77 relations: Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Auxiliary verb, Central consonant, Click consonant, Clitic, Clusivity, Cognate, Complementary distribution, Continuous and progressive aspects, Copula (linguistics), Cushitic languages, ǁXegwi language, Datooga language, Dental consonant, Echo vowel, Ejective consonant, Endangered language, Ethnologue, Flap consonant, Fricative consonant, Glottal consonant, Glottalization, Glottalized clicks, Grammatical number, Hadza people, Head-marking language, Hortative, Hunter-gatherer, Infix, Iraqw language, Isanzu language, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Khoisan languages, Kw'adza language, Labial consonant, Labialization, Lake Eyasi, Language isolate, Language shift, Lateral consonant, Minimal pair, Mitochondrial DNA, Nasal clicks, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Nguni languages, Oropom language, ..., Palatal consonant, Palatal lateral ejective affricate, Pitch-accent language, Pluractionality, Postalveolar consonant, Prenasalized consonant, Sandawe language, Sotho language, Sprachbund, Stanford University, Stop consonant, Subjunctive mood, Sukuma language, Swahili language, Tanzania, Tense–aspect–mood, Tenuis consonant, Tone (linguistics), Velar consonant, Veridicality, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless palatal lateral affricate, Voiceless velar fricative, Word order, Yeyi language, Zero consonant, Zulu language. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Click consonants, or clicks, are speech sounds that occur as consonants in many languages of Southern Africa and in three languages of East Africa.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
In linguistics, clusivity is a grammatical distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person pronouns and verbal morphology, also called inclusive "we" and exclusive "we".
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
The continuous and progressive aspects (abbreviated and) are grammatical aspects that express incomplete action ("to do") or state ("to be") in progress at a specific time: they are non-habitual, imperfective aspects.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
ǁXegwi, also known as Batwa, is an extinct ǃKwi language spoken at Lake Chrissie in South Africa, near the Swazi border.
Datooga is a Nilotic language or dialect cluster of the Southern Nilotic group.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
An echo vowel, also known as a synharmonic vowel, is a paragogic vowel that repeats the final vowel in a word in speech.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
Glottalized clicks are click consonants pronounced with closure of the glottis.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.
A language is head-marking if the grammatical marks showing agreement between different words of a phrase tend to be placed on the heads (or nuclei) of phrases, rather than on the modifiers or dependents.
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
Iraqw is a Cushitic language spoken in Tanzania in the Arusha and Manyara Regions.
Isanzu is a Bantu language of spoken by the Isanzu people south of Lake Eyasi in Tanzania.
Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
Kw'adza (Qwadza) is an extinct Afroasiatic language formerly spoken in Tanzania in the Mbulu District.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Lake Eyasi (formerly Njarasasee, "Njarasa Lake", and Hohenlohesee, "Hohenlohe Lake") is a seasonal shallow endorheic salt lake on the floor of the Great Rift Valley at the base of the Serengeti Plateau, just south of the Serengeti National Park and immediately southwest of the Ngorongoro Crater in the Crater Highlands of Tanzania.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Nasal clicks are click consonants pronounced with nasal airflow.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The Nguni languages are a group of Bantu languages spoken in southern Africa by the Nguni people.
Oropom (Oworopom, Oyoropom, Oropoi) is an African language, possibly spurious and, if real, almost certainly extinct.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal lateral ejective affricate is a rare type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Pluractionality, or verbal number, if not used in its aspectual sense, is a grammatical device that indicates that the action or participants of a verb is/are plural.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prenasalized consonants are phonetic sequences of a nasal and an obstruent (or occasionally a non-nasal sonorant such as) that behave phonologically like single consonants.
Sandawe is a "click language" spoken by about 60,000 Sandawe people in the Dodoma region of Tanzania.
Sotho (Sesotho; also known as Southern Sotho, or Southern Sesotho, Historically also Suto, or Suthu, Souto, Sisutho, Sutu, or Sesutu, according to the pronunciation of the name.) is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Sukuma is a Bantu language of Tanzania, spoken in an area southeast of Lake Victoria between Mwanza, Shinyanga, and Lake Eyasi.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tense–aspect–mood, commonly abbreviated and also called tense–modality–aspect or, is the grammatical system of a language that covers the expression of tense (location in time), aspect (fabric of time – a single block of time, continuous flow of time, or repetitive occurrence), and mood or modality (degree of necessity, obligation, probability, ability).
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistics, veridicality is a semantic or grammatical assertion of the truth of an utterance.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiceless palatal lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
Yeyi (autoethnonym Shiyɛyi) is a Bantu language spoken by many of the approximately 50,000 Yeyi people along the Okavango River in Namibia and Botswana.
In orthography, a zero consonant, silent initial, or null-onset letter is a consonant letter that does not correspond to a consonant sound, but is required when a word or syllable starts with a vowel (i.e. has a null onset).
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.