71 relations: AMPA receptor, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Antimony trichloride, Blood–gas partition coefficient, Boiling point, Bromine, Caesarean section, Catecholamine, Charles Suckling, Chirality (chemistry), Contraindication, Cyclopropane, CYP2E1, Density, Desflurane, Developed country, Developing country, Diethyl ether, Enflurane, Ether, GABAA receptor, General anaesthetic, Glycine receptor, Haloalkane, Halogenated ether, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatitis, Hepatotoxicity, Hydrogen fluoride, Hypercapnia, Hypoventilation, Imperial Chemical Industries, Inhalation, Inhalational anaesthetic, Isoflurane, Kainate receptor, Kidney, Liver, Liver disease, Malignant hyperthermia, Manchester, Minimum alveolar concentration, Molecular mass, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, Pharmacodynamics, ..., Pheochromocytoma, Porphyria, Pregnancy, Racemic mixture, Radiodensity, Recommended exposure limit, Respiratory system, Saliva, Sevoflurane, Sodium channel, Surgery, Thymol, Tracheal intubation, Trichloroethylene, Trifluoroacetic acid, Two-pore-domain potassium channel, Unified atomic mass unit, Vapor pressure, Veterinary medicine, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (21 more) » « Shrink index
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3.
Blood–gas partition coefficient, also known as Ostwald coefficient for blood–gas, is a term used in pharmacology to describe the solubility of inhaled general anesthetics in blood.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Charles Walter Suckling, CBE FRS (24 July 1920 – 31 October 2013) was a British chemist who first synthesised halothane, a volatile inhalational anaesthetic in 1951, while working at the Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) Central Laboratory in Widnes.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
The glycine receptor (abbreviated as GlyR or GLR) is the receptor of the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
A halogenated ether is a subcategory of a larger group of chemicals known as ethers.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company and was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation.
Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Thymol (also known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP) is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted from ''Thymus vulgaris'' (common thyme) and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties.
Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway or to serve as a conduit through which to administer certain drugs.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula CF3CO2H.
The two-pore-domain potassium channel is a family of 15 members that form what is known as "leak channels" which possess Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (open) rectification.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane, ATC code N01AB01, ATCvet code QN01AB01, Anestan, C2HBrClF3, CF3CHBrCl, Chalothane, Flothane, Fluktan, Fluothane, Fluthane, Halotan, Halothaan, Halothane test, Halsan, Narcotane, Narkotan, Phthorothanum, Rhodialothan.