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Han dynasty

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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist. [1]

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Acupuncture

Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Alcoholic drinks in China

Alcoholic drinks in China seem to precede the earliest stages of Chinese civilization.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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An Shigao

An Shigao (Korean: An Sego, Japanese: An Seikō) (fl. c. 148-180 CE) was an early Buddhist missionary to China, and the earliest known translator of Indian Buddhist texts into Chinese.

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Ancient Chinese coinage

Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anesthesia

In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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Anhui

Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.

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Antoninus Pius

Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.

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Arch

An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.

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Arch bridge

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch.

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Architectural model

An architectural model is a type of scale model - a physical representation of a structure - built to study aspects of an architectural design or to communicate design ideas.

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Armillary sphere

An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.

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Arranged marriage

Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.

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Artisan

An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.

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Óc Eo

Óc Eo (French, from អូរកែវ,: if the Khmer appears too small, kindly download better fonts--> O Keo, "Glass Canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta.

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Śūraṅgama Sūtra

The Śūraṅgama Sūtra (Sanskrit) (Taisho 945) is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that has been especially influential in Chan Buddhism.

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Bactria

Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.

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Bakhshali manuscript

The Bakhshali manuscript is a mathematical text written on birch bark that was found in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, Mardan (near Peshawar in present-day Pakistan).

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Baluster

A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.

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Bamboo

The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.

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Bamboo and wooden slips

Bamboo and wooden slips were the main media and writing medium for documents in China before the widespread introduction of paper during the first two centuries AD.

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Bamboo shoot

Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis.

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Ban Biao

Ban Biao (3–54 CE), courtesy name, was a Chinese historian, and an official born in what is now Xianyang, Shaanxi during the Han Dynasty.

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Ban Chao

Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.

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Ban Gu

Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.

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Ban Zhao

Ban Zhao (45 – c. 116 CE), courtesy name Huiban, was a Chinese historian, philosopher, and politician.

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Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County

Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County (Barköl Qazaq awtonomïyalıq awdanı, sometimes Barkul or Balikul in English) is part of Kumul Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and has an area of.

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Battle of Baideng

The Battle of Baideng (白登之戰) was a military conflict between Han China and the Xiongnu in 200 BC.

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Battle of Gaixia

The Battle of Gaixia was fought in 202 BC during the Chu–Han Contention between the forces of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.

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Battle of Guandu

The Battle of Guandu was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao in 200 AD in the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Battle of Jushi

The Battle of Jushi was a battle between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu for the control of the people of the Jushi culture in the Turpan Basin in 67 BC.

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Battle of Kunyang

The Battle of Kunyang (昆陽之戰) was fought between June–July in 23AD, between the Lulin and Xin forces.

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Battle of Mayi

The Battle of Mayi (馬邑之戰) was an abortive ambush operation by the Han Dynasty against the invading Xiongnu forces, with minimal casualties.

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Battle of Mobei

The Battle of Mobei was a military campaign fought in the northern part of the Gobi Desert.

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Battle of Red Cliffs

The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history.

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Battle of the Altai Mountains

The Battle of Altai Mountains, was a major expedition launched against the Xiongnu by the Han Dynasty in June, 89 AD.

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Battle of Yiwulu

The Battle of Yiwulu, was a battle under a major expedition against the Xiongnu launched by the Han Dynasty in the February, 73, ever since the fall of Xin Dynasty.

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Battle of Zhizhi

The Battle of Zhizhi (郅支之戰) was fought in 36 BC between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu chieftain Zhizhi Chanyu.

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Beacon

A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.

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Beam bridge

Beam bridges, also known as stringer bridges, are the simplest structural forms for bridge spans supported by an abutment or pier at each end.

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Bean

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Bellows

A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.

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Belt (mechanical)

A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often parallel.

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Bhikkhu

A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Biography

A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bloomery

A bloomery is a type of furnace once used widely for smelting iron from its oxides.

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Boat building

Boat building, one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts, spars and rigging.

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Book of Han

The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.

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Book of the Later Han

The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.

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Book on Numbers and Computation

The Book on Numbers and Computation, or the Writings on Reckoning, is one of the earliest known Chinese mathematical treatises.

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Borehole

A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.

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Bow (ship)

The bow is the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is usually most forward when the vessel is underway.

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Bride price

Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze mirror

Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulkhead (partition)

A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane.

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Butcher

A butcher is a person who may slaughter animals, dress their flesh, sell their meat, or participate within any combination of these three tasks.

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Buyeo

Buyeo, or Puyŏ (Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: pu.jʌ), was an ancient kingdom centred around the middle of Jilin province in Manchuria and existing as an independent polity from before the late 2nd century BC to the mid-4th century AD.

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Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Cai Lun

Cai Lun (CE 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Chinese eunuch, inventor, and politician of the Han dynasty.

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Calabash

A calabash, bottle gourd, or white-flowered gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, also known by many other names, including long melon, New Guinea bean and Tasmania bean, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can be either harvested young to be consumed as a vegetable, or harvested mature to be dried and used as a utensil.

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Calipers

A caliper (British spelling also calliper, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers) is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object.

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Calisthenics

Calisthenics (American English) or callisthenics (Commonwealth English) are exercises consisting of a variety of gross motor movements—running, standing, grasping, pushing, etc.

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Campaign against Dong Zhuo

The Campaign against Dong Zhuo was a punitive expedition initiated by a coalition of regional officials and warlords against the warlord Dong Zhuo in 190 in the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Cao Cao

Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.

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Cao Jie (eunuch)

Cao Jie (died 181), courtesy name Hanfeng, was a eunuch-official who lived in the Eastern Han dynasty and rose to power during the reign of Emperor Ling (168–189).

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Cao Pi

Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Cao Shen

Cao Shen or Cao Can (died 190 BC), courtesy name Jingbo, was a chancellor of the Western Han dynasty.

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Cao Wei

Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Carburetor

A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.

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Cardinal direction

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.

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Cartography

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Carvel (boat building)

Carvel built or carvel planking is a method of boat building where hull planks are fastened edge to edge, gaining support from the frame and forming a smooth surface.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Castle

A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Celestial sphere

In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.

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Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chaff

Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.

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Chain pump

The chain pump is type of a water pump in which several circular discs are positioned on an endless chain.

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Chang'an

Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Changsha

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Chanyu

Chanyu (short form for Chengli Gutu Chanyu) was the title used by the nomadic supreme rulers of Inner Asia for eight centuries and was superseded by the title "Khagan" in 402 CE.

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Chen Mu

Chen Mu (d. 75) was a governor and general during the Han Dynasty who served the first Protector General of the Western Regions under Eastern Han between 74-75.

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Chen Tang

Chen Tang (Wade-Giles:Ch'en T'ang), born in Jining, Shandong, was famous for his battle against Zhizhi in 36 BC, and a quote: 夫胡兵五而当汉兵一, "a single soldier of Han is equivalent to five Northern barbarian soldiers".

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Chengdu

Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.

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Chief of police

A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China proper

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

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Chinese architecture

Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.

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Chinese astronomy

Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).

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Chinese bamboo partridge

The Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracicus) is a small Galliform bird.

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Chinese bronze inscriptions

Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.

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Chinese Buddhism

Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.

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Chinese calendar

The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.

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Chinese ceramics

Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.

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Chinese dictionary

Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language.

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Chinese dragon

Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese mathematics

Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.

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Chinese nobility

Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.

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Chinese painting

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

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Chinese temple architecture

Chinese temple architecture refer to a type of structures used as place of worship of Chinese Buddhism, Taoism or Chinese folk religion/Shenism, where people revere ethnic Chinese gods and ancestors.

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Chronology of computation of π

The table below is a brief chronology of computed numerical values of, or bounds on, the mathematical constant pi.

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Chu (state)

Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.

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Chu–Han Contention

The Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BC) was an interregnum between the Qin dynasty and the Han dynasty in Chinese history.

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City-state

A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Clay tablet

In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.

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Clerical script

The clerical script (Japanese: 隷書体, reishotai; Vietnamese: lệ thư), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved from the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty, was dominant in the Han dynasty, and remained in use through the Wei-Jin periods.

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Cold blast

Cold blast, in ironmaking, refers to a furnace where air is not preheated before being blown into the furnace.

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Colocasia esculenta

Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root vegetables most commonly known as taro.

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Commoner

The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.

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Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.

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Comparative studies of the Roman and Han empires

Comparisons between the Roman and Han empires are the comparative study of the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty of early imperial China.

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Concubinage

Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.

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Confession (religion)

Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Consort kin

The consort kin is the Chinese kin of, or a group related to an empress dowager or a spouse of a Chinese dynastic ruler or a warlord.

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Consort Liang

Consort Liang (梁貴人, personal name unknown) (62(?)-83?), posthumous title Empress Gonghuai (恭懷皇后, literally, "empress of reverent recollection"), was an imperial consort to Emperor Zhang of Han.

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Constable

A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement.

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Corvée

Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.

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Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Counting rods

Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia.

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County magistrate

County magistrate (or sometimes called local magistrate, in imperial China was the official in charge of the xian, or county, the lowest level of central government. The magistrate was the official who had face-to-face relations with the people and administered all aspects of government on behalf of the emperor. Because he was expected to rule in a disciplined but caring way and because the people were expected to obey, the county magistrate was informally known as the Fumu Guan, the "Father and Mother" or "parental" official. The emperor appointed magistrates from among those who passed the imperial examinations or had purchased equivalent degrees. Education in the Confucian Classics indoctrinated these officials with a shared ideology that helped to unify the empire, but not with practical training. A magistrate acquired specialized skills only after assuming office. Once in office, the magistrate was caught between the demands of his superiors and the needs and resistance of his often unruly constituents. Promotion depended on the magistrate's ability to maintain peace and lawful order as he supervised tax collection, roads, water control, and the census; handled legal functions as both prosecutor and judge; arranged relief for the poor or afflicted; carried out rituals; encouraged education and schools; and performed any further task the emperor chose to assign. Allowed to serve in any one place for only three years, he was also at the mercy of the local elites for knowledge of the local scene. There was a temptation to postpone difficult problems to the succeeding magistrate's term or to push them into a neighboring magistrate's jurisdiction. The Yongzheng emperor praised the magistrate: "The integrity of one man involves the peace or unhappiness of a myriad." But a recent historian said of the magistrate that "if he had possessed the qualifications for carrying out all his duties, he would have been a genius. Instead, he was an all-around blunderer, a harassed Jack-of-all trades...." The Republic of China (1912 –) made extensive reforms in county government, but the position of magistrate was retained.. Under the People's Republic of China (1949 –) the office of county magistrate, sometimes translated as "mayor," was no longer the lowest level of the central government, which extended its control directly to the village level.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Courtyard

A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.

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Courtyard house

A courtyard house is a type of house—often a large house—where the main part of the building is disposed around a central courtyard.

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Covered bridge

A covered bridge is a timber-truss bridge with a roof and siding which, in most covered bridges, create an almost complete enclosure.

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Crank (mechanism)

A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.

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Crop yield

In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).

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Crossbow

A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.

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Cube root

In mathematics, a cube root of a number x is a number y such that y3.

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Cupola furnace

A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, Ni-resist iron and some bronzes.

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Daqin

Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.

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Daxia

Daxia, Ta-Hsia, or Ta-Hia was apparently the name given in antiquity by the Han Chinese to Tukhara or Tokhara: the main part of Bactria, in what is now northern Afghanistan, and parts of southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

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Day labor

Day labor (or day labour in Commonwealth spelling) is work done where the worker is hired and paid one day at a time, with no promise that more work will be available in the future.

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Dayuan

Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Old Chinese reconstructed pronunciation: /dhaːts ʔwan/; Middle Chinese reconstructed pronunciation according to Edwin G. Pulleyblank: /daj ʔuan/) was a country in Ferghana valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han.

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Decarburization

Decarburization (or decarbonization) is the process opposite to carburization, namely the reduction of carbon content.

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Deng Mengnü

Empress Deng Mengnü (鄧猛女) (died 165), also briefly known as Liang Mengnü (梁猛女) then as Bo Mengnü (薄猛女), was an empress during Han Dynasty.

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Deng Sui

Deng Sui (鄧綏) (AD 81–121), formally Empress Hexi (和熹皇后, literally "the moderate and pacifying empress") was an empress during the Han dynasty of Chinese history.

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Deng Yu

Deng Yu (2-58 CE), courtesy name Zhonghua, was a Han dynasty general and official who was a major contributor to Emperor Guangwu (Liu Xiu)'s campaign to reestablish the Han dynasty.

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Derrick

A derrick is a lifting device composed at minimum of one guyed mast, as in a gin pole, which may be articulated over a load by adjusting its guys.

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Dian Kingdom

The Dian Kingdom was an ancient kingdom established by the Dian people, an ancient group of indigenous non-Chinese metalworking tribes that inhabited around the Dian Lake plateau of central northern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn period until the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Ding Huan

Ding Huan (丁緩) was a Chinese engineer, inventor, and craftsman who lived in the first century BC during the Han dynasty.

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Diophantus

Diophantus of Alexandria (Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; born probably sometime between AD 201 and 215; died around 84 years old, probably sometime between AD 285 and 299) was an Alexandrian Hellenistic mathematician, who was the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost.

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Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions

The Disasters of the Partisan Prohibitions (黨錮之禍) refers to two incidents in which a number of Confucian scholars who served as officials in the Han imperial government and opposed to powerful eunuchs, and the university students in the capital Luoyang who supported them (collectively referred to by the eunuchs as "partisans" (黨人, dangren), were imprisoned. Some were executed; some were released but lost their civil rights. The first incident (in 166) was largely bloodless, but the second incident (in 169), which came after the Confucian scholars Dou Wu (the father of Empress Dowager Dou) and Chen Fan were defeated by eunuchs in a physical confrontation, saw a large number of the partisans lose their lives. The restrictions on civil liberties imposed on the surviving partisans were not lifted until 184 when Emperor Ling was concerned that the partisans would join the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

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District (China)

The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.

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Divination

Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Divorce

Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Dog collar

A dog collar is a piece of material put around the neck of a dog.

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Dogs in ancient China

Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), known in Classical Chinese as quan, played an important role in ancient Chinese society.

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Dome

Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Dong Zhongshu

Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar.

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Dong Zhuo

Dong Zhuo (died 22 May 192), courtesy name Zhongying, was a military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Dongping County

Dongping County is a county in the southwestern part of Tai'an, in the west of Shandong Province, China.

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Dou Gu

Dou Gu (died 88 AD), born in Xianyang, was an Eastern Han general who fought in the Battle of Yiwulu in 73.

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Dou Miao

Empress Dou Miao (died 172), formally Empress Huansi (literally, "the diligent and deep-thinking empress"), was an empress during the Han Dynasty.

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Dou Wu

Dou Wu (died 168), courtesy name Youping (游平), was a Han Dynasty politician who was known as a Confucian scholar and served as a low-level official during the reign of Emperor Huan until his daughter Dou Miao was elevated from imperial consort to empress, which caused him to be promoted, eventually to become one of the most important imperial officials when his daughter became empress dowager and regent for Emperor Ling.

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Dou Xian

Dou Xian (died AD 92) was a Chinese general and consort kin of the Eastern Han Dynasty, famous for destroying the Xiongnu nomadic empire.

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Dougong

Dougong is a unique structural element of interlocking wooden brackets, one of the most important elements in traditional Chinese architecture.

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Dowry

A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Du Shi

Du Shi (d. 38Crespigny, 183.) was a Chinese politician and mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China.

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Dunhuang

Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Eastern Wu

Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Economy of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China experienced contrasting periods of economic prosperity and decline.

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Eighteen Kingdoms

The historiographical term "Eighteen Kingdoms" (十八国) refers to the eighteen feudal states created by Xiang Yu in China in 206 BCE, after the collapse of the Qin dynasty.

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Elixir of life

The elixir of life, also known as elixir of immortality and sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone, is a potion that supposedly grants the drinker eternal life and/or eternal youth.

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Emperor Ai of Han

Emperor Ai of Han (27 BC – 15 August 1 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

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Emperor An of Han

Emperor An of Han (94 – 30 April 125) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the sixth emperor of the Eastern Han, ruling from 106 to 125.

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Emperor Cheng of Han

Emperor Cheng of Han (51 BC – 17 April 7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty ruling from 33 until 7 BC.

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Emperor Gaozu of Han

Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.

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Emperor Guangwu of Han

Emperor Guangwu (born Liu Xiu; 15 January 5 BC – 29 March 57), courtesy name Wenshu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty).

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Emperor He of Han

Emperor He of Han (79 – 13 February 106) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty who ruled from 88 to 105.

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Emperor Huan of Han

Emperor Huan of Han (132 – 25 January 168) was the 27th emperor of the Han Dynasty after he was enthroned by the Empress Dowager and her brother Liang Ji on 1 August 146.

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Emperor Jing of Han

Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC – 9 March 141 BC), personal name Liu Qi (劉啟), was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 157 to 141 BC.

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Emperor Ling of Han

Emperor Ling of Han (156 – 13 May 189), personal name Liu Hong, was the 12th emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Emperor Ming of Han

Emperor Ming of Han, (Wade-Giles: Han Ming-ti), (15 June 28 – 5 September 75) was the second emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Emperor Ping of Han

Emperor Ping (9 BC – 3 February 6) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 1 BC to AD 5.

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Emperor Shun of Han

Emperor Shun of Han (115 – 20 September 144) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the seventh emperor of the Eastern Han.

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Emperor Wen of Han

Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC – 6 July 157 BC) was the fifth emperor of the Han Dynasty of ancient China.

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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

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Emperor Xian of Han

Emperor Xian of Han (2 April 181 – 21 April 234), personal name Liu Xie, courtesy name Bohe, was the 14th and last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.

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Emperor Yuan of Han

Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC – 8 July 33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

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Emperor Zhang of Han

Emperor Zhang of Han (57 – 9 April 88) was an emperor of the Chinese Han dynasty from 75 to 88.

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Emperor Zhao of Han

Emperor Zhao of Han (94 BC – 5 June 74 BC), born Liu Fuling, was the emperor of the Western Han dynasty from 87 to 74 BC.

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Empress Dou (Zhang)

Empress Dou (竇皇后, personal name unknown) (died 97), formally Empress Zhangde (章德皇后, literally "the polite and virtuous empress"), was an empress of the Chinese Han dynasty.

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Empress dowager

Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) (hiragana: こうたいごう) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor.

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Empress He (Han dynasty)

Empress He (died 189), personal name unknown, posthumously known as Empress Lingsi, was an empress of the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Empress Lü

Lü Zhi (241–180 BC), courtesy name Exu, commonly known as Empress Lü and Empress Dowager Lü, or formally Empress Gao of Han, was the empress consort of Emperor Gaozu, the founder and first ruler of the Han Dynasty.

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End of the Han dynasty

The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period of Chinese history from 189 to 220 AD, which roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian.

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Eunuch

The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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Exhaust system

An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove.

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Extended family

An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.

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Faith healing

Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.

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Fan (machine)

A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.

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Fangyan

The Fāngyán (“regional words”, “regional expressions”, “dictionary of local expressions”, “regional spoken words”; not “dialects” as in modern Chinese) was the first Chinese dictionary of dialectal terms.

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Farmer

A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials.

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Feng Yi

Feng Yi (?- A.D. 34) was a Chinese general of the Eastern Han Dynasty, who helped Emperor Guangwu of Han establish the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Fenghuang

Fenghuang are mythological birds of East Asia that reign over all other birds.

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Feoffment

In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.

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Fergana

Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.

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Ferret

The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela of the family Mustelidae.

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Ferrous metallurgy

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.

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Fief

A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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Filial piety

In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.

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Finery forge

A finery forge is a hearth used to fine (i.e., produce, refine) wrought iron, through the decarburization of the pig iron.

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Flood control

Flood control methods are used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters.

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Foot whipping

Foot whipping or bastinado is a method of corporal punishment which consists of hitting the bare soles of a person's feet.

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Foreign relations of imperial China

Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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Four Commanderies of Han

The Four Commanderies of Han were the Chinese colony located in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula.

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Four occupations

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.

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Foxtail millet

Foxtail millet (botanic name Setaria italica, synonym Panicum italicum L.) is an annual grass grown for human food.

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Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

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Fu (poetry)

Fu, sometimes translated "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Fur clothing

Fur clothing is clothing made of furry animal hides.

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Gan Ying

Gan Ying, was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in 97 CE by the Chinese general Ban Chao.

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Gandhara

Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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Gansu

Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.

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Gaussian elimination

In linear algebra, Gaussian elimination (also known as row reduction) is an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations.

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Gengshi Emperor

The Gengshi Emperor (died AD 25), was an emperor of the Han Dynasty restored after the fall of Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty.

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Geocentric model

In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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Gift wrapping

Gift wrapping is the act of enclosing a gift in some sort of material.

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Gimbal

A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.

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Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.

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Golden age (metaphor)

A golden age is a period in a field of endeavor when great tasks were accomplished.

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Golden Chersonese

The Golden Chersonese or Golden Khersonese (Χρυσῆ Χερσόνησος, Chrysḗ Chersónēsos; Chersonesus Aurea), meaning the Golden Peninsula, was the name used for the Malay Peninsula by Greek and Roman geographers in classical antiquity, most famously in Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography.

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Gongsun Kang

Gongsun Kang (200s) was an official and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Government budget

A government budget is an annual financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.

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Government of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC).

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Grand chancellor (China)

The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.

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Grand empress dowager

Grand empress dowager (also grand dowager empress or grand empress mother) was a title given to the grandmother, or a woman from the same generation, of the Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese emperors.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.

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Greece

No description.

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Grid reference

Grid references define locations in maps using Cartesian coordinates.

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Guangdong

Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Guangxi

Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Gulf of Thailand

The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

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Hami

Hami, also known as Kumul, is a prefecture-level city in eastern Xinjiang, China.

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Hamlet (place)

A hamlet is a small human settlement.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han conquest of Dian

The Han conquest of Dian was a series of military campaigns and expeditions by the Chinese Han dynasty recorded in contemporary textual sources against the Kingdom of Dian in modern Yunnan.

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Han conquest of Gojoseon

The Han conquest of Gojoseon was a campaign launched by Emperor Wu of Han China against Wiman Joseon between 109 and 108 BC.

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Han conquest of Nanyue

The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Han River (Hubei)

The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China.

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Han–Xiongnu War

The Han–Xiongnu War,.

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Hanfu

Hanfu is a term associated with the Hanfu movement used to refer to the historical/traditional dress of the Han people.

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Hanzhong

Hanzhong (lit. "middle of the Han River") is a prefecture-level city in southwest Shaanxi province.

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Harem

Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.

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He Jin

He Jin (died 22 September 189), courtesy name Suigao, was a military general and regent of the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Hegemony

Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.

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Hemp

Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Heqin

Heqin, also known as marriage alliance, refers to the historical practice of Chinese emperors marrying princesses—usually members of minor branches of the royal family—to rulers of neighboring states.

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Hexi Corridor

Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of silk

The production of silk originates in China in the Neolithic (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BC).

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History of slavery

The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.

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History of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.

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History of the Mediterranean region

The Mediterranean Sea was the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.

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History of timekeeping devices

For thousands of years, devices have been used to measure and keep track of time.

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History of water supply and sanitation

The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.

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Horse collar

A horse collar is a part of a horse harness that is used to distribute the load around a horse's neck and shoulders when pulling a wagon or plough.

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Hot blast

Hot blast refers to the preheating of air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process.

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Hou Lan

Hou Lan (died 172) was a eunuch-official who served under Emperor Huan (146–168) of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.

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House arrest

In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.

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Hua Tuo

Hua Tuo (140–208), courtesy name Yuanhua, was a Chinese physician who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Huai River

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.

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Huan Tan

Huan Tan (– 28) was a Chinese philosopher, poet, and politician of the Han Dynasty and its short-lived interregnum between 9 and 23, known as the Xin Dynasty.

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Huang–Lao

Huang–Lao or Huanglao was the most influential Chinese school of thought in the early 2nd-century BCE Han dynasty, having its origins in a broader political-philosophical drive looking for solutions to strengthen the feudal order as depicted in Zhou propaganda.

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Hull (watercraft)

The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.

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Hun and po

Hun and po are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and traditional religion.

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Hunan

Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.

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Hunting dog

A hunting dog refers to a canine that hunts with or for humans.

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Huo Guang

Huo Guang (died 68 BC), courtesy name Zimeng (子孟), was a Western Han politician who was a rare example in Chinese history of a powerful official who deposed an emperor for the good of the state rather than to usurp the throne.

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Huo Qubing

Huo Qubing (140 BC – 117 BC) was a distinguished military general of the Western Han dynasty during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han.

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Hybrid beasts in folklore

Hybrid beasts appear in the folklore of a variety of cultures as legendary creatures.

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Hydraulics

Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Ili River

Map of the Lake Balkhash drainage basin showing the Ili River and its tributaries The Ili River (Ile, ئله; Или;; Йили хә, Xiao'erjing: اِلِ حْ;, literally "Bareness") is a river situated in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan.

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Immortality

Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-Roman trade relations

Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Infantry

Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Inheritance

Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.

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Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.

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Inverted pendulum

An inverted pendulum is a pendulum that has its center of mass above its pivot point.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Irrigation

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Jia Yi

Jia Yi (c. 200169 BCE) was a Chinese writer, poet and politician of the Western Han dynasty, best known as one of the earliest known writers of ''fu'' rhapsody and for his essay "Disquisition Finding Fault with Qin" (Guò Qín Lùn 過秦論), which criticises the Qin dynasty and describes Jia's opinions on the reasons for its collapse.

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Jiaozhi

Jiaozhi (Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).

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Jing Fang

Jing Fang (78–37 BC), born Li Fang (李房), courtesy name Junming (君明), was born in present-day 東郡頓丘 (Puyang, Henan) during the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD).

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Jiuquan

Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu Province in the People's Republic of China.

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Joseph Needham

Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.

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Jujube

Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zízyphon), commonly called jujube (sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).

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Jun (country subdivision)

A jùn was a historical administrative division of China from the Zhou dynasty (c. 7th century BCE) until the early Tang (c. 7th century CE).

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Junk (ship)

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.

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Kangju

Kangju was the Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia which became for a couple of centuries the second greatest power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi.

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Karasahr

Karasahr or Karashar (Chinese 焉耆), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages as Ārśi (or Arshi) and Agni, or the Chinese derivative Yānqí 焉耆 (Wade–Giles Yen-ch’i), is an ancient town on the Silk Road and the capital of Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, in northwestern China.

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Kashgar

Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Keel

On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.

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Kings of the Han dynasty

After Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and proclaimed himself emperor of the Han dynasty, he followed the practice of Xiang Yu and enfeoffed many generals, noblemen, and imperial relatives as kings, the same title borne by the sovereigns of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and by the rulers of the Warring States.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.

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Kucha

Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.

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Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

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Lacquerware

Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.

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Landed gentry in China

The term "landed gentry", or "gentry", originally used for Britain, does not correspond to any single term in Chinese.

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Landlord

A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).

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Laoshang

Laoshang (r. 174–160 BCE), whose proper name was Jiyu, was a Chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire who succeeded his father Modu Chanyu.

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Laozi

Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.

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Lü Bu

Lü Bu (died 7 February 199), courtesy name Fengxian, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of Imperial China.

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Leasehold estate

A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.

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Lelang Commandery

Lelang Commandery was a commandery of the Han Dynasty which it established after conquering Wiman Joseon in 108 BC and which lasted until Goguryeo conquered it in 313.

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Li (Confucianism)

Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.

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Liang Ji

Liang Ji (梁冀) (died 159), courtesy name Bozhuo (伯卓), was a politician and military commander of Han Dynasty China.

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Liang Na

Liang Na (116–150), formally Empress Shunlie (順烈皇后, literally "the kind and achieving empress"), was an empress during the Han Dynasty.

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Liquor

Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.

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List of emperors of the Han dynasty

The emperors of the Han dynasty were the supreme heads of government during the second imperial dynasty of China; the Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) followed the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and preceded the Three Kingdoms (220–265 AD).

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List of tributaries of China

This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Liu

劉 / 刘 (Liu, Lao, Lau, Low, Lauv, Lieh, Lieu, Liew, Loo, Lew, Liou or Yu) is a Chinese surname.

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Liu Bei

Liu Bei (161 – 10 June 223), courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler.

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Liu Bian

Liu Bian (176 – 6 March 190), also known as Emperor Shao of Han and the Prince of Hongnong, was the 13th emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.

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Liu Penzi

Liu Penzi (born 10 AD) was a puppet emperor placed on the Han dynasty throne temporarily by the Red Eyebrows (Chimei) rebels after the collapse of the Xin dynasty, from 25 to 27 AD.

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Liu Ying (prince)

Liu Ying (died 71) was a son of Emperor Guangwu of Han, and half-brother of Emperor Ming of Han.

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Liubo

Liubo is an ancient Chinese board game played by two players.

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Lokaksema (Buddhist monk)

Lokakṣema (flourished 147-189) was a Buddhist monk of Central Asian origin who travelled to China during the Han Dynasty and translated Buddhist texts into Chinese, and, as such, is an important figure in Chinese Buddhism.

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Lop Nur

Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake") is a former salt lake in China, now largely dried-up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.

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Louchuan

Louchuan (楼船, lit. tower ships) were a type of Chinese naval vessels, primarily a floating fortress, which has seen use in since the Han dynasty.

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Lumber

Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Lunar eclipse

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.

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Lunar month

In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).

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Lunheng

The Lunheng, also known by numerous English translations, is a wide-ranging Chinese classic text by Wang Chong (27- CE).

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Lunisolar calendar

A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.

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Luoyang

Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Ma Yuan (Han dynasty)

Ma Yuan (14 BC – 49 AD), courtesy name Wenyuan, also known by his official title Fubo Jiangjun (伏波将军; "General who Calms the Waves"), was a Chinese military general and politician of the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Magistrate

The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.

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Magnus Sinus

The Magnus Sinus or Sinus Magnus (Latin; ὀ Μέγας Κόλπος, o Mégas Kólpos), also anglicized as the was the form of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea known to Greek, Roman, Arab, Persian, and Renaissance cartographers before the Age of Discovery.

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Malay Peninsula

The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Manchuria

Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.

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Mandarin duck

The mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) is a perching duck species found in East Asia.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Marquess

A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.

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Marquess of Beixiang

The Marquess of Beixiang (died 10 December 125), personal name Liu Yi, also referred to as Emperor Shao (少帝, literally "young emperor"), was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty.

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Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Mawangdui

Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.

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Mawangdui Silk Texts

The Mawangdui Silk Texts are Chinese philosophical and medical works written on silk which were discovered at the Mawangdui site in Changsha, Hunan, in 1973.

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Medal

A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides.

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Merchant

A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.

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Michael Loewe

Michael Arthur Nathan Loewe (born 2 November 1922) is a British Sinologist, historian, and writer who has authored dozens of books, articles, and other publications in the fields of Classical Chinese and ancient Chinese history.

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Military history of China before 1911

The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.

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Militia

A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Mint (facility)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

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Modu Chanyu

Modu, Modun, or Maodun (Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar; c. 234 – c. 174 BC) was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Monogamy

Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).

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Monopoly

A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Mount Penglai

Penglai is a legendary land of Chinese mythology.

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Moxibustion

Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy which consists of burning dried mugwort (wikt:moxa) on particular points on the body.

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Mural

A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.

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Murder

Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Musical tuning

In music, there are two common meanings for tuning.

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Mustard plant

Mustard plants are any of several plant species in the genera Brassica and Sinapis in the family Brassicaceae.

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Mutilation

Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Myrica rubra

Myrica rubra, also called yangmei (Cantonese: yeung4 mui4; Shanghainese),, Chinese bayberry, Japanese bayberry, red bayberry, yumberry, waxberry, or Chinese strawberry (and often mistranslated from Chinese as arbutus) is a subtropical tree grown for its sweet, crimson to dark purple-red, edible fruit.

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Nationalization

Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Navy

A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.

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Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

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Nicholas Mercator

Nicholas (Nikolaus) Mercator (c. 1620, Holstein – 1687, Versailles), also known by his Germanic name Kauffmann, was a 17th-century mathematician.

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Nine Ministers

The Nine Ministers was the collective name for nine high officials in the imperial government of the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), who each headed a specialised ministry and were subordinates to the Three Councillors of State.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Northern and southern Vietnam

Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two historic, geographic and cultural regions within Vietnam.

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Northern Chanyu

The Northern Chanyu (reigned 89–91) was an unnamed and obscure chanyu or ruler of the Xiongnu who lived in the 1st century CE.

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Northern Wei

The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

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Nuclear family

A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).

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Octave

In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.

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Odometer

An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.

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Old Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.

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Oracle bone script

Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paddy field

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Papermaking

The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Pearl

A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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Pei Xiu

Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Perfect fifth

In music theory, a perfect fifth is the musical interval corresponding to a pair of pitches with a frequency ratio of 3:2, or very nearly so.

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Pidu District

Pidu District formerly known as Pi County or Pixian is an urbanizing district organized as part of Chengdu, the capital of the province of Sichuan in China.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Platoon

A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.

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Plough

A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Plowshare

In agriculture, a plowshare (US) or ploughshare (UK) is a component of a plow (or plough).

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Plumbing

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications.

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Poll tax

A poll tax, also known as head tax or capitation, is a tax levied as a fixed sum on every liable individual.

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Pontoon bridge

A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.

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Posthumous name

A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.

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Prajnaparamita

Prajñāpāramitā means "the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

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Pratyutpanna Samādhi Sūtra

The Pratyutpanna Samādhi Sūtra (Sanskrit) is an early Mahayana Buddhist scripture, which probably originated around the 1st century BCE in the Gandhara area of northwestern India.

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Pressure head

In fluid mechanics, pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the pressure exerted on its container.

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Primogeniture

Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.

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Princeton University Art Museum

The Princeton University Art Museum (PUAM) is the Princeton University's gallery of art, located in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Private school

Private schools, also known to many as independent schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments.

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Property tax

A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.

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Prophet

In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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Proso millet

Panicum miliaceum, with many common names including proso millet, broomcorn millet, common millet, broomtail millet, hog millet, Kashfi millet red millet, and white millet, is a grass species used as a crop.

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Protectorate of the Western Regions

The Protectorate of the Western Regions was an imperial administration imposed by Han China – between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE – on many smaller and previously independent states, which were known in China as the "Western Regions"). "Western Regions" referred mostly to areas west of Yumen Pass, especially the Tarim Basin. These areas were later regarded as Altishahr (southern Xinjiang, excluding Dzungaria). Previously, "western regions" was used more generally in regard to Central Asia and sometimes even included parts of South Asia. The protectorate was the first direct rule by a Chinese government of the area.Yu 2003, 57-59 It comprised various vassal protectorates, under the nominal authority of a Chief Protector of the Western Regions, appointed by the Han court.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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Qi

In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.

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Qiang people

The Qiang people are an ethnic group in China.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Que (tower)

The que is a freestanding, ceremonial gate tower in traditional Chinese architecture.

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Queen Mother of the West

The Queen Mother of the West, known by various local names, is a goddess in Chinese religion and mythology, also worshipped in neighbouring Asian countries, and attested from ancient times.

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Quilling

Quilling or paper filigree is an art form that involves the use of strips of paper that are rolled, shaped, and glued together to create decorative designs.

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Rafe de Crespigny

Richard Rafe Champion de Crespigny (born 1936), better known as Rafe de Crespigny, is an Australian sinologist and historian, currently an adjunct professor in the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University.

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Raised-relief map

A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three-dimensional representation, usually of terrain, materialized as a physical artifact.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rape

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.

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Rebellion of the Seven States

The Rebellion of the Seven States or Revolt of the Seven Kingdoms took place in 154 BC against China's Han Dynasty by its regional semi-autonomous kings, to resist the emperor's attempt to centralize the government further.

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Reciprocating motion

Reciprocating motion, also called reciprocation, is a repetitive up-and-down or back-and-forth linear motion.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Red Eyebrows

The Red Eyebrows or Chimei was one of the two major agrarian rebellion movements against Wang Mang's short-lived Xin dynasty, the other being Lülin.

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Regent

A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.

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Regiment

A regiment is a military unit.

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Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Ren (Confucianism)

Ren is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic.

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Ridge and furrow

Ridge and furrow is an archaeological pattern of ridges (Medieval Latin sliones) and troughs created by a system of ploughing used in Europe during the Middle Ages, typical of the open field system.

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Rinan

Rinan (p Rìnán; Nhật Nam), formerly known as Jih-nan, was the most southern commandery of the Han Empire.

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Roman commerce

The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

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Roman currency

Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman glass

Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.

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Rudder

A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

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Ruzi Ying

Ruzi Ying (5 – 25), also known as Emperor Ruzi of Han and the personal name of Liu Ying (劉嬰), was the last emperor of the Chinese Western Han Dynasty from 6 CE to 9 CE.

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Salvation

Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Samarkand

Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.

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Scale (map)

The scale of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground.

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Scale (music)

In music theory, a scale is any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch.

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Scholar-official

Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Science and technology of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r. AD 9–23), and Eastern Han (25–220 CE, when the capital was at Luoyang, and after 196 CE at Xuchang), witnessed some of the most significant advancements in premodern Chinese science and technology.

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Science and technology of the Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) provided some of the most significant technological advances in Chinese history, many of which came from talented statesmen drafted by the government through imperial examinations.

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Seal script

Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.

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Seed drill

A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.

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Seismometer

A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.

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Sexual roleplay

Sexual roleplay is roleplay that has a strong erotic element.

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Shaanxi

Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.

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Shaft mining

Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

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Shandong

Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

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Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.

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Shanghan Lun

The Shanghan Lun or Shanghan Zabing Lun, known in English as the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders or the Treatise on Cold Injury, is a Chinese medical treatise that was compiled by Zhang Zhongjing sometime before the year 220, at the end of the Han dynasty.

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Shanxi

Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shen (Chinese religion)

Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.

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Shennong Ben Cao Jing

Shennong Bencaojing (also The Classic of Herbal Medicine and Shen-nung Pen-tsao Ching) is a Chinese book on agriculture and medicinal plants.

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Shenyi

Shenyi (深衣, Wade–Giles: Shên-i) is the historical Chinese attire for men which is recorded in Book of Rites and advocated in Zhu Xi's Common Rites.

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Shu Han

Shu or Shu Han (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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Shuanggudui

Shuanggudui is an archeological site located near Fuyang in China's Anhui province.

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Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts

The Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts are early Chinese texts written on bamboo slips, and are also sometimes called the Yúnmèng Qin bamboo texts.

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Shuowen Jiezi

Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.

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Sichuan

Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Sika deer

The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia, and introduced to various other parts of the world.

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Silk

Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Silk Road transmission of Buddhism

Buddhism entered Han China via the Silk Road, beginning in the 1st or 2nd century CE.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Sima Tan

Sima Tan (c. 165 BC – 110 BC) was a Chinese astrologist and historian during the Western Han Dynasty.

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Simple suspension bridge

A simple suspension bridge (also rope bridge, swing bridge (in New Zealand), suspended bridge, hanging bridge and catenary bridge) is a primitive type of bridge that is supported entirely from anchors at either end and has no towers or piers.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Situ (office)

Situ was one of the highest ranking government offices in ancient China.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Slipper

Slippers are light footwear that are easy to put on and off and are intended to be worn indoors, particularly at home.

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Society and culture of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of Ancient China divided into the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods, when the capital cities were located at Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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Sogdia

Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.

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Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South China Sea

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.

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Southward expansion of the Han dynasty

The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam.

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Sowing

Sowing is the process of planting.

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Soy sauce

Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

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Speculation

Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.

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Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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Standing army

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.

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Star catalogue

A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.

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Statute

A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.

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Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Steering oar

The steering oar or steering board is an oversized oar or board to control the direction of a ship or other watercraft prior to the invention of the rudder.

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Stern

The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail.

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Sternpost

A sternpost is the upright structural member or post at the stern of a (generally wooden) ship or a boat, to which are attached the transoms and the rearmost left corner part of the stern.

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Student protest

Student protest encompasses a wide range of activities that indicate student dissatisfaction with a given political or academics issue and mobilization to communicate this dissatisfaction to the authorities (university or civil or both) and society in general and hopefully remedy the problem.

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Sun Cheng

Sun Cheng (孫程) (died 132) was a eunuch at the Imperial Chinese court during the Han Dynasty.

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Sun Quan

Sun Quan (182 – 21 May 252), courtesy name Zhongmou, formally known as Emperor Da of Wu (literally "Great Emperor of Wu"), was the founder of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period.

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Sunlight

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Sutra of Forty-two Chapters

The Sutra of Forty-two Chapters (also called the Sutra of Forty-two Sections, Chinese: 四十二章經) is often regarded as the first Indian Buddhist sutra translated into Chinese.

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System of linear equations

In mathematics, a system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of two or more linear equations involving the same set of variables.

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Taixue

Taixue (Tai-hsueh), or sometimes called the "Imperial Academy", "Imperial School", "Imperial University" or "Imperial Central University", was the highest rank of educational establishment in Ancient China between the Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty.

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tao Te Ching

The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.

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Taoism

Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taotie

The taotie is a motif commonly found on Chinese ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou dynasty.

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Taraz

Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.

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Tarim Basin

The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.

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Ten Attendants

The Ten Attendants, also known as the Ten Eunuchs, were a group of influential eunuch-officials in the imperial court of Emperor Ling (168–189 BC) in the Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th–2nd century BCE, its latest stage being from the 2nd century CE.

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Three Ducal Ministers

The Three Ducal Ministers, also translated as the Three Dukes, Three Excellencies, or the Three Lords, was the collective name for the three highest officials in ancient China.

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).

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Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.

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Threshing

Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.

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Tian

Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.

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Tianzhu (India)

Tianzhu is the historical East Asian name for India.

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Tile

A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.

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TLV mirror

A TLV mirror is a type of bronze mirror that was popular during the Han Dynasty in China.

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Torture

Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Transplanting

For botanical organ transplant, see Grafting In agriculture and gardening, transplanting or replanting is the technique of moving a plant from one location to another.

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Trưng Sisters

The Trưng sisters (AD 12 – c. AD 43) were Vietnamese military leaders who ruled for three years after rebelling in CE 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.

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Treason

In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.

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Treasurer

A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization.

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Treasury

A treasury is either.

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Trip hammer

Saint-Hubert (Belgium). A trip hammer, also known as a tilt hammer or helve hammer, is a massive powered hammer used in.

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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Tuition payments

Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.

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Tuntian

The tuntian system was a state-promoted system of agriculture which originated in the Western Han dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE).

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Turpan

Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.

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Twenty-Four Histories

The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.

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Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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Vault (architecture)

Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Veranda

A veranda or verandah (from Bengali baranda) is a roofed, open-air gallery or porch.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vima Kadphises

Obv: Bust of king emerging from a cloud, with a crested helmet and holding a club.

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Volunteer military

A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service.

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Wa (Japan)

Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.

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Wakhan

Wakhan or "the Wakhan" (also spelt Vakhan; Persian and واخان, Vâxân and Wāxān respectively; Вахон, Vaxon) is a very mountainous and rugged part of the Pamir, Hindu Kush and Karakoram regions of Afghanistan.

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Wang Chong

Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese meteorologist, astronomer, and philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.

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Wang Fu (Han dynasty)

Wang Fu (about 82 A.D.-167A.D.), courtesy name Jiexin, was a Chinese political commentator, ideologue, and philosopher during the Eastern Han Dynasty.

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Wang Mang

Wang Mang (c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han Dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") Dynasty (新朝), ruling 9–23 AD.

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Wang Yun (Han dynasty)

Wang Yun (137–192), courtesy name Zishi, was an official who lived during the Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Wang Zhengjun

Wang Zhengjun (71 BC – 13 AD), officially Empress Xiaoyuan (孝元皇后), later and more commonly known as Grand Empress Dowager Wang, born in Yuancheng (modern Handan, Hebei), was an empress during the Western Han dynasty of China, who played important roles during the reigns of five successive Han emperors (her husband, son, two stepgrandsons, and stepgreat-grandnephew) and later (according to traditional historians, unwittingly) led to the usurpation of the throne by her nephew Wang Mang.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Watchtower

A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Watermill

A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.

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Way of the Five Pecks of Rice

The Way of the Five Pecks of Rice or the Way of the Celestial Master, commonly abbreviated to simply The Celestial Masters, was a Chinese Taoist movement founded by the first Celestial Master Zhang Daoling in 142 CE.

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Wei Qing

Wei Qing (died 106 BC), courtesy name Zhongqing, born Zheng Qing in Linfen, Shanxi, was a military general and consort kin of the Western Han dynasty whose campaigns against the Xiongnu earned him great acclaim.

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Weilüe

The Weilüe was a Chinese historical text written by Yu Huan between 239 and 265.

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Weiyang Palace

Weiyang Palace was the main imperial palace complex of Han Dynasty and many other dynasties, located in the city of Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an).

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Well-field system

The well-field system was a Chinese land distribution method.

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Wheelbarrow

A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles at the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind.

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White Horse Temple

White Horse Temple is, according to tradition, the first Buddhist temple in China, established in 68 AD under the patronage of Emperor Ming in the Eastern Han dynasty capital Luoyang.

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Will and testament

A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.

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Winnowing

Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff.

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Witchcraft

Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.

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Wool

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.

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Wrought iron

puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%).

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Wu Xing

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..

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Wusun

The Wusun were an Indo-European semi-nomadic steppe people mentioned in Chinese records from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE.

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Wuwei, Gansu

Wuwei is a prefecture-level city in northwest central Gansu province.

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Xi County, Henan

Xi County or Xixian is a county of Henan, China.

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Xi'an

Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Xian (Taoism)

Xian is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as.

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Xianbei

The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.

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Xiang Yu

Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.

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Xianyang

Xianyang is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an.

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Xiao He

Xiao He (died 193 BC) was a Chinese statesman of the early Western Han dynasty.

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Xin dynasty

The Xin dynasty was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD.

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Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Xu Shen

Xu Shen (CE) was a Chinese scholar-official and philologist of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189).

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Xuantu Commandery

Xuantu Commandery was an one of the remnants of the Four Commanderies, which was set in the northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula by the Han China.

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Xuchang

Xuchang (postal: Hsuchang) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province in Central China.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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Yan Ji

Empress Yan Ji (閻姬) (died 126), formally Empress Ansi (安思皇后, literally "the peaceful and deep-thinking empress"), was an empress during Han Dynasty.

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Yang Xiong (author)

Yang Xiong (53 BCE–18 CE) was a Chinese poet, philosopher, and politician of the Han dynasty known for his philosophical writings and ''fu'' poetry compositions.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yellow Turban Rebellion

The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt in China against the Eastern Han dynasty.

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Yin and yang

In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.

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Yuan Shang

Yuan Shang (died 207), courtesy name Xianfu, was a warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Yuan Shao

Yuan Shao (died 28 June 202), courtesy name Benchu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Yuan Shu

Yuan Shu (died 199), courtesy name Gonglu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Yuan Tan

Yuan Tan (died 205), courtesy name Xiansi, was the eldest son of Yuan Shao, a warlord who occupied much of northern China during the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Yuan Xi

Yuan Xi (died 207), courtesy name Xianyi or Xianyong, was the second son of Yuan Shao, a warlord who controlled much of northern China during the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Yunnan

Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Zang-fu

The zàng-fǔ organs are functional entities stipulated by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

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Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).

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Zhang Heng

Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.

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Zhang Jue

Zhang Jue (died 184) was the leader of the Yellow Turban Rebellion during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Zhang Lu (Han dynasty)

Zhang Lu (died 216), courtesy name Gongqi, was a government official, warlord and religious leader who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Zhang Qian

Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.

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Zhang Zhongjing

Zhang Zhongjing (150219), formal name Zhang Ji (张机), was a Chinese physician, writer and inventor of the Eastern Han dynasty and one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Han dynasty.

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Zhangjiashan Han bamboo texts

The Zhangjiashan Han bamboo texts are ancient Han Dynasty Chinese written works dated 196–186 BCE.

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Zhangye

Zhangye, formerly romanized as Changyeh or known as Kanchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Gansu Province in the People's Republic of China.

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Zheng Zhong

Zheng Zhong (鄭眾), courtesy name Jichan (季產) (died 107), was the first Han Dynasty eunuch with true power in government, thanks to the trust that Emperor He had in him for his contributions in overthrowing the clan of Empress Dowager Dou, particularly her autocratic brother Dou Xian.

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Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Zhizhi Chanyu

Zhizhi Chanyu (郅支單于?, died 36 BC) was a Chanyu of the Xiongnu at the time of the first Xiongnu civil war, who held the north and west in contention with his younger brother Huhanye who held the south.

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Zhou (country subdivision)

Zhou were historical political divisions of China.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zhoubi Suanjing

The Zhoubi Suanjing, or Chou Pei Suan Ching (周髀算经), is one of the oldest Chinese mathematical texts.

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Zoetrope

A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.

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53 equal temperament

In music, 53 equal temperament, called 53 TET, 53 EDO, or 53 ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 53 equal steps (equal frequency ratios).

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Donghan Dynasty, Dynasty of Shu Han, Early Han dynasty, East Han, East Han Dynasty, Eastern Han, Eastern Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Empire, Eastern Han dynasty, Eastern han, Emperor of Shu Han, Empress of Eastern Han Dynasty, Empress of Shu Han, Former Han, Former Han Dynasty, Former Han dynasty, Former Han period, Han Ch'ao, Han China, Han Dynasty, Han Dynasty Period, Han Dynasty: A Period of Prosperity, Han Dynastyy, Han Empire, Han Kingdom (206 BC - 202 BC), Han Kingdom (206 BC – 202 BC), Han Royal Family, Han age, Han dynastys, Han empire, Han period, Han-dynasty, House of Liu, Hàn Cháo, Hàn Dynasty, Kingdom of Shu-Han, Later Han (25–220), List of Empresses of the Han Dynasty, Principality of Han, Shu (Chinese Kingdom), Shu (Chinese kingdom), Shu-Han Kingdom, Shǔ Hàn, The Western Han Dynasty, The han dynasty, West Han, Western Han, Western Han Dynasty, Western Han Empire, Western Han dynasty, 汉朝, 漢朝.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_dynasty

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