144 relations: Alkali, Alloy, Ammonium, Annals of Science, Anton Eduard van Arkel, Apollo Lunar Module, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Ångström, Binary phase, Boron, Brazil, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Cadmium, Carbon, Carbonatite, Chemical element, Chemical transport reaction, Control rod, Corrosion, Crust (geology), Crystal bar process, Crystal structure, DARPA, Density, Dirk Coster, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dubbo, Ductility, Earth, Effective nuclear charge, Eudialyte, Field-effect transistor, Forschungsreaktor München II, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Friedrich Paneth, Garnet, Geochronology, Geology, George de Hevesy, Georges Urbain, Hafnium controversy, Hafnium dioxide, Hafnium tetrachloride, Hafnium tetraiodide, Hafnium(IV) carbide, Hafnon, Half-life, Halogen, Heavy mineral sands ore deposits, ..., Henry Moseley, High-κ dielectric, IBM, Ilmenite, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Incandescent light bulb, Induced gamma emission, Inorganic chemistry, Integrated circuit, Intel, Iodine, Ionic radius, Iron, Isotope geochemistry, Jan Hendrik de Boer, Kroll process, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum, Latin, Liquid-propellant rocket, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lustre (mineralogy), Lutetium, Lutetium–hafnium dating, Machining, Magnesium, Malawi, Mantle (geology), Mendeleev's predicted elements, Metal, Metamorphism, Metric prefix, Mineral, Mount Weld, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neutron, Neutron capture, New South Wales, Niels Bohr, Niobium, Nitrogen, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power plant, Nuclear reactor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organozirconium chemistry, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Pegmatite, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Plasma cutting, Potassium, Pressurized water reactor, Promethium, Pyrophoricity, Rare-earth element, Recommended exposure limit, Refraction (metallurgy), Relativistic quantum chemistry, Rhenium, Rutile, Samarium–neodymium dating, Seal (emblem), Semiconductor, Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Silicon, Sodium, Solid solution, Solubility, Spectral line, Stable nuclide, Sulfur, Superalloy, Tantalum, Tantalum hafnium carbide, Technetium, Tetravalence, Titanium, Transition metal, Tungsten, University of Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Science, Valence electron, X-ray spectroscopy, Ytterbium, Zircon, Zirconium, Zirconium alloy, Zirconium dioxide. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Annals of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of science and technology.
Anton Eduard van Arkel, ('s-Gravenzande Netherlands, 19 November 1893 – Leiden, 14 March 1976) was a Dutch chemist.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, a chemical transport reaction describes a process for purification and crystallization of non-volatile solids.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dirk Coster (October 5, 1889 – February 12, 1950), was a Dutch physicist.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dubbo is a city in the Orana Region of New South Wales, Australia.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The effective nuclear charge (often symbolized as Z_ or Z^\ast) is the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom.
Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος eu dialytos, meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
The Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, research reactor Munich II) is the leading German research reactor.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
Friedrich Adolf Paneth (31 August 1887 – 17 September 1958) was an Austrian-born British chemist.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Geochronology is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George Charles de Hevesy (Georg Karl von Hevesy; 1 August 1885 – 5 July 1966) was a Hungarian radiochemist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate, recognized in 1943 for his key role in the development of radioactive tracers to study chemical processes such as in the metabolism of animals.
Georges Urbain (12 April 1872 – 5 November 1938 in Paris) French chemist, professor of Sorbonne.
The hafnium controversy is a debate over the possibility of 'triggering' rapid energy releases, via gamma ray emission, from a nuclear isomer of hafnium, 178m2Hf.
Hafnium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2.
Hafnium(IV) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula HfCl4.
Hafnium tetraiodide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfI4.
Hafnium carbide (HfC) is a chemical compound of hafnium and carbon.
Hafnon is a hafnium nesosilicate mineral, chemical formula (Hf,Zr)SiO4 or (Hf,Zr,Th,U,Y)SiO4.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Heavy mineral sands are a class of ore deposit which is an important source of zirconium, titanium, thorium, tungsten, rare-earth elements, the industrial minerals diamond, sapphire, garnet, and occasionally precious metals or gemstones.
Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley (23 November 1887 – 10 August 1915) was an English physicist, whose contribution to the science of physics was the justification from physical laws of the previous empirical and chemical concept of the atomic number.
The term high-κ dielectric refers to a material with a high dielectric constant κ (as compared to silicon dioxide).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
In physics, induced gamma emission (IGE) refers to the process of fluorescent emission of gamma rays from excited nuclei, usually involving a specific nuclear isomer.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon the study of natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.
Jan Hendrik de Boer (19 March 1899 – 25 April 1971) was a Dutch physicist and chemist.
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Lutetium–hafnium dating is a geochronological dating method utilizing the radioactive decay system of lutetium–176 to hafnium–176.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mount Weld is a mountain and a mine site in Western Australia, located about south of Laverton and east of Leonora.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organozirconium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to zirconium chemical bond.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
In metallurgy, refraction is a property of metals that indicates their ability to withstand heat.
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to explain elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Samarium–neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of rocks and meteorites, based on radioactive decay of a long-lived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was (according to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted exclusively to peacetime uses.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tantalum hafnium carbide is a refractory chemical compound with a general formula TaxHfy-xCy, which can be considered as a solid solution of tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.
The Faculty of Science (Det Natur- og Biovidenskabelige Fakultet) at the University of Copenhagen houses 12 departments, including the Natural History Museum of Denmark.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Zirconium alloys are solid solutions of zirconium or other metals, a common subgroup having the trade mark Zircaloy.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.