439 relations: Africa, American Journal of Human Genetics, Americas, Ancestor veneration in China, Annette Lu, Argentina, Arthur Chung, Asian Television Awards, Association football, Australia, Austria, Autonomous regions of China, Baiyue, Bangka Belitung Islands, Bangka Island, Bangladesh, Bao'an County, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Battle of Amoy, Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass), Battle of Kowloon, Battle of Nanking, Battle of Shanghai, Battle of Tamsui, Beaufort, Malaysia, Beipu uprising, Belgium, Bengkayang Regency, Borneo, Braising, Brazil, Brisbane, British Empire, British Malaya, Brunei, Canada, Cantonese people, Caribbean, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Chaozhou, Chen Jitang, Chen Mingshu, Chiang Ching-kuo, China, China League One, China National Radio, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Expeditionary Force, Chinese folk religion, ..., Chinese Indonesians, Chinese Jamaicans, Chinese people, Chinese Soviet Republic, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chinois (Réunion), Christianity, Chung Keng Quee, Colombia, Communication, Communist Party of China, Confucianism, Cuba, Cultural Revolution, Darwin, Northern Territory, Dayak people, Defense of Sihang Warehouse, Deng Rong, Deng Xiaoping, Dili, Ding Sheng (general), DNA profiling, Dongguan, Dongshih Hakka Cultural Park, Dongyi, East Timor, Eighth Route Army, Encirclement Campaigns, Ernst Johann Eitel, Eugene Chen, Europe, Fanling, Feng Yunshan, Feng Zicai, Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet, Fiji, First Opium War, Foot binding, Formosa Expedition, France, French Polynesia, Fujian, Fujian Tulou, Gang of Four, Ganzhou, Gaston Tong Sang, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, George S. Patton, Germany, Glodok, Great Britain, Great Clearance, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Guyana, Hai San Secret Society, Hainan, Hakka Affairs Council, Hakka Chinese, Hakka cuisine, Hakka hill song, Hakka opera, Hakka Party, Hakka Round House, Hakka TV, Hakka walled village, Han Chinese, Head of government, Head of state, Helen Sham-Ho, Henan, Hendrick Chin A Sen, Heyuan, Ho Chi Minh City, Hokkien, Hoklo people, Hong Kong, Hong Rengan, Hong Xiuquan, House of Lords, House of Representatives (Netherlands), Hsinchu, Hsinchu County, Hu Yaobang, Hualien County, Huang Huahua, Huangchuan County, Hubei, Huiyang District, Huizhou, Hukeng, Fujian, Hunan, Immigration, Imperial Japanese Army, Indentured servitude, India, Indonesia, Indonesian invasion of East Timor, Ipoh, Irreligion, Italy, Jakarta, Jamaica, Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1895), Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, Jelebu District, Jiang Yi-huah, Jiangxi, Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, Jieyang, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jin–Song Wars, Jingkang incident, Jintian Uprising, Jurchen people, Kaifeng, Kam Tin, Kangxi Emperor, Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Museum, Kapitan Cina, Kapuas River, Keelung Campaign, Kelapa Gading, Keningau, Kenya, Ketapang (Kalimantan), Khin Nyunt, Kinta Valley, Kolkata, Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Marudu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Penyu, Kudat, Kuomintang, Lahad Datu, Lai Enjue, Lanfang Republic, Languages of Taiwan, Larut War, Latin America, Lau Wong-fat, Lead, Lee Hsien Loong, Lee Kuan Yew, Lee Teng-hui, Lee Yuan-tsu, Leong Fee, Li Lisan, Li Zicheng, Liao Chengzhi, Liao Zhongkai, Lin Ma Hang, Lingnan, Lingua franca, List of Prime Ministers of Suriname, Liu Yongfu, Lo Hsiang-lin, Long March, Longchuan County, Guangdong, Los Angeles, Luo Zhuoying, Ma Ying-jeou, Macau, Mahayana, Mainland China, Malay Indonesian, Malaysia, Malaysian Chinese, Manchu people, Mandarin Chinese, Mantin, Martin Lee, Mauritians of Chinese origin, Mauritius, Medan, Meinong District, Meinong Hakka Culture Museum, Meixian District, Meizhou, Meizhou Hakka F.C., Melbourne, Mexico, Miaoli, Miaoli County, Militia, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Education (Taiwan), Miri, Malaysia, Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen, Mumbai, Myanmar, Nanjing, Nanyang (region), Nat Wei, Baron Wei, National Assembly (France), National Congress of Brazil, National Parliament (East Timor), Ne Win, Negeri Sembilan, Nepal, Netherlands, New Fourth Army, New Taipei City Hakka Museum, New Territories, New York City, New York Television Festival, New Zealand, Newcastle upon Tyne, Ngái people, North America, North Borneo Chartered Company, North China, Oceania, Overseas Chinese, Panama, Papar, Malaysia, Paramount leader, Penampang, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia, Penjaringan, Penny Wong, People's Liberation Army, Perak, Peru, Pingtung County, Pluit, Pontianak, Indonesia, Portugal, Portuguese Timor, Premier of the Republic of China, President of Myanmar, President of Suriname, President of the Republic of China, Prime Minister of Myanmar, Protestantism, Provinces of China, Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), Punti, Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Puyi, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Qiu Fengjia, Ranau District, Ratanakiri Province, Réunion, Refugee, Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of Formosa, Retreat from Lạng Sơn, Riau Islands, Rose Leon, Roy Ho Ten Soeng, Ruijin, Sabah, Sambas Regency, San Francisco, San Jose, California, San Yu, Sandakan, Sarawak, Seattle, Second Guangzhou Uprising, Second language, Second Sino-Japanese War, Selangor, Seychelles, Sha Tau Kok, Sha Tin, Shanxi, She people, Shenzhen, Sheung Shui, Shi Dakai, Sichuan, Singapore, Singkawang, Sino-French War, Sinology, Sipitang, Sok An, Solomon Hochoy, Song dynasty, South Africa, South Asia, South China, Southeast Asia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Statelessness, Stung Treng, Sun Fo, Sun Yat-sen, Suriname, Sweden, Sydney, Tai Po, Taichung, Taipei, Taipei Hakka Culture Hall, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Taiping Rebellion, Taiping, Perak, Taitung County, Taiwan, Taiwan under Qing rule, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Taiwanese people, Takéo Province, Taman Sari, Jakarta, Tambunan, Tang dynasty, Tangra, Kolkata, Tanka people, Tanzania, Taoism, Taoyuan Hakka Culture Hall, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Tawau, Tea-picking opera, Tenom, Teochew people, Thailand, The Guest People, The Hundred Secret Senses, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tin, Tin mining, Ting River, To Be or Not to Be (TV series), Tofu, Traditional Chinese medicine, Trinidad and Tobago, Tsai Ing-wen, Tuaran, Tulou, Uganda, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, United States, Varieties of Chinese, Varina Tjon-A-Ten, Vũng Tàu, Vice President of the People's Republic of China, Vice President of the Republic of China, Victor Purcell, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Wang Sheng (general), West Bengal, West Kalimantan, Women's Prize for Fiction, World Heritage site, Wuhua County, Xie Jinyuan, Xingguo County, Xingning, Guangdong, Xinhai Revolution, Xinhua News Agency, Xinyang, Xiongnu, Xue Yue, Yang Xiuqing, Yantian District, Yap Ah Loy, Ye Jianying, Ye Ting, Ye Xuanping, Yellow River, Yong Tau Foo, Yongding District, Longyan, Yu Shyi-kun, Yuan (currency), Yuan dynasty, Yuen Long, Zhang Fakui, Zhang Xianzhong, Zhejiang, Zhongli District, Zhongyuan, Zhu De, Zinc, 1895 (film). Expand index (389 more) » « Shrink index
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Annette Lu Hsiu-lien (born 7 June 1944) is a Taiwanese politician.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arthur Chung (January 10, 1918 – June 23, 2008) was the first President of Guyana from 1970 to 1980.
The Asian Television Awards is an appreciation to recognize and reward programming and production excellence in the Asian television industry.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative division of China.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
The Bangka Belitung Islands (Indonesian: Kepulauan Bangka Belitung), is a province of Indonesia, previously a part of South Sumatra Province.
Bangka (or sometimes Banka) is an island lying east of Sumatra, administratively part of Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of about 1 million.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bao'an County, formerly named Xin'an County was a historic county in South China.
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (born 29 June 1966) is an Indonesian politician and former governor of Jakarta.
The Battle of Amoy or Xiamen was fought between British and Qing forces at Xiamen (then known as "Amoy" from the local pronunciation of the name) on Xiamen Island, Fujian, in the Qing Empire on 26August 1841 during the First Opium War.
The Battle of Bang Bo, known in China as the battle of Zhennan Pass (Chinese:鎮南關之役), was a major Chinese victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The Battle of Kowloon was a skirmish between British and Chinese vessels off the Kowloon Peninsula, China, on 4 September 1839.
The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Tamsui, Danshui, or Hobe (2–8 October 1884) was a significant French defeat by the Qing Dynasty at Tamsui on Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign of the Sino-French War.
Beaufort (Pekan Beaufort) is the capital of the Beaufort District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Beipu Incident, or the Beipu Uprising, in 1907 was the first instance of an armed local uprising against the Japanese rule of the island of Taiwan.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bengkayang Regency is a regency ("kabupaten") in West Kalimantan Province of Indonesia, (on the island of Borneo).
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
Braising (from the French word braiser) is a combination-cooking method that uses both lit wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cantonese people are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in southern mainland China.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body.
Chaozhou, alternatively transliterated as Chiuchow, Chaochow, or Teochew, is a city in the eastern Guangdong province of China.
Chen Jitang (January 23, 1890 – November 3, 1954), also spelled Chen Chi-tang, was born into a Hakka Chinese family in Fangcheng, Guangxi.
Chen Mingshu (October 15, 1889 – May 15, 1965) was a Chinese general and politician.
Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Football Association China League, also known as China League One or Chinese Jia League (中甲联赛), is the second tier of Chinese clubs.
China National Radio (CNR) (中央人民广播电台Pinyin:Zhōngyāng Rénmín Guǎngbō Diàntái IPA) is the national radio station of the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Expeditionary Force was an expeditionary unit of the Chinese Army that was dispatched to Burma and India in support of the Allied efforts against the Imperial Japanese Army during the Japanese invasion and occupation of Burma in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese Indonesians (Indonesian: Orang Tionghoa-Indonesia) are Indonesians descended from various Chinese ethnic groups, primarily the Han Chinese.
Chinese Jamaicans are Jamaican people of Chinese ancestry, which include descendants of migrants from China to Jamaica.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR), also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet).
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) is a public research university in Shatin, Hong Kong formally established in 1963 by a charter granted by the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.
Chinois, also referred to by the Réunion Creole name Sinwa or Sinoi, are ethnic Chinese residing in Réunion, a French overseas department in the Indian Ocean.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Capitan China Chung Keng Quee (182113 December1901) was the founder and administrator of modern Taiping in Perak, Malaysia.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia.
The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo.
The Defense of Sihang Warehouse took place from October 26 to November 1, 1937, and marked the beginning of the end of the three-month Battle of Shanghai in the opening phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Deng Rong is a Chinese politician and the third daughter of Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Dili (Portuguese/Tetum: Díli, Indonesian: Kota Dili), also known as “City of Peace”, is the capital, largest city, chief port, and commercial centre of Timor-Leste (East Timor).
Ding Sheng (1913–1999) was a Chinese general and politician.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province of South China.
The Dongshih Hakka Cultural Park is a Hakka cultural center in Dongshi District, Taichung, Taiwan.
The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the '''18th Army Group''' of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Encirclement Campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.
Ernst Johann Eitel or alternatively Ernest John Eitel (13 February 1838 – 10 November 1908) was a German Protestant missionary to China born in Württemberg, Germany.
Eugene Chen (July 2, 1878, San Fernando, Trinidad – 20 May 1944, Shanghai), known in his youth as Eugene Bernard Achan, was an overseas Chinese lawyer who in the 1920s became Sun Yat-sen's foreign minister.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fanling, also known as Fan Ling and Fan Leng, is an area in the New Territories East of Hong Kong.
Feng Yunshan (1815 – June 10, 1852) was the South King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a distant cousin and early accomplice of Hong Xiuquan, and an important leader during the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing government.
Feng Zicai (1818–1903) was a bandit from Qinzhou, Guangxi, China who later became a general in the Imperial Army during the Qing dynasty.
The Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet was a series of battles fought during the Chinese Civil War from 25 September 1933, to October 1934 between Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang (nationalist) and the Chinese communists.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
The Formosa Expedition, or the Taiwan Expedition of 1867 was a punitive expedition launched by the United States against Formosa.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The Fujian tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in the mountainous areas in southeastern Fujian, China.
The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.
Ganzhou, formerly romanized as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city in southern Jiangxi, China, bordering Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, and Hunan to the west.
Gaston Tong Sang (born August 7, 1949 in Bora Bora) is the former President of French Polynesia.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glodok is an administrative village of Taman Sari, West Jakarta, Indonesia.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Clearance, also translated as the Great Evacuation or Great Frontier Shift, refers to two edicts by the Kangxi Emperor of Qing (1644–1912), and his regent Oboi, in 1661 and 1662.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Hai San Society, which had its origins in Southern China,Encyclopædia Britannica was a Penang-based Chinese secret society established around 1820 and in 1825 led by Low, Ah Chong and Hoh Akow (also spelt Ho Ah Kow or Hok Ah Keow), its titular head.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Hakka Affairs Council (HAC;, Hakka Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Hak-kâ Vî-yèn-fi) is a cabinet-level unit under the Executive Yuan of the government of Taiwan.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Hakka cuisine, or Kuh-chia cuisine, is the cooking style of the Hakka people, who may also be found in other parts of Taiwan and in countries with significant overseas Hakka communities.
Hakka hill songs are probably one of the better known elements that reflect Hakka culture, regarded by many as the 'pearl of Hakka Literature'.
Hakka opera or Han opera is a variety of Chinese opera from eastern Guangdong province, China.
The Hakka Party is a minor party in Taiwan, aiming to represent the Hakka people.
The Hakka Round House is a Hakka building in Houlong Township, Miaoli County, Taiwan.
Hakka TV (Mandarin: 客家電視台) is a Hakka satellite cable channel operated by Taiwan Broadcasting System (TBS) in Taiwan, launched on July 1, 2003.
A Hakka walled village is a large multi-family communal living structure that is designed to be easily defensible.
The Han Chinese,.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Helen Wai-Har Sham-Ho OAM (born 9 September 1943) is a former Australian politician.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Hendrick Rudolf "Henk" Chin A Sen (18 January 1934 – 11 August 1999) was a Surinamese politician who served as the President of Suriname from 15 August 1980 until 4 February 1982.
Héyuán is a prefecture-level city of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, South China.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hong Rengan (1822 – 23 November 1864) was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion.
Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全) (1 January 1814 – 1 June 1864), born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Representatives (pronounced; commonly referred to as the, literally Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.
Hsinchu officially known as Hsinchu City, is a provincial city in northern Taiwan.
Hsinchu County is a county in north-western Taiwan.
Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.
Hualien County has the largest area of all counties in Taiwan, and is located on the island's mountainous eastern coast.
Huang Huahua (born October 1946 in Xingning, Guangdong) is a retired Chinese politician, and the Governor of Guangdong between 2003 and 2011.
Huangchuan County (local pronunciation: Huāngchuǎn Xiàn) is a county of southeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Huiyang District (postal: Waiyeung; is a district of Huizhou, Guangdong province, People's Republic of China. It was renamed in 2003 amid the restructuring of districts and counties in Huizhou. Formerly named Huiyang city (county level), its size shrank after the restructuring with several towns incorporated into the Huicheng district of Huizhou.
Huìzhōu is a city in southeast Guangdong Province, China.
Hukeng is a town (a township-level division) situated in Yongding County, Longyan, Fujian, China.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indonesian invasion of East Timor, known in Indonesia as Operation Lotus (Operasi Seroja), began on 7 December 1975 when the Indonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism.
Ipoh is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
The Japanese invasion of Taiwan (May–October 1895) was a conflict between the Empire of Japan and the armed forces of the short-lived Republic of Formosa following the Qing Dynasty's cession of Taiwan to Japan in April 1895 at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Imperial Japanese occupation of Hong Kong (香港日據時期) began when the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young, surrendered the British Crown colony of Hong Kong to Imperial Japan on 25 December 1941.
The Jelebu District (Chinese: 日叻务; colloquial Jolobu) is the second largest district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia after Jempol, with a population over 40,000.
Jiang Yi-huah (born 18 November 1960) is a Taiwanese politician and former Premier of the Republic of China (ROC).
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (commonly called the Jiangxi Soviet) was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.
Jieyang is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, part of the Chaoshan region whose people speak Teochew dialect distinct from neighbouring Yue speakers.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.
The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 January 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
Kam Tin, or Kam Tin Heung (錦田鄉), is an area in the New Territories, Hong Kong.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
The Kaohsiung Hakka Cultural Museum is a cultural museum in Sanmin District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Kapitan Cina, also spelt Kapitan China or Capitan China (English: Captain of the Chinese; Chinese:; Dutch: Kapitein der Chinezen) was a high-ranking government position in the civil administration of colonial Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo.
The Kapuas River (or Kapoeas River) is a river in the Indonesian part of Borneo island, at the geographic center of Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Keelung Campaign (August 1884–April 1885) was a controversial military campaign undertaken by the French in northern Formosa (Taiwan) during the Sino-French War. After making a botched attack on Keelung in August 1884, the French landed an expeditionary corps of 2,000 men and captured the port in October 1884. Unable to advance beyond their bridgehead, they were invested inside Keelung by superior Chinese forces under the command of the imperial commissioner Liu Mingchuan. In November and December 1884 cholera and typhoid drained the strength of the French expeditionary corps, while reinforcements for the Chinese army flowed into Formosa via the Pescadores Islands, raising its strength to 35,000 men by the end of the war. Reinforced in January 1885 to a strength of 4,500 men, the French won two impressive tactical victories against the besieging Chinese in late January and early March 1885, but were not strong enough to exploit these victories. The Keelung campaign ended in April 1885 in a strategic and tactical stalemate. The campaign was criticised at the time by Admiral Amédée Courbet, the commander of the French Far East Squadron, as strategically irrelevant and a wasteful diversion of the French navy.
Kelapa Gading or known as KG is a neighborhood of North Jakarta, Indonesia.
Keningau (p) is the capital of the Keningau District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Ketapang or Tau-pang in Teochew is the capital city of Ketapang Regency (Kabupaten Ketapang), one of the regencies of West Kalimantan province on the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
General Khin Nyunt (born 11 October 1939) is a Burmese military officer and politician.
Kinta Valley in Perak, Malaysia, has historically been the most productive tin-producing district in the world.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kota Belud (Pekan Kota Belud) is the capital of the Kota Belud District in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Kota Kinabalu (Jawi), formerly known as Jesselton, is the state capital of Sabah, Malaysia and the capital of the Kota Kinabalu District.
Kota Marudu (Pekan Kota Marudu) is the capital of the Kota Marudu District in the Kudat Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kuala Penyu (Pekan Kuala Penyu) is the capital of the Kuala Penyu District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Kudat (Pekan Kudat) is the capital of the Kudat District in the Kudat Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Lahad Datu (Pekan Lahad Datu) is the capital of the Lahad Datu District in the Tawau Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Lai Enjue (Chinese:赖恩爵, 1795-1848), also known as Jian Ting (简廷) was a late Qing military general.
The Lanfang Republic (Pha̍k-fa-sṳ: Làn-fông Khiung-fò-koet) was a Chinese state and kongsi federation in Western Borneo.
The languages of Taiwan consist of several varieties of languages under families of Austronesian languages and Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Taiwan.
Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lau Wong-fat, GBM, GBS, JP (15 October 1936 – 23 July 2017) was a Hong Kong businessman and politician.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lee Hsien Loong (Tamil: லீ சியன் லூங்; born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician serving as the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
Lee Yuan-tsu (24 September 1923 — 8 March 2017), was a Kuomintang politician who served under Lee Teng-hui as the eighth Vice President of the Republic of China.
Leong Fee is the Hakka name for Liang Pi Joo (1857–1912), a worker from Guangdong Province in China who emigrated to Malaya in 1876.
Lǐ Lìsān (November 18, 1899 – June 22, 1967) was an early leader of the Chinese communists, and the top leader of the Chinese Communist Party from 1928 to 1930, member of the Politburo, and later a member of the Central Committee.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
Liao Chengzhi (25 September 1908 – 10 June 1983) was a Chinese politician.
Liao Zhongkai (April 23, 1877 – August 20, 1925) was a Kuomintang leader and financier.
Lin Ma Hang is a village in the Sha Tau Kok area of Hong Kong and is situated north of the New Territories, next to the Shenzhen river, east of Heung Yuen Wai and west of Hung Fa Leng.
Lingnan is a geographic area referring to the lands in the south of the Nanling Mountains.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Below is a list of Prime Ministers of Suriname from 1949 to 1988.
Liu Yongfu (1837–1917) was a Chinese soldier of fortune and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army.
Lo Hsiang-lin (1906–1978) was one of the most renowned researchers in Hakka language and culture.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Longchuan County (postal: Lungchun) is a county of northeastern Guangdong province, China, bordering Jiangxi to the north and on the upper reaches of the Dong and Han Rivers.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Luo Zhuoying (1896–1961) was a Republic of China General (二級上将).
Ma Ying-jeou (born 13 July 1950), also spelled as Ma Yingjiu, is a Hong Kong-born Taipei-based politician who served as the eighteenth President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016 as well as sixth under the 1947 Constitution.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malay Indonesians (Malay: orang Melayu Indonesia; Jawi script: اورڠ ملايو ايندونيسيا) are ethnic Malays living throughout Indonesia as one of the indigenous peoples of the island nation.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mantin is a town in Seremban District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Martin Lee Chu-ming, SC, JP (born 8 June 1938) is a Hong Kong politician and barrister.
Mauritians of Chinese origin, also known as Sino-Mauritians, are Mauritians who trace their ethnic ancestry to China.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
Meinong District (WG: Meinung, Hakka: 瀰濃 Mî-nùng) is a Hakka district in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
The Meinong Hakka Culture Museum is a cultural museum in Meinong District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Meixian, formerly Meihsien, is a district of Meizhou City, in northeastern Guangdong Province, China.
Meizhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province, China.
Meizhou Hakka Football Club,is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA).
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miaoli City is a county-controlled city and the county seat of Miaoli County, Taiwan.
Miaoli County is a county in western Taiwan.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (MOE) is the ministry responsible for incorporating educational policies and managing public schools in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and has Overseas Education Divisions all over the world.
Miri (Jawi) is a coastal city in northeastern Sarawak, Malaysia, located near the border of Brunei, on the island of Borneo.
Moilin Jean Ah-Chuen (1911-1991) is a Chinese Mauritian politician.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nanyang is a sinocentric Chinese term for the warmer and fertile geographical region south of China, otherwise known as the 'South Sea' or Southeast Asia.
Nathanael Ming-Yan Wei, Baron Wei (born 19 January 1977), also known as Nat Wei, is an English social entrepreneur with an interest in social reform.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Congress of Brazil (Congresso Nacional do Brasil) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.
The National Parliament (Parlamentu Nasionál, Parlamento Nacional) is the unicameral national legislature in East Timor.
Ne Win (နေဝင်း; 10 July 1910, or 14 or 24 May 1911 – 5 December 2002), sometimes known honorifically as U Ne Win was a Burmese politician and military commander.
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
The New Taipei City Hakka Museum is a museum about the Hakka people in Sanxia District, New Taipei, Taiwan.
The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Television Festival (NYTVF) is a yearly festival dedicated to the celebration and promotion of independent small-screen productions and television.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
The Ngái (Người Ngái) are a Hakka people in Vietnam and other nearby countries of Indochina, who originally come from southern China.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Borneo Chartered Company (NBCC), also known as the British North Borneo Company (BNBC) was a British chartered company formed on 1 November 1881 to administer and exploit the resources of North Borneo (present-day Sabah in Malaysia).
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Papar (Pekan Papar) is the capital of the Papar District in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
Penampang (Pekan Penampang) is the capital of the Penampang District in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Penjaringan is a subdistrict of North Jakarta, Indonesia.
Penelope Ying-Yen Wong (born 5 November 1968) is an Australian politician who has represented South Australia in the Senate since 2002, and is the current Leader of the Opposition in the Senate and Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Pingtung County is a county in Southern Taiwan known for its agriculture and tourism.
Pluit is an administrative village (kelurahan) located in Penjaringan, North Jakarta.
Pontianak (Chinese: 坤甸, pinyin: Kūndiān, Hakka: Khuntîen, Teochew: Kung1 Diêng6, Jawi: كوت بونتياناك); is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah (Kesultanan Kadriyah) in 23 Oktober 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 Hijriah.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Timor (Timor Português) was a Portuguese colony that existed between 1702 and 1975.
The President of the Executive Yuan, commonly known as the Premier of Republic of China (sometimes as Prime Minister), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is the head of state and the head of government of Myanmar and leads the executive branch of the Burmese government, and heads the Cabinet of Myanmar.
The President of the Republic of Suriname (President van de Republiek Suriname) is, in accordance with the Constitution of 1987, the head of state and head of government of Suriname, and commander-in-chief of Suriname National Army.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The Prime Minister of Myanmar was the head of government of Myanmar (also known as Burma) from 1948 to 2011.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (中華民國臨時政府, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ) was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912.
Punti (literally local(s)) is a Cantonese endonym referring to the native Cantonese people of Guangdong and Guangxi.
Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars refer to the conflict between the Hakka and Cantonese people in Guangdong, China between 1855 and 1867.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qiu Fengjia or Chiu Feng-Chia (26 December 1864 – 25 February 1912) was a Taiwanese Hakka−Chinese patriot, educator, and poet.
The Ranau District (Daerah Ranau) is an administrative district in the Malaysian state of Sabah, part of the West Coast Division which includes the districts of Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Penampang, Putatan, Ranau and Tuaran.
Ratanakiri, officially Ratanak Kiri (រតនគិរីAlternative spellings include រតនៈគិរី, រតនគីរី, and រតនៈគីរី.), is a province of northeast Cambodia.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republic of Formosa (literally Taiwan Democratic State) was a short-lived republic that existed on the island of Taiwan in 1895 between the formal cession of Taiwan by the Qing Dynasty of China to the Empire of Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki and it being taken over by Japanese troops.
The Retreat from Lang Son (retraite de Lang-Son) was a controversial French strategic withdrawal in Tonkin at the end of March 1885 that brought down the government of the French premier Jules Ferry and brought the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885) to an end in circumstances of considerable embarrassment for France.
Riau Islands (Indonesian; Kepulauan Riau, acronym; Kepri), is a province of Indonesia.
Rose Agatha Leon (20 October 1913 – 16 August 1999) was a Jamaican businesswoman and politician.
Kiem Ling Roy Ho Ten Soeng 何天送 (born June 16, 1945) is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
Ruijin is a county-level city of Ganzhou in the mountains bordering Fujian Province in south-eastern Jiangxi.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Sambas Regency is a regency in West Kalimantan Province of Indonesia.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
President San Yu (စန်းယု,; 3 March 1918 – 30 January 1996) was the General and Commander in Chief of the Tatmadaw and President of Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma from 9 November 1981 to 27 July 1988.
Sandakan (Jawi) formerly known at various times as Elopura, is the capital of the Sandakan District in Sabah, Malaysia.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Second Guangzhou Uprising, known in Chinese as the Yellow Flower Mound Uprising or the Guangzhou Xinhai Uprising, was a failed uprising led by Huang Xing and his fellow revolutionaries against the Qing Dynasty in Guangzhou.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Selangor, also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Sha Tau Kok is a border town in northeastern New Territories, Hong Kong, straddling the border with mainland China.
Sha Tin, also spelt Shatin, is a city along the Shing Mun River in the Sha Tin District of East New Territories, Hong Kong.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The She (畲) people (She Hakka:; Cantonese:; Fuzhou) are a Chinese ethnic group.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Sheung Shui is an area in the New Territories, Hong Kong.
Shi Dakai (March 1831 – 25 June 1863), born in Guigang, Guangxi, also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang, was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singkawang or San Khew Jong in Hakka (Hakka POJ: Sán-khiéu-yòng), is a city located in the province of West Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo in Indonesia.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Sipitang (Pekan Sipitang) is the capital of the Sipitang District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
Samdech Vibol Panha Sok An (សម្តេចវិបុលបញ្ញា សុខ អាន; 16 April 1950 – 15 March 2017) was a Cambodian academic and politician.
HE Sir Solomon Hochoy (20 April 1905 – 15 November 1983) was a Trinidadian politician.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
Stung Treng (ស្ទឹងត្រែង), (ຊຽງແຕງ) is the capital of Stung Treng Province, Cambodia.
Sun Fo or Sun Ke (October 21, 1891 – September 13, 1973), courtesy name Zhesheng (哲生), was a high-ranking official in the government of the Republic of China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Tai Po is an area in the New Territories of Hong Kong.
Taichung, officially known as Taichung City, is a special municipality located in center-western Taiwan.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
The Taipei Hakka Culture Hall is a cultural center in Da'an District, Taipei, Taiwan which acts as a center for cultural exchange between the Hakka community and Taipei residence.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, officially the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiping (Chinese pronunciation: /tʰaɪ̯⁵¹piŋ/; Malay pronunciation: /taipeŋ/)(Chinese: 太平, Hokkien: Thài-pêng; Jawi: تاءيڤيڠ, Ta'iping) is a town located in Larut, Matang and Selama District, Perak, Malaysia.
Taitung County is the third largest county in Taiwan, located on the island's eastern coast.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwan under Qing rule refers to the rule of the Qing dynasty over Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and the Pescadores (Penghu) from 1683 to 1895.
Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.
Taiwanese people (Mandarin: 臺灣人 (traditional), 台湾人 (simplified); Minnan: 臺灣儂; Hakka 臺灣人 (Romanization: Thòi-vàn ngìn)) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue.
Takéo (ខេត្តតាកែវ,, "Crystal Grandfather") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia.
Taman Sari is a subdistrict of West Jakarta, Indonesia.
Tambunan (Pekan Tambunan) is the capital of the Tambunan District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tangra is a region in East Kolkata that traditionally housed a large number of tanneries owned by people of Hakka Chinese origin.
The Tankas or boat people are an ethnic subgroup in Southern China who have traditionally lived on junks in coastal parts of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, as well as Hong Kong, and Macau.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Taoyuan Hakka Culture Hall is a Hakka cultural center in Longtan District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
Taoyuan City (Hokkien) is a special municipality in northwestern Taiwan, neighboring New Taipei City, Hsinchu County, and Yilan County.
Tawau (Jawi) formerly known as Tawao, is the capital of the Tawau District in Sabah, Malaysia.
A Tea-picking opera is a form of musical entertainment.
Tenom (Pekan Tenom) is the capital of the Tenom District in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Teochew people (also known as Tiê-Chiu in romanized Teochew, Chaozhou in Mandarin, and Chiuchow in Cantonese) are a Han Chinese native to the historical Chaozhou prefecture (now the Chaoshan region) of eastern Guangdong province.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Guest People (Chinese: 客家之歌) is a Singaporean Chinese drama produced by Television Corporation of Singapore (now Mediacorp Channel 8) in 1997.
The Hundred Secret Senses is a bestselling 1995 novel by Chinese-American writer Amy Tan.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tin mining began early in the Bronze Age, as bronze is a copper-tin alloy.
The Ting River flows from Ninghua County in western Fujian south to the port and Special Economic Zone of Shantou, Guangdong.
To Be or Not to Be, formerly titled Hakka Women (and released overseas under that name) is a 2014 television series produced by Hong Kong Television Network.
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Tsai Ing-wen (born 31 August 1956) is a Taiwanese politician, legal scholar, attorney, and the current President of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, since May 20, 2016.
Tuaran (Pekan Tuaran) is the capital of the Tuaran District in the West Coast Division of Sabah, Malaysia.
A tulou, or "earthen building", is a traditional communal Hakka people residence found in Fujian, in South China, usually of a circular configuration surrounding a central shrine, and part of Hakka architecture.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor, from its establishment on 25 October 1999, until its independence on 20 May 2002, following the outcome of the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Varina Tjon-A-Ten (born November 29, 1952 in Paramaribo, Suriname) is a Dutch politician who was a member of the House of Representatives for the Dutch Labour Party (PvdA) from 2003 to 2006.
Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam.
The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China (abbreviated Guójiā Fùzhǔxí 国家副主席, literally "State Vice-Chairperson"), formerly translated as Vice Chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1954 to 1975, is a senior position in the government of the People's Republic of China.
The Vice President of the Republic of China is the second-highest executive official of the Republic of China.
Victor William Williams Saunders Purcell CMG (26 January 1896 – 2 January 1965) was a British colonial public servant, historian, poet, and Sinologist in Malaya (now Malaysia).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Wang Sheng (October 15, 1915 – October 5, 2006) was a general in the Republic of China Army from 1970, head of the General Political Warfare Department (總政治作戰部), and a close confidant to President Chiang Ching-kuo.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat, Malay: كليمنتان بارت,; Hakka: Sî-Kâ-lí-màn-tân; Teochew: Sai-Gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia.
The Women's Prize for Fiction (previously with sponsor names Orange Prize for Fiction (1996–2006 and 2009–12), Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction (2007–08) and Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction (2014-2017)) is one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious literary prizes.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Wuhua County is a county under the jurisdiction of Meizhou City in eastern Guangdong Province, China.
Xie Jinyuan (Hsieh Chin-yuan; 26 April 1905 – 24 April 1941) was a Chinese Nationalist military officer famous for commanding the Defense of Sihang Warehouse during the Battle of Shanghai in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xingguo County is a county in south central Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.
Xingning (postal: Hingning) is a county-level city, under the jurisdiction of Meizhou City, Guangdong Province, China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Xinyang (postal: Sinyang) is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Henan province, People's Republic of China, the southernmost administrative division in the province.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Xue Yue (December 26, 1896 – May 3, 1998) was a Chinese Nationalist military general, nicknamed by Claire Lee Chennault of the Flying Tigers as the "Patton of Asia" and called the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese.
Yang Xiuqing (died September 2/3, 1856), was an organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.
Yantian District (Cantonese Jyutping: Jim4 Tin4 Keoi1) is one of the six districts of the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.
Kapitan China Yap Ah Loy (Hakka: Ya̍p Â-lòi Kap; 14 March 1837 – 15 April 1885), also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan, is the founder of Kuala Lumpur.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Ye Ting (September 10, 1896 – April 8, 1946), born in Huiyang, Guangdong, was a Chinese military leader.
Ye Xuanping (born 20 December 1924 in Guangzhou, Guangdong) is the former Governor of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China.He was Vice-Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference 1991-2003.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yong tau foo (also spelled yong tao foo, yong tau fu, yong tau hu or yong tofu; yentafo in Thailand) is a Hakka Chinese cuisine consisting primarily of tofu filled with ground meat mixture or fish paste.
Yongding is a district under the jurisdiction of Longyan prefecture-level city in the southwest of Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.
Yu Shyi-kun (born April 25, 1948) is a Taiwanese politician.
The yuan (sign: ¥) is the base unit of a number of former and present-day Chinese currencies.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuen Long, formerly romanised as Un Long, is an area and town on the Yuen Long Plain located in the western New Territories, Hong Kong.
Zhang Fakui (25 July 1896 – 10 March 1980) was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.
Zhang Xianzhong or Chang Hsien-chung (September 18, 1606 – January 2, 1647), nicknamed Yellow Tiger, was a leader of a peasant revolt from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhongli District is a district in Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
1895 or Blue Brave: The Legend of Formosa 1895 is a Taiwanese Hakka film based on the Japanese Invasion of Taiwan in 1895, with emphasis on the Hakka fighters and their families in the conflict.
Haak Ga, Hakka, Hakka Chinese people, Hakka Taiwanese, Hakka descent, Hakka people in Hong Kong, Hakka people in Taiwan, Hakkas, Hong Kong Hakka, K'o-chia, Kejia, Khek, Khek people, Overseas Hakka, 客家.