancient Greek mikros "small" + New Latin fauna "animal") refers to microscopic organisms that exhibit animal-like qualities.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microphallus turgidus is a widespread and locally common undescribed flatworm parasite in New Zealand lakes and streams.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
Moisture is the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
Myrmica is a genus of ants within the subfamily Myrmicinae.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp) is small, transparent shrimp with yellow coloring and brownish spots.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Pieris rapae, the small white, is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae.
Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystems.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than a lake.
Population ecology is a sub-field of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The raccoon (or, Procyon lotor), sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, or northern raccoon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun.
The San Quintin kangaroo rat (Dipodomys gravipes) is a species of rodent in the family Heteromyidae.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
A tar pit, or more accurately an asphalt pit or asphalt lake, is the result of a type of petroleum seep where subterranean bitumen leaks to the surface, creating a large area of natural asphalt.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thelebolus is a genus of fungi in the Thelebolaceae family.
The genus Thymus (thymes) contains about 350 species of aromatic perennial herbaceous plants and subshrubs to 40 cm tall in the family Lamiaceae, native to temperate regions in Europe, North Africa and Asia.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
An urchin barren is an area of the subtidal where the population growth of sea urchins has gone unchecked, causing destructive grazing of kelp beds or kelp forests (specifically the giant brown bladder kelp, Macrocystis).
Vegetation type or plant community refers to members of a group or aspect of plants that are often found growing in an area together (plant associates), or that share similar environmental conditions, characterized by the presence of one or more dominant species.
Vernal pools, also called vernal ponds or ephemeral pools, are temporary pools of water that provide habitat for distinctive plants and animals.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Wallemia ichthyophaga is one of the three species of fungi in the genus Wallemia, which in turn is the only genus of the class Wallemiomycetes.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
A wildflower (or wild flower) is a flower that grows in the wild, meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a small freshwater mussel.
Animal habitats, Breeding ground, Breeding grounds, Habitat (ecology), Habitats, Micro-habitat, Micro-habitats, Microenvironment (ecology), Microhabitat, Microhabitats, Monotypic habitat, Natural habitat, Nesting ground, Polytypic habitat, Wildlife habitat.