452 relations: Acupuncture, Administrative divisions of China, Africa, Air conditioning, Alcoholic drink, Amalgam (dentistry), Analects, Ancestor veneration in China, Andrew Yao, Archaeological site, Australia, Áo dài, Baixing, Baiyue, Bamboo, Banknote, Barefoot doctor, Battle of Banquan, Battle of Mingtiao, Battle of Muye, Battle of Zhuolu, Bedroom, Beijing, Bell, Bellows, Belt (mechanical), Berthold Laufer, Beta-Endorphin, Biological pest control, Biomechanics, Blast furnace, Borehole, Brick, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Calipers, Canada, Cannon, Cantonese people, Cast iron, Celadon, Chain drive, Chain pump, Change of Xianbei names to Han names, Charles K. Kao, Chen-Ning Yang, Cheongsam, Chien-Shiung Wu, China, China proper, ..., Chinatown, Chinese architecture, Chinese art, Chinese astronomy, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese characters, Chinese classics, Chinese cuisine, Chinese culture, Chinese dragon, Chinese folk religion, Chinese funeral rituals, Chinese given name, Chinese kin, Chinese kinship, Chinese language, Chinese literature, Chinese marriage, Chinese martial arts, Chinese mythology, Chinese opera, Chinese philosophy, Chinese Rites controversy, Chinese ritual bronzes, Chinese Singaporeans, Chinese surname, Ching W. Tang, Chiyou, Choh Hao Li, Chongzhen Emperor, Chopsticks, Christianity, Christianity in China, Christmas Island, Chu–Han Contention, Circa, Civilization, Classic Chinese Novels, Classic of Poetry, Classical Chinese, Cline (biology), Clock, Combined oral contraceptive pill, Compartment (ship), Confucianism, Crank (mechanism), Crankshaft, Crossbow, Culture hero, Cytogenetics, Daniel C. Tsui, David Ho, Dawenkou culture, Deepwater drilling, Demographics of Taiwan, Differential geometry, Dim sum, Dragon Boat Festival, Dream of the Red Chamber, Dry dock, Du Fu, Dwarfism, Dynasties in Chinese history, East Asia, East Asian cultural sphere, East Asian people, Eastern Zhou, Emigration, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor Shun, Erlitou culture, Escapement, Ethnic group, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnogenesis, Ethnolinguistics, Fan (machine), Feoffment, Fermentation in food processing, Fertility testing, Fields Medal, Filial piety, Finery forge, Fire arrow, Fire lance, Firearm, Firecracker, Fireworks, First Opium War, Fishing reel, Five Barbarians, Flare, Flash lock, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food steamer, Four Buddhist Persecutions in China, Four Great Inventions, Fuel, Fujian, Gas cylinder, Gas lighting, Gimbal, Gnomon, Golden Age, Golden age (metaphor), Gong, Great Flood (China), Great Wall of China, Growth hormone, Growth hormone deficiency, Guan Yu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guanzhong, Hakka Chinese, Hakka people, Han dynasty, Han River (Hubei), Han Taiwanese, Hanbok, Hand fan, Hanfu, Hanzhong, Haplogroup C-M217, Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup O-M122, Haplogroup O-M268, Haplogroup Q-M242, Hill censer, History of China, History of the Han dynasty, Hoklo people, Hong Kong, Hong Kong people, Horse harness, Hot pot, Hua–Yi distinction, Huaxia, Hundred Schools of Thought, Hygrometer, I Ching, Imperial Chinese Tributary System, Imperial examination, In vitro fertilisation, Incense in China, Inoculation, Irreligion, Japan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jiahu, Joe Hin Tjio, Journey to the West, Jun (country subdivision), Kangxi Emperor, Karyotype, Kimono, King Wen of Zhou, King Wu of Zhou, King Zhou of Shang, Kingdom of Tungning, Kitchen, Kite, Korea, Koxinga, Lacquer, Lacquerware, Land mine, Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Li (Confucianism), Li Bai, Li Zicheng, Liaodong Peninsula, Lingqu, List of contemporary ethnic groups, Lock (water navigation), Longshan culture, Los Angeles Times, Louche, Luteinizing hormone, Macanese people, Macau, Mahayana, Mainland China, Malaysia, Manchu people, Mandarin Chinese, Manhattan Project, Martino Martini, Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, Match, Menu, Merit system, Merriam-Webster, Mid-Autumn Festival, Milky Way, Min Chueh Chang, Ming dynasty, Mitochondrial DNA, Mongols, Mortgage loan, Multiple rocket launcher, Multistage rocket, Mutual intelligibility, Names of China, Nanyue, NASA, Nation, National Academy of Sciences, National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica, Natural gas, Nature (journal), Naval mine, Neo-Confucianism, Neolithic, New Zealand, Nguyễn dynasty, Night market, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, North America, Northern Wei, Odometer, Oil refinery, Oil well, Oil-paper umbrella, OLED, Oracle bone, Order of succession, Organic electronics, Organic solar cell, Overseas Chinese, Ovulation, Oxford English Dictionary, Paul Pelliot, Pen Huo Qi, Peru, Petroleum, Philosophy, Ping-ti Ho, Pinghua, Pinyin, Pipeline transport, PLOS One, Plough, Politics, Pontoon bridge, Population genetics, Porcelain, Predynastic Zhou, Preventive healthcare, Primary healthcare, Puddling (metallurgy), Qi of Xia, Qian Xuesen, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qin's wars of unification, Qing dynasty, Qingming Festival, Qu Yuan, Quanzhou, Raised-relief map, Rammed earth, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Records of the Grand Historian, Religious pluralism, Repeating crossbow, Rocket, Rocket launcher, Roger Y. Tsien, Roman Empire, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Rowman & Littlefield, Samuel C. C. Ting, Science and technology in China, Seal (East Asia), Second Emperor of Qin, Seismometer, Sericulture, Servants' quarters, Shang dynasty, Shanghai, Shell (projectile), Shen Kuo, Shennong, Shiing-Shen Chern, Shing-Tung Yau, Sichuan, Sichuan cuisine, Siheyuan, Silk, Sima Qian, Simplified Chinese characters, Singapore, Sinicization, Sino-Tibetan languages, Sky lantern, Snow gauge, Social science, South Asia, South-pointing chariot, Southeast Asia, Southern Min, Southward expansion of the Han dynasty, Soy sauce, Special administrative regions of China, Spring and Autumn period, Stanford University Press, Steven Chu, Su Shi, Suanpan, Sunglasses, Supernova, Syncretism, Taibo, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Tang of Shang, Tangram, Tao Te Ching, Taoism, Tea, Tea bag, Tea processing, Teapot, Terence Tao, Terracotta Army, Thailand, The Art of War, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The New York Times, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Thunder crash bomb, Tianchi basin, Tibet Autonomous Region, Time Person of the Year, Toilet (room), Toothbrush, Traditional Chinese characters, Traditional Chinese holidays, Traditional Chinese medicine, Trebuchet, Trip hammer, Tsung-Dao Lee, Tu Youyou, Turing Award, UNESCO, United States, United States Census Bureau, Urbanization, Uyghurs, Varieties of Chinese, Veneration of the dead, Veranda, Wang Mang, War wagon, Warring States period, Water clock, Water Margin, Way of the Celestial Masters, Wei River, Well drilling, Western Zhou, Wheelbarrow, Willow Palisade, Winnowing, Wok, Wolf Prize, Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, World Health Organization, World Heritage site, World population, Written Cantonese, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu (region), Wu Sangui, Xia dynasty, Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, Xianbei, Xinjiang, Yan Emperor, Yan Huang Zisun, Yangshao culture, Yangtze, Yangtze River Delta, Yanhuang, Yellow Emperor, Yellow River, Yu the Great, Yuan dynasty, Yuan T. Lee, Yuan-Cheng Fung, Yue Chinese, Yueshi culture, Yunnan, Zhangzhou, Zhongyuan, Zhou dynasty, 1600s BC (decade). Expand index (402 more) » « Shrink index
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
Due to China's large population and area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (born December 24, 1946) is a Chinese computer scientist and computational theorist.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The áo dài is a Vietnamese traditional garment, now most commonly worn by women but can also be worn by men if it's New Years.
Baixing (or lao baixing is a term in Chinese meaning "the people", or "commoners". The word lao is often added before "baixing" to give the term a more affectionate tone. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children. Chinese women, after marriage, typically retain their birth surname. Historically, however, only Chinese men possessed xìng, in addition to shì; the women had only the latter, and took on their husband's xìng after marriage.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Barefoot doctors are farmers who received minimal basic medical and paramedical training and worked in rural villages in China.
The Battle of Banquan is the first battle in Chinese history as recorded by Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.
The Battle of Mingtiao was a legendary battle between the Xia dynasty and the Shang dynasty, resulting in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the elevation of the Duke of Shang to the throne of China.
The Battle of Muye or Mu was a battle fought in ancient China between the Zhou dynasty and Shang dynasty.
The Battle of Zhuolu was the second battle in the history of China as recorded in the Records of the Grand Historian, fought between the Yanhuang tribes led by the legendary Yellow Emperor and the Jiuli tribes led by Chiyou.
A bedroom is a room of a house, mansion, castle, palace, hotel, dormitory, apartment, condominium, duplex or townhouse where people sleep.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.
A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.
A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often parallel.
Berthold Laufer (October 11, 1874 – September 13, 1934) was an anthropologist and historical geographer with an expertise in East Asian languages.
β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs, cells and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A caliper (British spelling also calliper, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers) is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Cantonese people are Han Chinese people originating from or residing in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi (together known as Liangguang), in southern mainland China.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use) and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains.
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another.
The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain.
The change of Xianbei family names to Han names was part of a larger sinicization campaign.
Sir Charles Kuen Kao, as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering for pioneering and sustained accomplishments towards the theoretical and practical realization of optical fiber communication systems.
Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.
The cheongsam (from Cantonese;, or) is a body-hugging one-piece Chinese dress for women, also known as qipao (from Mandarin) or qípáo, and was ROC's mandarin gown.
Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting.
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese funeral rituals comprise a set of traditions broadly associated with Chinese folk religion, with different rites depending on the age of the deceased, the cause of death, and the deceased's marital and social statuses.
Chinese given names are the given names adopted by native speakers of the Chinese language, both in majority-Sinophone countries and among the Chinese diaspora.
A Chinese kin, lineage or sometimes rendered as clan, is a patrilineal and patrilocal group of related Chinese people with a common surname sharing a common ancestor and, in many cases, an ancestral home.
The Chinese kinship system is classified as a "Sudanese" or "descriptive" system for the definition of family.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Traditional Chinese marriage, as opposed to marriage in modern China, is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a union between spouses, sometimes established by pre-arrangement between families.
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute among Roman Catholic missionaries over the religiosity of Confucianism and Chinese rituals during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Sets of ritual bronzes (in chinese: 中国青铜器) are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age.
Chinese Singaporeans or Singaporean Chinese are people of full or partial Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who hold Singaporean nationality.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Ching W. Tang is a Hong Kong-born American physical chemist.
Chiyou (蚩尤) was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe (九黎) in ancient China.
Choh Hao Li (sometimes Cho Hao Li) (pinyin: Lǐ Zhuōhào) (April 21, 1913 – November 28, 1987) was a Chinese-born U.S. biochemist who discovered, in 1966, that human pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin) consists of a chain of 256 amino acids.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
Chopsticks are shaped pairs of equal-length sticks that have been used as kitchen and eating utensils in virtually all of East Asia for over 2000 years.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries.
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around south of Java and Sumatra and around north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin (though just 21.2% of the population declared a Chinese ancestry in 2016), with significant numbers of Malays and white Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion. The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority (63 percent) of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.
The Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty and the Han dynasty in Chinese history.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
In sinology, the Classic Chinese Novels are two sets of the four or six best-known traditional Chinese novels.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
A compartment is a portion of the space within a ship defined vertically between decks and horizontally between bulkheads.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Daniel Chee Tsui (born February 28, 1939) is a Chinese-born American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics.
David Da-i Ho (born November 3, 1952) is a Taiwanese-American medical doctor and HIV/AIDS researcher who was born in Taiwan and has made many innovative state of the art scientific contributions to the understanding and technological treatment of HIV infection.
The Dawenkou culture is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China.
Deepwater drilling, or Deep well drilling, is the process of creating holes by drilling rig for oil mining in deep sea.
This article is about the demographic features of the population in Taiwan (officially known by its constitutional name, the Republic of China), includes population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.
Dim sum is a style of Chinese cuisine (particularly Cantonese but also other varieties) prepared as small bite-sized portions of food served in small steamer baskets or on small plates.
The Duanwu Festival, also often known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice.
Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.
A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.
Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
East Asian people or East Asians is a term used for ethnic groups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.
The Eastern Zhou (東周; 770–255 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.
An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture and how different ethnic groups perceive the world.
A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.
In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fertility testing is the process by which fertility is assessed, both generally and also to find the fertile window.
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder.
The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
A firecracker (cracker, noise maker, banger, or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
A fishing reel is a cylindrical device attached to a fishing rod used in winding and stowing line.
The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.
A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion.
Early locks were designed with a single gate, known as a flash lock or staunch lock.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
A food steamer or steam cooker is a small kitchen appliance used to cook or prepare various foods with steam heat by means of holding the food in a closed vessel reducing steam escape.
The Four Buddhist Persecutions in China was the wholesale suppression of Buddhism carried out on four occasions from the 5th through the 10th century by four Chinese emperors.
The Four Great Inventions are inventions from ancient China that are celebrated in Chinese culture for their historical significance and as symbols of ancient China's advanced science and technology.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.
Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.
A gong (from Malay: gong;; ra; គង - Kong; ฆ้อง Khong; cồng chiêng) is an East and Southeast Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat, circular metal disc which is hit with a mallet.
The Great Flood of Gun-Yu, also known as the Gun-Yu myth,Yang, 74 was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a medical condition due to not enough growth hormone (GH).
Guan Yu (died January or February 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.
Han Taiwanese or Taiwanese Hans (Mandarin: 臺灣漢人) are Taiwanese people of Han (Mandarin: 漢人) descent, the largest ethnic group in the world.
Hanbok (South Korea) or Joseon-ot (North Korea) is the representative example of traditional Korean dress.
A handheld fan is an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself.
Hanfu is a term associated with the Hanfu movement used to refer to the historical/traditional dress of the Han people.
Hanzhong (lit. "middle of the Han River") is a prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province.
Haplogroup C-M217, also known as C2 (and previously as C3), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M268, also known as O1b, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
The hill censer or boshanlu (博山爐 "universal mountain censer" or boshan xianglu 博山香爐) is a type of censer, a vessel used for burning incense.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, South China.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hong Kong people, also known as Hongkongers and sometimes Hong Kongese, are people who originate from or live in Hong Kong.
A horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equine to be driven and to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon or sleigh.
Hot pot is a Chinese cooking method, prepared with a simmering pot of soup stock at the dining table, containing a variety of East Asian foodstuffs and ingredients.
The distinction between Hua and Yi, also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy, is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Hua, Huaxia 華夏, or Xia 夏) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (Yi "barbarians").
Huaxia is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
A hygrometer is an instrument used for measuring the amount of humidity and water vapor in the atmosphere, in soil, or in confined spaces.
The I Ching,.
The Imperial Chinese Tributary System is a term created by John King Fairbank to describe "a set of ideas and practices developed and perpetuated by the rulers of China over many centuries".
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").
Incense in China is traditionally used in a wide range of Chinese cultural activities including, religious ceremonies, ancestor veneration, traditional medicine, and in daily life.
The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.
Joe Hin Tjio (2 November 1919 – 27 November 2001), was an Indonesian-born American cytogeneticist.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty (c. 7th century BCE) until the early Tang (c. 7th century CE).
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
The is a traditional Japanese garment.
King Wen of Zhou (1152 1056 BC) was king of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China.
King Wu of Zhou was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
King Zhou was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.
The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment.
A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.
Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
The Liaodong Peninsula is a peninsula in Liaoning Province of Northeast China, historically known in the West as Southeastern Manchuria.
The Lingqu is a canal in Xing'an County, near Guilin, in the northwestern corner of Guangxi, China.
The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louche (耬車) was a mobile animal-drawn agricultural seed drill invented by the Chinese agronomist Zhao Guo, a Han official in charge of agricultural production during the reign of Han Wudi in the Han dynasty.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
The Macanese people (Macaense;, Cantonese: toú-saāng poùh-yàhn, or) are an East Asian ethnic group that originated in Macau in the 16th century, consisting of people of predominantly mixed Chinese and Portuguese as well as Malay, Japanese, Sinhalese and Indian ancestry.Teixeira, Manuel (1965),Os Macaenses, Macau: Imprensa Nacional; Amaro, Ana Maria (1988), Filhos da Terra, Macau: Instituto Cultural de Macau, pp. 4–7; and Pina-Cabral, João de and Nelson Lourenço (1993), Em Terra de Tufões: Dinâmicas da Etnicidade Macaense, Macau: Instituto Cultural de Macau, for three varying, yet converging discussions on the definition of the term Macanese. Also particularly helpful is Review of Culture No. 20 July/September (English Edition) 1994, which is devoted to the ethnography of the Macanese.Marreiros, Carlos (1994), "Alliances for the Future" in Review of Culture, No. 20 July/September (English Edition), pp. 162–172.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Martino Martini (20 September 1614 – 6 June 1661) was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
A match is a tool for starting a fire.
In a restaurant, a menu is a list of food and beverage offered to the customer.
The merit system is the process of promoting and hiring government employees based on their ability to perform a job, rather than on their political connections.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
The Mid-Autumn Festival is a harvest festival celebrated notably by ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese peoples.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) or multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) is a type of rocket artillery system.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute of Statistics and Census of Costa Rica (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos de Costa Rica, or INEC, in Spanish) is the governmental institution entrusted with the running of censuses and official surveys in the country.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Night markets or night bazaars are street markets which operate at night and are generally dedicated to more leisurely strolling, shopping, and eating than more businesslike day markets.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
Oil-paper umbrella is a type of paper umbrella that originated from China.
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
An order of succession is the sequence of those entitled to hold a high office such as head of state or an honour such as a title of nobility in the order in which they stand in line to it when it becomes vacated.
Organic electronics is a field of materials science concerning the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of organic small molecules or polymers that show desirable electronic properties such as conductivity.
An organic solar cell or plastic solar cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paul Eugène Pelliot (28 May 187826 October 1945) was a French Sinologist and Orientalist best known for his explorations of Central Asia and his discovery of many important Chinese texts among the Dunhuang manuscripts.
The Pen Huo Qi (Chinese: 噴火器; Pinyin: pen huo qi, "spray fire device") is a double-piston pump naphtha flamethrower used in 919 AD in China, during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Ping-ti Ho or Bingdi He (1917–2012), who also wrote under the name P.T. Ho, was a Chinese-American historian.
Pinghua (Yale: Pìhng Wá; sometimes disambiguated as /广西平话) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Yunnan province.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
The Predynastic Zhou or Proto-Zhou refers to the state of Zhou that existed in the Guanzhong region of modern Shaanxi province during the Shang dynasty of ancient China, before its conquest of Shang in 1046/45 BC which led to the establishment of the Zhou dynasty.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to "essential health care" that is based on "scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
Puddling was one step in one of the most important processes of making the first appreciable volumes of high-grade bar iron (malleable wrought iron) during the Industrial Revolution.
Qi was a Chinese king, the son of Yu the Great and the second sovereign of the Xia Dynasty.
Qian Xuesen, or Hsue-Shen Tsien (11 December 1911 – 31 October 2009), was a prominent Chinese aerodynamicist and cyberneticist who contributed to rocket science and established engineering cybernetics.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Qin's wars of unification were a series of military campaigns launched in the late 3rd century BC by the Qin state against the other six major states — Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu and Qi — within the territories that formed modern China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.
A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three-dimensional representation, usually of terrain, materialized as a physical artifact.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
The repeating crossbow, also known as the magazine crossbow, or the Zhuge crossbow (previously romanized Chu-ko-nu) due to its association with the Three Kingdoms-era strategist Zhuge Liang (181–234 AD), is a Chinese crossbow that appeared in ancient times.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket launcher is any device that launches a rocket-propelled projectile, although the term is often used in reference to mechanisms that are portable and capable of being operated by an individual.
Roger Yonchien Tsien (February 1, 1952 – August 24, 2016) was a Han Chinese/Taiwanese-American biochemist.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Samuel Chao Chung Ting (born January 27, 1936) is an American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976, with Burton Richter, for discovering the subatomic J/ψ particle.
Science and technology have developed rapidly in China during the 1990s to 2010s.
A seal, in an East and Southeast Asian context is a general name for printing stamps and impressions thereof which are used in lieu of signatures in personal documents, office paperwork, contracts, art, or any item requiring acknowledgement or authorship.
The Second Emperor of Qin (229 – October 207 BCE) was the son of Qin Shi Huang and the second emperor of China's Qin dynasty.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Servants' quarters are those parts of a building, traditionally in a private house, which contain the domestic offices and staff accommodation.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
Shiing-Shen Chern (October 26, 1911 – December 3, 2004) was a Chinese-American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to differential geometry and topology.
Shing-Tung Yau (born April 4, 1949) is a chinese and naturalized American mathematician.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province.
A siheyuan is a historical type of residence that was commonly found throughout China, most famously in Beijing and rural Shanxi.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
A sky lantern, also known as Kongming lantern or Chinese lantern, is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended.
A snow gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of solid precipitation (as opposed to liquid precipitation that is measured by a rain gauge) over a set period of time.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.
Su Shi (8January103724August1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty.
The suanpan, also spelled suan pan or souanpan) is an abacus of Chinese origin first described in a 190 CE book of the Eastern Han Dynasty, namely Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures written by Xu Yue. However, the exact design of this suanpan is not known. Usually, a suanpan is about 20 cm (8 in) tall and it comes in various widths depending on the application. It usually has more than seven rods. There are two beads on each rod in the upper deck and five beads on each rod in the bottom deck. This configuration is used for both decimal and hexadecimal computation. The beads are usually rounded and made of a hardwood. The beads are counted by moving them up or down towards the beam. The suanpan can be reset to the starting position instantly by a quick jerk around the horizontal axis to spin all the beads away from the horizontal beam at the center. Suanpans can be used for functions other than counting. Unlike the simple counting board used in elementary schools, very efficient suanpan techniques have been developed to do multiplication, division, addition, subtraction, square root and cube root operations at high speed. The modern suanpan has 4+1 beads, colored beads to indicate position and a clear-all button. When the clear-all button is pressed, two mechanical levers push the top row beads to the top position and the bottom row beads to the bottom position, thus clearing all numbers to zero. This replaces clearing the beads by hand, or quickly rotating the suanpan around its horizontal center line to clear the beads by centrifugal force.
Sunglasses or sun glasses (informally called shades) are a form of protective eyewear designed primarily to prevent bright sunlight and high-energy visible light from damaging or discomforting the eyes.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Taibo or Wu Taibo was the eldest son of King Tai of Zhou and the legendary founder of the State of Wu.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang (– 1646 BC) or Cheng Tang (成湯), recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi (大乙), was the first king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history.
The tangram is a dissection puzzle consisting of seven flat shapes, called tans, which are put together to form shapes.
The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A tea bag is a small, porous, sealed bag or packet containing dried plant material, which is immersed in boiling water to make a tea or an infusion.
Tea processing is the method in which the leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis are transformed into the dried leaves for brewing tea.
A teapot is a vessel used for steeping tea leaves or a herbal mix in boiling or near-boiling water, and for serving the resulting infusion which is called tea.
Terence Chi-Shen Tao (born 17 July 1975) is an Australian-American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics.
The Terracotta Army is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
The thunder crash bomb is an early type of bomb or hand grenade developed in the 12th-13th century Song and Jin-era China.
Tianchi basins were meteorological measuring instruments used to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a period of time during the Song Dynasty.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
A toilet, in this sense, is a small room used for privately accessing the sanitation fixture (toilet) for urination and defecation.
The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth, gums, and tongue.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The traditional Chinese holidays are an essential part of harvests or prayer offerings.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
Saint-Hubert (Belgium). A trip hammer, also known as a tilt hammer or helve hammer, is a massive powered hammer used in.
Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee;; born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese-American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars.
Tu Youyou (born 30 December 1930) is a Chinese pharmaceutical chemist and educator.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
A veranda or verandah (from Bengali baranda) is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch.
Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.
The Dongwu Che "war wagon" was a mobile armored cart used in Ancient China from the 5th century BC.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
Water Margin, also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.
The Way of the Celestial Masters is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, brine, natural gas, or petroleum, for the injection of a fluid from surface to a subsurface reservoir or for subsurface formations evaluation or monitoring.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles at the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind.
Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.
Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.
A wok (from Cantonese: 鑊) is a versatile round-bottomed cooking vessel, originating from China.
The Wolf Prize is an international award granted in Israel, that has been presented most years since 1978 to living scientists and artists for "achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among people...
The Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research (WFBR) was a non-profit biomedical research institute based in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
Written Cantonese is the written form of Cantonese, the most complete written form of Chinese after that for Mandarin Chinese and Classical Chinese.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu refers to a region in China whose core area is around Lake Tai in Jiangnan (the south of the Yangtze River).
Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Yan Emperor or the Flame Emperor was a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times.
Yan Huang Zisun is a term that represents the Chinese people and refers to a ethnocultural identity based on a common ancestry associated with a mythological origin.
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province.
Yanhuang or Yan Huang (Chinese language: t, s, p Yán Huáng) was the name of an ethnic group of ancient China who inhabited the Yellow River basin area.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yu the Great (c. 2200 – 2100 BC) was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Tseh Lee (born 19 November 1936) is a Taiwanese chemist.
Yuan-Cheng "Bert" Fung (born September 15, 1919) is an American bioengineer and scientist.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
The Yueshi culture of the Shandong region of China, is dated from 1900 to 1500 BC.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhangzhou, formerly romanized as Changchow, is a prefecture-level city in Fujian Province, China.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The 1600s BC was a decade lasting from January 1, 1609 BC to December 31, 1600 BC.
Chinese Han, Chinese People, Chinese origin, Chinese people in China, Chinese peoples, Chinese person, Chinese race, Ethnic Chinese, Ethnic Han, Ethnic chinese, Han (ethnicity), Han (people), Han Chinese culture, Han Chinese genetics, Han Chinese subgroup, Han Subgroups, Han chinese, Han culture, Han ethnicity, Han nationality, Han people, Han peoples, Han-Chinese, Hanese, Hanren, Hans Chinese, Huaren, Khanzular, Sinaean, Sinæan, Subgroups of Han Chinese, Subgroups of the Han Chinese, Subgroups of the Han ethnicity, The Chinese, What It Means to be Chinese, What it means to be Chinese, Zhong Guo Ren, 中国人, 中國人, 华人, 唐人, 華人.