191 relations: Achai Gaon, Acharonim, Activities prohibited on Shabbat, Adjudication, Advanced Systems Format, Aggadah, Ahasuerus, Akkadian language, Amoraim, Antinomianism, Arba'ah Turim, Aristotle, Aruch HaShulchan, Asher ben Jehiel, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashkenazi Jews, Avraham Danzig, Baghdad, Baladi, Beta Israel, Beth din, Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism, Capital punishment, Chabad, Chayei Adam, Choshen Mishpat, Civil law (legal system), Code of law, Codex, Codification (law), Committee on Jewish Law and Standards, Common Era, Conservative halakha, Conservative Judaism, Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique, Dialectic, Divine law, Divorce, Dor Daim, Electricity, Eliezer Melamed, Esther, Even Ha'ezer, Excommunication, Exegesis, Family, Four species, Gemara, Geonim, Get (divorce document), ..., Gloss (annotation), God, Haredi Judaism, Hasidic Judaism, Haskalah, Hebrew language, Hebrew Union College Annual, Heresy, History of responsa in Judaism, History of the Jews in Europe, Homosexuality, Hungary, Imprisonment, Inductive reasoning, Isaac Alfasi, Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil, Isaac Klein, Israel Bruna, Israel Isserlein, Israel Meir Kagan, Israeli law, J. David Bleich, Jacob ben Asher, Jerusalem, Jewish diaspora, Jewish emancipation, Jewish ethics, Jewish medical ethics, Jewish principles of faith, Joel Roth, Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Joseph Karo, Judah ha-Nasi, Judaism, Kashrut, Kavod HaBriyot, Ketubah, Kodashim, Kraków, Laity, Land of Israel, Law of Moses, List of Tosafists, Lust, Maimonides, Mamzer, Marriage, Menachem Elon, Menstruation, Metaphysics, Minhag, Minyan, Mishnah, Mishnah Berurah, Mishneh Torah, Mishpat Ivri, Mitzvah, Mizrahi Jews, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Moed, Monograph, Mordecai Yoffe, Mordechai ben Hillel, Moses, Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, Moses Isserles, Moshe Koppel, Mount Sinai, MP3, Musar literature, Nashim, Nezikin, Nuremberg, Orach Chayim, Oral Torah, Orthodox Judaism, Ovadia Yosef, Poland, Posek, Rabbi, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Rabbinical Assembly, Rabbinical Council of America, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashi, Reconstructionist Judaism, Reform Judaism, Religious law, Repentance in Judaism, Responsa, Revelation, Rishonim, Romanization of Hebrew, Saadia Gaon, Sanhedrin, Sasanian Empire, Savoraim, Second Temple, Semitic root, Sephardi Hebrew, Sephardi Jews, Sephardic law and customs, Seven Laws of Noah, Shabbat, Sharia, Shatnez, Shlomo Ganzfried, Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Shofar, Shulchan Aruch, Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Simeon Kayyara, Sources of law, Synagogue, Takkanah, Talmud, Talmudical hermeneutics, Tanakh, Tannaim, The Bible and homosexuality, Tohorot, Toledo, Spain, Torah, Torah study, Tosafot, Tzadik, Vow, Women in Judaism, Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin, Yaakov Chaim Sofer, Yalkut Yosef, Yechiel Michel Epstein, Yehudai Gaon, Yemenite Jews, Yeshiva, Yitzhak Yosef, Yoreh De'ah, Yosef Hayyim, Zeraim, 613 commandments. Expand index (141 more) » « Shrink index
Achai Gaon (also known as Ahai of Shabḥa or Aha of Shabḥa, Hebrew: רב אחא משַׁבָּחָא) was a leading scholar during the period of the Geonim, an 8th-century Talmudist of high renown.
Acharonim (אחרונים Aḥaronim; sing., Aḥaron; lit. "last ones") is a term used in Jewish law and history, to signify the leading rabbis and poskim (Jewish legal decisors) living from roughly the 16th century to the present, and more specifically since the writing of the Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew:, "Set Table", a code of Jewish law) in 1563 CE.
Halakha (Jewish law), especially the Talmud tractate Shabbat, identifies thirty-nine categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat (ל״ט אבות מלאכות, lamed tet avot melakhot), and clarifies many questions surrounding the application of the biblical prohibitions.
Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation, including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved.
Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming Format) is Microsoft's proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially meant for streaming media.
Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.
Ahasuerus (Asouēros in the Septuagint; or Assuerus in the Vulgate; commonly transliterated Achashverosh; cf. 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 Xšayārša; اخشورش Axšoreš; Xerxes) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, as well as related legends and Apocrypha.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
Antinomianism (from the Greek: ἀντί, "against" + νόμος, "law"), is any view which rejects laws or legalism and is against moral, religious, or social norms (Latin: mores), or is at least considered to do so.
Arba'ah Turim (אַרְבָּעָה טוּרִים), often called simply the Tur, is an important Halakhic code composed by Jacob ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as Ba'al Ha-Turim).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aruch HaShulchan (Hebrew: עָרוּךְ הַשֻּׁלְחָן) is a chapter-to-chapter restatement of the Shulchan Aruch (the latter being the most influential codification of halakhah in the post-Talmudic era).
Asher ben Jehiel (אשר בן יחיאל, or Asher ben Yechiel, sometimes Asheri) (1250 or 1259 – 1327) was an eminent rabbi and Talmudist best known for his abstract of Talmudic law.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Rabbi Avraham Danzig (ben Yehiel Michael, אברהם דנציג;1820–1748) was a Posek ("decisor") and codifier, best known as the author of the works of Jewish law called "Chayei Adam" and "Chochmat Adam." He is sometimes referred to as "the Chayei Adam".
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baladi (بلدي; relative-adjective "of town", "local", "rural", comparable to English "folk", with a lower-class connotation) can refer to an Egyptian musical style, the folk style of Egyptian bellydance (Raqs Baladi), or the Masmoudi Sogheir rhythm, which is frequently used in baladi music.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
A beth din (בית דין Bet Din, "house of judgement", Ashkenazic: beis din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism.
Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism has a complex history which has been a subject of extensive debate.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.
Chayei Adam (חיי אדם "The Life of Man") is a work of Jewish law by Rabbi Avraham Danzig (1748–1820), dealing with the laws discussed in the Orach Chayim section of the Shulchan Aruch.
Choshen Mishpat is the Hebrew for "Breastplate of Judgement".
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on halakha (Jewish law and tradition) within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active and widely known committees on the Conservative movement's Rabbinical Assembly.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Conservative Judaism views halakha (Jewish law) as normative and binding.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Coucy-le-Château-Auffrique is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
The Dardaim or Dor daim (דרדעים), are adherents of the Dor Deah movement in Orthodox Judaism.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Eliezer Melamed (אליעזר מלמד, born 28 June 1961) is an Israeli Orthodox rabbi and the rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Har Bracha, rabbi of the community Har Bracha, and author of the book series Peninei Halachah.
Esther, born Hadassah, is the eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther.
(The Stone of Help) is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's compilation of halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
The four species (ארבעת המינים, also called arba'a minim) are four plants mentioned in the Torah (Leviticus 23:40) as being relevant to the Jewish holiday of Sukkot.
The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
A get or gett (גט, plural gittin גיטין) is a divorce document in Jewish religious law, which must be presented by a husband to his wife to effectuate their divorce.
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
The Hebrew Union College Annual is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of Jewish studies.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
History of responsa in Judaism spans a period of 1,700 years.
Jews, originally Judaean Israelite tribes from the Levant in Western Asia, Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Isaac ben Jacob Alfasi ha-Cohen (1013–1103) (ר' יצחק אלפסי, إسحاق الفاسي) - also known as the Alfasi or by his Hebrew acronym Rif (Rabbi Isaac al-Fasi), was an Algerian Talmudist and posek (decider in matters of halakha - Jewish law).
Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil (d.1280) (יצחק בן יוסף מקורבי"ל) was a French rabbi and Tosafist who flourished in the second half of the thirteenth century.
Isaac Klein (September 5, 1905 – 1979) was a prominent rabbi and halakhic authority within Conservative Judaism.
Israel Bruna (ישראל ברונא; 1480–1400) was a German rabbi and Posek (decisor on Jewish Law).
Israel Isserlin (ישראל איסרלן; Israel Isserlein ben Petachia; 1390 in Maribor, Duchy of Styria – 1460 in Wiener Neustadt, Lower Austria) was a Talmudist, and Halakhist, best known for his Terumat HaDeshen, which served as one source for HaMapah, the component of the Shulkhan Arukh by Moses Isserles.
Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.
Israeli law is based mostly on a common law legal system, though it also reflects the diverse history of the territory of the State of Israel throughout the last hundred years (which was at various times prior to independence under Ottoman, then British sovereignty), as well as the legal systems of its major religious communities.
Judah David Bleich (born August 24, 1936, Tarrytown, New York) is an authority on Jewish law and ethics, including Jewish medical ethics.
Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim as well as Rabbi Yaakov ben Raash (Rabbeinu Asher), was probably born in the Holy Roman Empire at Cologne about 1269 and probably died at Toledo, then in the Kingdom of Castile, about 1343.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which Jewish people were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights on a communal, not merely individual, basis.
Jewish ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish religion and peoples.
Jewish medical ethics is a modern scholarly and clinical approach to medical ethics that draws upon Jewish thought and teachings.
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism.
Joel Roth is a prominent American rabbi in the Rabbinical Assembly, which is the rabbinical body of Conservative Judaism.
Joseph Ber Soloveitchik (יוסף דב הלוי סולובייצ׳יק Yosef Dov ha-Levi Soloveychik; February 27, 1903 - April 9, 1993) was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher.
Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro (1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the Shulchan Aruch, which is still authoritative for all Jews pertaining to their respective communities.
Judah ha-Nasi (יהודה הנשיא, Yehudah HaNasi or Judah the Prince) or Judah I, also known as Rabbi or Rabbenu HaQadosh ("our Master, the holy one"), was a second-century rabbi and chief redactor and editor of the Mishnah.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kevod HaBeriyot כבוד הבריות (literally in Hebrew: "honor the creations (human beings)" also variously translated as "individual dignity", "individual honor", or "human dignity" (in a specifically Talmudic sense which may or may not be the same as the secular concept of human dignity) is a concept of Halakha (Jewish law) originating in the Talmud which permits exceptions to Rabbinic decrees under certain circumstances. This concept has been used in a number of contemporary Jewish religious-law decisions in Orthodox and Conservative Judaism. The nature and scope of the concept is a matter of contemporary dispute. Kevod HaBeriyot is mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud in Berakhot 19b; Shabbat 81b, 94b; Eruvin 41b; and Megillah 3b. The term Kevodo (his dignity) is used in Beitzah 36b.
A ketubah (pl. ketubot) is a special type of Jewish prenuptial agreement.
Kodashim (קדשים, "Holy Things") is the fifth of the six orders, or major divisions, of the Mishnah, Tosefta and the Talmud, and deals largely with the services within the Temple in Jerusalem, its maintenance and design, the korbanot, or sacrificial offerings that were offered there, and other subjects related to these topics, as well as, notably, the topic of kosher slaughter of animals for non-sacrificial purposes.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
The Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Law or in תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה, Torat Moshe, refers primarily to the Torah or first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
Tosafists were medieval rabbis from France and Germany who are among those known in Talmudical scholarship as Rishonim (there were Rishonim in Spain also) who created critical and explanatory glosses (questions, notes, interpretations, rulings and sources) on the Talmud.
Lust is a craving, it can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, lust for money or the lust for power.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
A mamzer (ממזר) is a person born from certain forbidden relationships, or the descendant of such a person, in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish religious law.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Menachem Elon (Menachem_elon.ogg) (November 1, 1923 – February 6, 2013) was an Israeli jurist and Professor of Law specializing in Mishpat Ivri, an Orthodox rabbi, and a prolific author on traditional Jewish law (Halakha).
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Minhag (מנהג "custom", pl. מנהגים, minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.
In Judaism, a minyan (מִנְיָן lit. noun count, number; pl. minyanim) is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
The Mishnah Berurah (משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (Poland, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life".
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Mishpat Ivri (Hebrew משפט עברי "Jewish/Hebrew law/jurisprudence") are the aspects of Halakha ("traditional Jewish law") that are relevant to "non-religious" or "secular" law.
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law, with the secular, modern world.
Moed (מועד, "Festivals") is the second Order of the Mishnah, the first written recording of the Oral Torah of the Jewish people (also the Tosefta and Talmud).
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
Mordecai ben Avraham Yoffe (or Jaffe or Joffe) (1530 – 7 March 1612; Hebrew: מרדכי בן אברהם יפה) was a Rabbi, Rosh yeshiva and posek.
Mordechai ben Hillel HaKohen (c. 1250–1298), also known as The Mordechai, was a 13th-century German rabbi and posek.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, also known as Moses Mikkotsi (משה בן יעקב מקוצי; Moses Kotsensis), was a French Tosafist and authority on Halakha (Jewish law).
Moses Isserles (משה בן ישראל איסרלישׂ, Mojżesz ben Israel Isserles) (February 22, 1530 / Adar I, 5290 – May 11, 1572 / Iyar), was an eminent Polish Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek.
Moshe Koppel is an American-Israeli computer scientist, Talmud scholar and political scientist.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.
Musar literature is didactic Jewish ethical literature which describes virtues and vices and the path towards perfection in a methodical way.
__notoc__ Nashim (נשים "Women" or "Wives") is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud) containing family law.
For Jewish law on damages, see Damages (Jewish law) Nezikin (נזיקין Neziqin, "Damages") or Seder Nezikin ("The Order of Damages") is the fourth Order of the Mishna (also the Tosefta and Talmud).
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Orach Chayim (אורח חיים; manner of life) is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's compilation of Halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Ovadia Yosef (עובדיה יוסף Ovadya Yosef,; September 24, 1920 – October 7, 2013) was an Iraqi-born Talmudic scholar, a posek, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983, and the founder and long-time spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-Orthodox Shas party.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
The Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is the international association of Conservative rabbis.
The Rabbinical Council of America (RCA) is one of the world's largest organizations of Orthodox rabbis; it is affiliated with The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, more commonly known as the Orthodox Union (OU).
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Shlomo Yitzchaki (רבי שלמה יצחקי; Salomon Isaacides; Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (רש"י, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the ''Tanakh''.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.
Repentance (תשובה, literally, "return", pronounced "tshuva" or "teshuva") is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism.
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Rishonim (ראשונים; sing. ראשון, Rishon, "the first ones") were the leading rabbis and poskim who lived approximately during the 11th to 15th centuries, in the era before the writing of the Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: שׁוּלחָן עָרוּך, "Set Table", a common printed code of Jewish law, 1563 CE) and following the Geonim (589-1038 CE).
Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
A Savora (Aramaic: סבורא, "a reasoner", plural Savora'im, Sabora'im, סבוראים) is a term used in Jewish law and history to signify one among the leading rabbis living from the end of period of the Amoraim (around 500 CE) to the beginning of the Geonim (around 600 CE).
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sephardic law and customs means the practice of Judaism as observed by the Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as it is peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim.
The Seven Laws of Noah (שבע מצוות בני נח Sheva Mitzvot B'nei Noach), also referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws (from the English transliteration of the Hebrew pronunciation of "Noah"), are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Shatnez (or shaatnez,; Biblical Hebrew Šaʿatnez Shaatnez.ogg) is cloth containing both wool and linen (linsey-woolsey), which Jewish law, derived from the Torah, prohibits wearing.
Shlomo Ganzfried (or Salomo ben Joseph Ganzfried; 1804 in Ungvar – 30 July 1886 in Ungvar) was an Orthodox rabbi and posek best known as author of the work of Halakha (Jewish law), the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (Hebrew: קיצור שולחן ערוך, "The Abbreviated Shulchan Aruch"), by which title he is also known.
Shneur Zalman of Liady (שניאור זלמן מליאדי, September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S. / 18 Elul 5505 – 24 Tevet 5573), was an Orthodox rabbi and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi in the Russian Empire.
A shofar (pron., from Shofar.ogg) is an ancient musical horn typically made of a ram's horn, used for Jewish religious purposes.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
The Shulchan Aruch HaRav (Hebrew שולחן ערוך הרב: "Code of Jewish Law by the Rabbi"; also Shulkhan Arukh HaRav) is especially a record of prevailing halakha by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745 – 1812), known during his lifetime as HaRav (Hebrew for "The Rabbi") and as the first Rebbe (Yiddish for "rabbi") of Chabad.
Simeon Kayyara, also spelled Shimon Kiara (Hebrew: שמעון קיירא), was a Jewish-Babylonian halakhist of the first half of the 8th century.
Sources of law are the origins of laws, the binding rules that enable any state to govern its territory.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
A takkanah (plural takkanot) is a major legislative enactment within halakha (Jewish law), the normative system of Judaism's laws.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
Talmudical hermeneutics (Hebrew: מידות שהתורה נדרשת בהן) defines the rules and methods for the investigation and exact determination of the meaning of the Scriptures, within the framework of Rabbinic Judaism.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
Passages in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament have been interpreted as involving same-sex sexual acts and desires.
Tohorot (Hebrew: טָהֳרוֹת, literally "Purities") is the sixth and last order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud).
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torah study is the study of the Torah, Hebrew Bible, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaism's religious texts.
The Tosafot or Tosafos (תוספות) are medieval commentaries on the Talmud.
Tzadik/Zadik/Sadiq (צדיק, "righteous one", pl. tzadikim ṣadiqim) is a title in Judaism given to people considered righteous, such as Biblical figures and later spiritual masters.
A vow (Lat. votum, vow, promise; see vote) is a promise or oath.
The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, the Oral Law (the corpus of rabbinic literature), by custom, and by cultural factors.
Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin (יעקב בן משה מולין) (c. 1365 – September 14, 1427) was a Talmudist and posek (authority on Jewish law) best known for his codification of the customs (minhagim) of the German Jews.
Yaakov Chaim Sofer (1870–1939) (Hebrew: יעקב חיים סופר) was a Sephardi rabbi, Kabbalist, Talmudist and posek.
Yalkut Yosef (ילקוט יוסף, "Collation of Yosef") is an authoritative, contemporary work of Halakha, providing a detailed explanation of the Shulchan Aruch as based on the halachic rulings of the former Rishon LeTzion Rav Ovadia Yosef.
Yechiel Michel Epstein (24 January 1829 – 24 February 1908), often called "the Aruch ha-Shulchan" (after his main work, Aruch HaShulchan), was a Rabbi and posek (authority in Jewish law) in Lithuania.
Yehudai ben Nahman (or Yehudai Gaon; Hebrew: יהודאי גאון, sometimes: Yehudai b. Nahman) was the head of the yeshiva in Sura from 757 to 761, during the Gaonic period of Judaism.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yitzhak Yosef (יצחק יוסף, born January 16, 1952) is the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel, also known as the Rishon LeZion, the rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Hazon Ovadia, and the author of a set of books on Jewish law called Yalkut Yosef.
Yoreh De'ah (יורה דעה) is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's compilation of halakha (Jewish law), Arba'ah Turim around 1300.
Yosef Hayim (1 September 1835 – 30 August 1909) (Iraqi Hebrew: Yoseph Ḥayyim; Hebrew: יוסף חיים מבגדאד) was a leading Baghdadi hakham (Sephardi rabbi), authority on halakha (Jewish law), and Master Kabbalist.
Seder Zeraim (סדר זרעים, lit. "Order of Seeds"), is the first of the six orders, or major divisions, of the Mishnah, Tosefta and the Talmud, and apart from the first tractate, which concerns the rules for prayers and blessings, primarily deals with the laws of agricultural produce and tithes of the Torah which apply in the Land of Israel, in both their religious and social aspects.
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
Halacha, Halachah, Halachic, Halachic Laws, Halachic ruling, Halachically, Halachist, Halachos, Halachot, Halahkic, Halakah, Halakhah, Halakhic, Halakhically, Halakhist, Halakhot, Halakic, Halakist, Halakot, Halocho, Hebrew Law, Hebrew law, Jewish Law, Jewish Laws, Jewish law, Jewish law and tradition, Jewish laws, Jewish religious law, Judaic Law, Judaic Laws, Judaic law, Kabalistic Laws, Laws of Moses, Mosaic Code, Sifrei halacha, Traditioanl Jewish law, Traditional Jewish law.