189 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, Adriatic Sea, Alan Sked, Alsace, Archbishopric of Salzburg, Archduchy of Austria, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austrian Netherlands, Austrian Silesia, Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791), Banat of Temeswar, Battle of Mohács, Battle of Vienna, Bavaria, Belgium, Bishopric of Brixen, Bishopric of Trent, Bohemia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian crisis, Breisgau, Burgenland, Calvinism, Carlile Aylmer Macartney, Carniola, Catholic Church, Centralisation, Charles I of Austria, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Composite monarchy, Concert of Europe, County of Tyrol, Croatian language, Crown land, Czech language, Czechoslovakia, Czechs, Diet (assembly), Diocese, Duchy of Bukovina, Duchy of Carinthia, Duchy of Carniola, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Modena and Reggio, Duchy of Parma, ..., Duchy of Styria, Dutch language, Early modern period, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economy of the Habsburg Monarchy, Electorate of Salzburg, Emperor, Enns (river), Ferdinand I of Austria, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, Feudalism, Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus, First Congress of Vienna, First Hungarian Republic, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Franz Joseph I of Austria, French language, Further Austria, German language, Germany, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Grand Duchy of Würzburg, Habsburg Castle, Habsburg family tree, Habsburg Spain, Habsburg-occupied Serbia (1686–91), Habsburg-occupied Serbia (1788–92), History of the Balkans, History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1526–1648), History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1648–1867), History of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (1867–1918), Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, House of Lorraine, Hungarian language, Hungary, Iberian Union, Inn (river), Inner Austria, Innviertel, Istria, Italian language, Italy, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Judaism, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg), Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Kingdom of Dalmatia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Serbia (1718–39), Kingdom of Sicily, Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Klemens von Metternich, Kraków, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Latin, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, List of Ministers-President of Austria, List of rulers of Austria, Louis II of Hungary, Lower Austria, Lusatia, Lutheranism, Luxembourg, Margraviate of Moravia, Maria Theresa, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I of Mexico, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, Middle Ages, Monarchy, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Oltenia, Otto von Habsburg, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman–Habsburg wars, Personal union, Poland, Polish language, Prague, Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca, Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711), Republic of Venice, Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, Romanian language, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Ruthenian language, Salzburg, Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Saxony, Second Mexican Empire, Second Polish Republic, Secundogeniture, Serbian language, Serbian Vojvodina, Silesia, Slovak language, Slovene language, Slovenia, Sundgau, Switzerland, The World of Yesterday, Third Partition of Poland, Transylvania, Treaty of Karlowitz, Treaty of Sistova, Treaty of Teschen, Trieste, Ukraine, Upper Austria, Utraquism, Venetian Province, Vienna, Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, Vorarlberg, War of the Austrian Succession, Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, West Galicia, World War I. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Alan Sked (born 22 August 1947) is a British academic and politician.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
The campaign to establish Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina lasted from 29 July to 20 October 1878 against the local resistance fighters supported by the Ottoman Empire.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Austro-Turkish War, was fought in 1788–91 between the Habsburg Monarchy (Austria) and the Ottoman Empire, concurrently with the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792).
The Banat of Temeswar or Banat of Temes was a Habsburg province that existed between 1718 and 1778.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Vienna (Schlacht am Kahlen Berge or Kahlenberg; bitwa pod Wiedniem or odsiecz wiedeńska (The Relief of Vienna); Modern Turkish: İkinci Viyana Kuşatması, Ottoman Turkish: Beç Ḳalʿası Muḥāṣarası) took place at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna on 1683 after the imperial city had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Prince-Bishopric of Brixen is a former ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire in the present-day Italian province of South Tyrol.
The Prince-Bishopric of Trent or Bishopric of Trent for short is a former ecclesiastical principality roughly corresponding to the present-day Northern Italian autonomous province of Trentino.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian crisis of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire.
Breisgau is an area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest.
Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Carlile Aylmer Macartney (1895–1978) was a British academic specialising in the history of central Europe and in particular the history of Hungary.
Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745.
A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger in 1975 and popularised by J. H. Elliott, that describes early modern states consisting of several countries under one ruler, who governs his territories as if they were separate kingdoms, in accordance with local traditions and legal structures.
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
The Duchy of Carinthia (Herzogtum Kärnten; Vojvodina Koroška) was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia.
The Duchy of Carniola (Vojvodina Kranjska, Herzogtum Krain, Krajna) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire, established under Habsburg rule on the territory of the former East Frankish March of Carniola in 1364.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
The Duchy of Styria (Herzogtum Steiermark; Vojvodina Štajerska; Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
With the abolition of serfdom in the 18th century, the Habsburg Monarchy, with the major industrial, mining areas and forestry of regions Moravia and Bohemia leading the way, began to experience unprecedented economic growth.
The Electorate of Salzburg (Kurfürstentum Salzburg or Kursalzburg), occasionally known as the Grand Duchy of Salzburg, was an electoral principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803–05, the short-lived successor state of the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
The Enns is a southern tributary of the Danube River, joining northward at Enns, Austria.
Ferdinand I (19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875) was the Emperor of Austria from 1835 until his abdication in 1848.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).
Ferdinand III (13 July 1608 – 2 April 1657) was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Fiat justitia, et pereat mundus is a Latin phrase, meaning "Let justice be done, and let the world perish".
The First Congress of Vienna was held in 1515, attended by the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, and the Jagiellonian brothers, Vladislaus II, King of Hungary and King of Bohemia, and Sigismund I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The First Hungarian Republic (Első magyar köztársaság) or by its contemporary name Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a short-lived people's republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919.
Francis II (Franz; 12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria (Vorderösterreich, formerly die Vorlande (pl.)) was the collective name for the early (and later) possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
The Grand Duchy of Würzburg (Großherzogtum Würzburg) was a German grand duchy centered on Würzburg existing in the early 19th century.
Habsburg Castle (Schloss Habsburg) is a medieval fortress located in Habsburg, Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, near the Aar River.
This is a family tree of the Habsburg family.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Habsburg-occupied Serbia refers to the period between 1686 and 1691 of the Great Turkish War (1683–99), during which the territory of present-day Serbia (which was de jure Ottoman territory) was occupied by the Habsburg Monarchy.
Koča's frontier (Кочина крајина/Kočina krajina) refers to the Serbian territory established in the Sanjak of Smederevo, Ottoman Empire, during the Austro-Turkish War (1787–91).
The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
Although the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margravate of Moravia were both under Habsburg rule, they followed different paths of development.
The Czech lands, then also known as Lands of the Bohemian Crown, were largely subject to the Habsburgs from the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 until the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary (also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Lorraine (Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
The Inn (Aenus; En) is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
Inner Austria (Innerösterreich, Notranja Avstrija, Austria Interiore) was a term used from the late 14th to the early 17th century for the Habsburg hereditary lands south of the Semmering Pass, referring to the Imperial duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola and the lands of the Austrian Littoral.
The Innviertel (literally German for "Inn quarter") is a traditional Austrian region southeast of the Inn river.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Joseph I (26 July 1678 – 17 April 1711) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1705 until his death in 1711.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Regnum Croatiae Horvát Királyság Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
The Kingdom of Dalmatia (Kraljevina Dalmacija; Königreich Dalmatien; Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918).
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija; Königreich Serbien; Regnum Serviae) was a province (crownland) of the Habsburg monarchy from 1718 to 1739.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of Slavonia (Kraljevina Slavonija; Königreich Slawonien; Regnum Sclavoniae; Szlavón Királyság) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.
The Minister-President of Austria was the head of government of the Austrian Empire from 1848, when the office was created in the course of the March Revolution.
Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.
Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.
Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; Italian: Maria Luigia Leopoldina Francesca Teresa Giuseppa Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death.
Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Oltenia (also called Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions, with the alternate Latin names Wallachia Minor, Wallachia Alutana, Wallachia Caesarea between 1718 and 1739) is a historical province and geographical region of Romania in western Wallachia.
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 4 July 2011), also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca (Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca; Principesca Contea di Gorizia e Gradisca; Poknežena grofija Goriška in Gradiščanska) was a crown land of the Habsburg dynasty within the Austrian Littoral on the Adriatic Sea, in what is now a multilingual border area of Italy and Slovenia.
The Principality of Transylvania (Fürstentum Siebenbürgen; Erdélyi Fejedelemség; Principatus Transsilvaniae; Principatul Transilvaniei or Principatul Ardealului; Erdel Prensliği or Transilvanya Prensliği) was a semi-independent state, ruled primarily by Hungarian princes.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Ruthenian or Old Ruthenian (see other names) was the group of varieties of East Slavic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Novopazarski sandžak; Новопазарски санџак; Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that was created in 1865.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
A secundogeniture (from secundus "following, second," and genitus "born") was a dependent territory given to a younger son of a princely house and his descendants, creating a cadet branch.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Vojvodina (Српска Војводина / Srpska Vojvodina) was a short-lived self-proclaimed Serb autonomous province within the Austrian Empire during the Revolutions of 1848, which existed until 1849 when it was transformed into the new (official) Austrian province named Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Sundgau is a geographical territory in the southern Alsace region (Haut Rhin and Belfort), on the eastern edge of France.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The World of Yesterday: Memories of a European (German title Die Welt von Gestern: Erinnerungen eines Europäers) is the memoir of Austrian writer Stefan Zweig.
The Third Partition of Poland (1795) was the last in a series of the Partitions of Poland and the land of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth among Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and the Russian Empire which effectively ended Polish–Lithuanian national sovereignty until 1918.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci, in modern-day Serbia, concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–97 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta.
The Treaty of Sistova ended the last Austro-Turkish war (1787–91).
The Treaty of Teschen (Frieden von Teschen, i.e., "Peace of Teschen"; Traité de Teschen) was signed on 13 May 1779 in Teschen, Austrian Silesia, between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia, which officially ended the War of the Bavarian Succession.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.
Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "in both kinds") or Calixtinism (from chalice; Latin: calix, mug, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk; Czech: kališníci) was a principal dogma of the Hussites and one of the Four Articles of Prague.
The Venetian Province (Provincia Veneta, Provinz Venedig) was the name of the territory of former Republic of Venice ceded by the French First Republic to the Habsburg Monarchy under the terms of the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio that ended the War of the First Coalition.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and the Banate of Temes (Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat), known simply as the Serbian Voivodeship (Serbische Woiwodschaft), was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg (Wenzel Anton Fürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg, Václav Antonín z Kounic a Rietbergu; 2 February 1711 – 27 June 1794) was an Austrian and Czech diplomat and statesman in the Habsburg Monarchy.
New Galicia or West Galicia (Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, Neugalizien or Westgalizien) was an administrative region of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, constituted from the territory annexed in the course of the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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