110 relations: Airborne disease, Allergic contact dermatitis, Antibacterial soap, Antimicrobial resistance, Antiseptic, Ash, Bacteria, Bahá'í Faith, Behavior change (public health), Benzalkonium chloride, Biosafety, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chickenpox, Child mortality, Chlorhexidine, Cholera, Christianity, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Cluster randomised controlled trial, Decibel, Department of Education (Philippines), Detergent, Developing country, Diarrhea, Didier Pittet, Dirt, Disability-adjusted life year, Elsevier, Ethanol, Fecal–oral route, Florence Nightingale, Fluoride, Food safety, Fungus, Global Handwashing Day, Glycerol, Gospel of Matthew, Hand dryer, Hand pump, Hand sanitizer, Hepatitis, Herpes simplex, Hinduism, HIV, Hives, Home birth, Hospital-acquired infection, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Humectant, Hungarians, ..., Hygiene, Ignaz Semmelweis, Impetigo, Infant mortality, Infection, Influenza, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Islam, Islamic hygienical jurisprudence, Isopropyl alcohol, Jesus, Judaism, Lady Macbeth, Lavabo, Macbeth, Measles, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Miasma theory, Microorganism, Misogi, Moisturizer, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Paper towel, Pathogen, Patient safety, Pneumonia, Polyacrylic acid, Pontius Pilate, Povidone-iodine, Public health, Respiratory disease, Rhinovirus, Ritual purification, Ritual washing in Judaism, Rubbing alcohol, Sanitation, Shinto, Soil, Spore, Staphylococcus, Sterility assurance level, Surgery, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, The New England Journal of Medicine, Thickening agent, Transmission (medicine), Triclosan, Tuberculosis, UNICEF, Vaccinia, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, Virus, WASH, Water industry, Water supply network, William Shakespeare, World Health Organization, Wudu, Xeroderma, 2009 flu pandemic. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
An airborne disease is any disease that is caused by pathogens that can be transmitted through the air.
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).
Antibacterial soap is a soap which contains chemical ingredients that purportedly assist in killing bacteria.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Ash or ashes are the solid remains of fires.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change people's personal habits to prevent disease.
Benzalkonium chloride, also known as BZK, BKC, BAC, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a type of cationic surfactant.
Biosafety is the prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
Chlorhexidine is a disinfectant and antiseptic that is used for skin disinfection before surgery and to sterilize surgical instruments.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
A cluster randomised controlled trial is a type of randomised controlled trial in which groups of subjects (as opposed to individual subjects) are randomised.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
The Department of Education (abbreviated as DepEd; Kagawaran ng Edukasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Didier Pittet (born 20 March 1957 in Geneva, Switzerland) is as an infectious diseases expert and the director of the and, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Dirt is unclean matter, especially when in contact with a person's clothes, skin or possessions when they are said to become dirty.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Florence Nightingale, (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a campaign to motivate and mobilize people around the world to improve their handwashing habits.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Hand dryers are electric machines found in public bathrooms.
Hand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another.
Hand sanitizer is a liquid generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
A home birth is a birth that takes place in a residence rather than in a hospital or a birth centre.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.
Impetigo is a bacterial infection that involves the superficial skin.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic hygienical jurisprudence includes a number of regulations involving cleanliness during ''salat'' (obligatory prayer) through Wudu and Ghusl, as well as dietary laws and toilet etiquette for Muslims.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Lady Macbeth is a leading character in William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth (c.1603–1607).
A lavabo is a device used to provide water for the washing of hands.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
is a Japanese Shinto practice of ritual purification by washing the entire body.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
A kitchen roll (or kitchen paper) is an absorbent towel made from tissue paper instead of cloth.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Patient safety is a discipline that emphasizes safety in health care through the prevention, reduction, reporting, and analysis of medical error that often leads to adverse effects.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA; trade name Carbomer) is a synthetic high-molecular weight polymers of acrylic acid.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), also known as iodopovidone, is an antiseptic used for skin disinfection before and after surgery.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness.
In Judaism, ritual washing, or ablution, takes two main forms.
Rubbing alcohol refers to either isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or ethanol based liquids, or the comparable British Pharmacopoeia defined surgical spirit, with isopropyl alcohol products being the most widely available.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
In microbiology, sterility assurance level (SAL) is the probability that a single unit that has been subjected to sterilization nevertheless remains nonsterile.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) is a loose network of organizations who are "working along the same lines towards achieving sustainable sanitation".
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Triclosan (sometimes abbreviated as TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
WASH (or Watsan, WaSH) is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene".
The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification.
Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.
The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic, and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918 flu pandemic), albeit in a new version.
HWWS, Hand Hygiene, Hand Washing, Hand hygiene, Hand wash, Hand washing with soap, Hand-washing, Handwashing, Handwashing with soap, Personal hand washing, Tippy tap, Wash hands, Wash your hands, Washing hands, Washing of hands.