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Hallucination

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception. [1]

150 relations: Abscess, Alzheimer's disease, Anomalous experiences, Anticholinergic, Antipsychotic, Apparitional experience, Atypical antipsychotic, Auditory hallucination, August Natterer, Autoscopy, Bicameralism (psychology), Bipolar disorder, Brainstem, Broca's area, Caffeine, Cerebral peduncle, Cholinergic, Closed-eye hallucination, Cocaine, Codeine, Comorbidity, Cyclazocine, Cyclorphan, Delirium tremens, Delusion, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Dextromethorphan, Dissociative, Dissociative disorder, Dissociative identity disorder, Dolly zoom, Dopamine, Dream, Drug withdrawal, Endocrine disease, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Fatigue, Fentanyl, Focal seizure, Folie à deux, Formication, Ganzfeld effect, Hallucinogen, Hallucinogenic fish, Hearing Voices Movement, Hippocampus, Hydromorphone, Hyoscine, Hypnagogia, ..., Hypnopompic, Illusion, Insular cortex, Δ-opioid receptor, Κ-opioid receptor, Kurt Schneider, La Trobe University, Lateral sulcus, Lesion, Levorphanol, Locus coeruleus, Lourdes apparitions, Lyme disease, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Macropsia, Major depressive disorder, Menopause, Mental disorder, Mental image, Metabolic disorder, Methadone, Micropsia, Microwave auditory effect, Middle temporal gyrus, Morphinan, Morphine, Multiple sclerosis, Musical ear syndrome, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Narcolepsy, Nasal polyp, Neurological disorder, NMDA receptor, Nociception, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norepinephrine, Occipital lobe, Olfaction, Olfactory system, Opioid, Oxycodone, Parabrachial nuclei, Parahippocampal gyrus, Pareidolia, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Pedunculopontine nucleus, Pentazocine, Perception, Peripheral neuropathy, Peripheral vision, Pethidine, Phantom eye syndrome, Phantosmia, Phenomenon, Phosphene, Photopsia, Pons, Porphyria, Prisoner's cinema, Proprioception, Pseudohallucination, Psilocybin, Psychedelic experience, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychosis, Psychotic depression, Raphe nuclei, Rapid eye movement sleep, Sarcoidosis, Schizophrenia, Sense of balance, Sensory deprivation, Sigma receptor, Simulated reality, Skin cancer, Sleep deprivation, Society for Psychical Research, Solvent, Somatosensory system, Sound, Stimulus (physiology), Substance intoxication, Substantia nigra, Superior temporal gyrus, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Taste, Tegmentum, Temporal lobe, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Thermoception, Thomas Browne, Time perception, Vision (spirituality), Visual field, Visual perception, Visual release hallucinations, Visual system, Wilson's disease. Expand index (100 more) »

Abscess

An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Anomalous experiences

Anomalous experiences, such as so-called benign hallucinations, may occur in a person in a state of good mental and physical health, even in the apparent absence of a transient trigger factor such as fatigue, intoxication or sensory deprivation.

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Anticholinergic

An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Apparitional experience

In parapsychology, an apparitional experience is an anomalous experience characterized by the apparent perception of either a living being or an inanimate object without there being any material stimulus for such a perception.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Auditory hallucination

A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.

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August Natterer

August Natterer (1868–1933), also known as Neter, was a German outsider artist with schizophrenia.

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Autoscopy

Autoscopy is the experience in which an individual perceives the surrounding environment from a different perspective, from a position outside of his or her own body.

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Bicameralism (psychology)

Bicameralism (the condition of being divided into "two-chambers") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once operated in a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys — a bicameral mind.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Brainstem

The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Cerebral peduncle

The cerebral peduncles are structures at the front of the midbrain which arise from the front of the pons and contain the large ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) nerve tracts that run to and from the cerebrum from the pons.

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Cholinergic

In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Closed-eye hallucination

Closed-eye hallucinations and closed-eye visualizations (CEV) are a distinct class of hallucination.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Codeine

Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Comorbidity

In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Cyclazocine

Cyclazocine is a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist related to dezocine, pentazocine and phenazocine.

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Cyclorphan

Cyclorphan is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that was never marketed.

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Delirium tremens

Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.

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Delusion

A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.

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Dextromethorphan

Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).

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Dissociative

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.

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Dissociative disorder

Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception.

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Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.

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Dolly zoom

The dolly zoom is an in-camera effect that appears to undermine normal visual perception.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dream

A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

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Drug withdrawal

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Fatigue

Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fentanyl

Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).

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Focal seizure

Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.

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Folie à deux

Folie à deux (French for "madness of two"), or shared psychosis, is a psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusional belief and sometimes hallucinations are transmitted from one individual to another.

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Formication

In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin.

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Ganzfeld effect

The ganzfeld effect (from German for "complete field"), or perceptual deprivation, is a phenomenon of perception caused by exposure to an unstructured, uniform stimulation field.

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Hallucinogen

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.

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Hallucinogenic fish

Several species of fish are claimed to produce hallucinogenic effects when consumed.

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Hearing Voices Movement

The Hearing Voices Movement (HVM) is the name used by organizations and individuals advocating the "hearing voices approach", an alternative way of understanding the experience of those people who "hear voices".

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Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Hydromorphone

Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.

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Hyoscine

Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.

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Hypnagogia

Hypnagogia, also referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep: the hypnagogic state of consciousness, during the onset of sleep.

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Hypnopompic

The hypnopompic state (or hypnopompia) is the state of consciousness leading out of sleep, a term coined by the psychical researcher Frederic Myers.

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Illusion

An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation.

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Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

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Δ-opioid receptor

The δ-opioid receptor, also known as delta opioid receptor or simply delta receptor, abbreviated DOR, is an inhibitory 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor coupled to the G protein Gi/G0 and has enkephalins as its endogenous ligands.

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Κ-opioid receptor

The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.

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Kurt Schneider

Kurt Schneider (7 January 1887 – 27 October 1967) was a German psychiatrist known largely for his writing on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, as well as personality disorders then known as psychopathic personalities.

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La Trobe University

La Trobe University is an Australian, multi-campus, public research university with its flagship campus located in the Melbourne suburb of Bundoora.

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Lateral sulcus

The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent features of the human brain.

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Lesion

A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Levorphanol

Levorphanol (INN; brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.

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Locus coeruleus

The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.

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Lourdes apparitions

The Marian Apparitions at Lourdes were reported in 1858 by Bernadette Soubirous, a 14-year-old miller's daughter from the town of Lourdes in southern France.

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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.

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Lysergic acid diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.

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Macropsia

Macropsia (also known as megalopia) is a neurological condition affecting human visual perception, in which objects within an affected section of the visual field appear larger than normal, causing the person to feel smaller than they actually are.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Menopause

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental image

A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.

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Metabolic disorder

A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.

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Methadone

Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

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Micropsia

Micropsia is a condition affecting human visual perception in which objects are perceived to be smaller than they actually are.

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Microwave auditory effect

The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies.

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Middle temporal gyrus

Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe.

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Morphinan

Morphinan is the prototype chemical structure of a large chemical class of psychoactive drugs, consisting of opiate analgesics, cough suppressants, and dissociative hallucinogens, among others.

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Morphine

Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Musical ear syndrome

Musical ear syndrome (MES) describes a condition seen in people who have hearing loss and subsequently develop auditory hallucinations.

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N,N-Dimethyltryptamine

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.

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Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.

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Nasal polyp

Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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Nociception

Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.

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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Olfaction

Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Olfactory system

The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction).

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Opioid

Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Oxycodone

Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

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Parabrachial nuclei

The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum.

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Parahippocampal gyrus

The parahippocampal gyrus (Syn. hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus and is part of the limbic system.

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Pareidolia

Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind responds to a stimulus, usually an image or a sound, by perceiving a familiar pattern where none exists.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Pedunculopontine nucleus

The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of neurons located in the upper pons in the brainstem.

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Pentazocine

Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.

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Perception

Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Peripheral vision

Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.

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Pethidine

Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.

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Phantom eye syndrome

The phantom eye syndrome (PES) is a phantom pain in the eye and visual hallucinations after the removal of an eye (enucleation, evisceration).

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Phantosmia

Phantosmia (phantom smell) -->, also called an olfactory hallucination, is smelling an odor that is not actually there.

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Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Phosphene

A phosphene is a phenomenon characterized by the experience of seeing light without light actually entering the eye.

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Photopsia

Photopsia is the presence of perceived flashes of light.

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Pons

The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.

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Porphyria

Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Prisoner's cinema

The prisoner's cinema is a phenomenon reported by prisoners confined to dark cells and by others kept in darkness, voluntarily or not, for long periods of time.

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Proprioception

Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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Pseudohallucination

A pseudohallucination is an involuntary sensory experience vivid enough to be regarded as a hallucination, but recognised by the patient not to be the result of external stimuli.

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Psilocybin

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.

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Psychedelic experience

A psychedelic experience (or 'trip') is a temporary altered state of consciousness induced by the consumption of psychedelic drugs (such as mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and DMT).

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Psychiatry

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Psychotic depression

Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.

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Raphe nuclei

The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.

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Rapid eye movement sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.

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Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Sense of balance

The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.

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Sensory deprivation

Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

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Sigma receptor

Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.

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Simulated reality

Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by quantum computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.

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Society for Psychical Research

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a nonprofit organisation in the United Kingdom.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Sound

In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Substance intoxication

Substance intoxication is a type of substance use disorder which is potentially maladaptive and impairing, but reversible, and associated with recent use of a substance.

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Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

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Superior temporal gyrus

The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Taste

Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.

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Tegmentum

The tegmentum (from Latin for "covering") is a general area within the brainstem.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

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Thermoception

Thermoception or thermoreception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperature, or more accurately, temperature differences inferred from heat flux.

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Thomas Browne

Sir Thomas Browne (19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682) was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric.

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Time perception

Time perception is a field of study within psychology, cognitive linguistics and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience, or sense, of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and unfolding of events.

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Vision (spirituality)

A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual release hallucinations

Visual release hallucinations, also known as Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is a type of psychophysical visual disturbance and the experience of complex visual hallucinations in a person with partial or severe blindness.

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallucination

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