225 relations: Adrian Goldsworthy, Aetolian League, Africa, Alexander the Great, Alfred von Schlieffen, Alps, Ambush, Anatolia, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Anglicisation of names, Antiochus III the Great, Apennine Mountains, Appian, Apulia, Arabic name, Arc (Savoie), Arno, Artaxata, Artaxias I, Attrition warfare, Aulus Gellius, B. H. Liddell Hart, Baal, Barak (given name), Barcid conquest of Hispania, Barcids, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Battle of Ager Falernus, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Canusium, Battle of Capua, Battle of Capua (211 BC), Battle of Carrhae, Battle of Crotona, Battle of Geronium, Battle of Grumentum, Battle of Herdonia (210 BC), Battle of Herdonia (212 BC), Battle of Lake Trasimene, Battle of Magnesia, Battle of Nola (214 BC), Battle of Nola (215 BC), Battle of Nola (216 BC), Battle of Numistro, Battle of Petelia, Battle of Rhone Crossing, Battle of Tarentum (212 BC), Battle of the Eurymedon (190 BC), ..., Battle of the Metaurus, Battle of the Silarus, Battle of the Trebia, Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), Battle of Ticinus, Battle of Zama, Bithynia, Calabria, Campania, Cannae, Capua, Carpetani, Cartagena, Spain, Cavalry, Cádiz, Celts, Cicero, Cisalpine Gaul, Coalition of the Gulf War, Cognomen, Col de Clapier, Col de la Traversette, Col de Montgenèvre, Conjunctivitis, Conscription, Crete, Crotone, Da Capo Press, Defile (geography), Drôme (river), Ebro, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Ephesus, Etruria, Etruscan civilization, Eumenes II, Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh, Fabian strategy, Fire-setting, First Macedonian War, First Punic War, Frontinus, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gaius Flaminius, Gaius Terentius Varro, Gaul, Gauls, Gebze, General officer, George Bournoutian, George S. Patton, Given name, Greek historiography, Greek language, Greek name, Gulf of Tunis, Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, Hasdrubal Barca, Hasdrubal the Fair, Hebrew name, Hellenistic period, Hercules, Hieronymus of Syracuse, Hispania, Hundred and Four, Iberian Peninsula, Illyria, Infantry, Isère (river), Italy, Jacob Abbott, Julius Caesar, Juvenal, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Lake Trasimeno, Latinisation of names, Legionary, Liguria, List of Latin phrases (H), Little St Bernard Pass, Livy, Locri, Lombardy, Lucania, Lucius Aemilius Paullus (consul 219 BC), Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty, Magistrate, Mago Barca, Maharbal, Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC), Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Masinissa, Matterhorn, Mediterranean Basin, Mercenary War, Military of Carthage, Military tactics, Military tribune, Mont Cenis, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Naravas, Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., North Africa, Northern Italy, Numidia, Numidian cavalry, Numidians, Numismatics, Olcades, Oligarchy, Ordona, Parthian Empire, Patronymic, Peniscola, Pergamon, Peter Connolly, Philip II of Macedon, Philip V of Macedon, Piacenza, Pillars of Hercules, Pincer movement, Plutarch, Po Valley, Polybius, Proconsul, Propaganda, Protectorate, Prusias I of Bithynia, Publius Cornelius Scipio, Punic language, Pyrenees, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Quaestor, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Rhône, Richard Talbert, Roman consul, Roman naming conventions, Roman Republic, Roman–Seleucid War, Sagunto, Samnites, Samnium, Schlieffen Plan, Scipio Africanus, Scorched earth, Sea of Marmara, Second Punic War, Seleucid Empire, Shophet, Siege, Siege engine, Siege of Saguntum, Strabo, Strait of Gibraltar, Surname, Syphax, Syria, Tagus, Taranto, Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Tiberius Sempronius Longus (consul 218 BC), Titus Pomponius Atticus, Treaty, Trebbia, Turning movement, Tyrant, Tyre, Lebanon, Vaccaei, Valencian Community, War elephant, Women in ancient Rome. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
Adrian Keith Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and author who specialises in ancient Roman history.
The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alfred Graf von Schlieffen, generally called Count Schlieffen (28 February 1833 – 4 January 1913) was a German field marshal and strategist who served as chief of the Imperial German General Staff from 1891 to 1906.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
An ambush is a long-established military tactic in which combatants take advantage of concealment and the element of surprise to attack unsuspecting enemy combatants from concealed positions, such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The anglicisation of personal names is the change of non-English-language personal names to spellings nearer English sounds, or substitution of equivalent or similar English personal names in the place of non-English personal names.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names.
The Arc is a river in the Savoie département of south-eastern France.
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy.
Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.
Artaxias I (Άρταξίας, Artashes Արտաշես; reigned 190/189 BC160/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
The given name Barak, also spelled Baraq, from the root B-R-Q, is a Hebrew name meaning "lightning".
The Barcid family was one of the most important among the ruling oligarchy of ancient Carthage.
The Barcid family was a notable family in the ancient city of Carthage; many of its members were fierce enemies of the Roman Republic.
Barthold Georg Niebuhr (27 August 1776 – 2 January 1831) was a Danish-German statesman, banker, and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography.
The Battle of Ager Falernus (or the Battle of the Falernian Territory) was a skirmish during the Second Punic War between the armies of Rome and Carthage.
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy.
The Battle of Canusium was a three-day engagement between the forces of Rome and Carthage.
The First Battle of Capua was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal and two Roman consular armies.
The Second Battle of Capua was fought in 211 BC, when the Romans besieged Capua.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.
The battle or, more precisely, the battles of Croton in 204 and 203 BC were, as well as the raid in Cisalpine Gaul, the last larger scale engagements between the Romans and the Carthaginians in Italy during the Second Punic War.
The Battle of Geronium or Gerunium is part of the Second Punic War, where a large skirmish and an ambush took place in the summer and autumn of 217 BC respectively.
The Battle of Grumentum was fought in 207 BC between Romans led by Gaius Claudius Nero, and a part of Hannibal's Carthaginian army.
The second battle of Herdonia took place in 210 BC during the Second Punic War.
The first Battle of Herdonia was fought in 212 BC during the Second Punic War between Hannibal's Carthaginian army and Roman forces led by Praetor Gnaeus Fulvius Flaccus, brother of the consul.
The Battle of Lake Trasimene (24 June 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a major battle in the Second Punic War.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Third Battle of Nola was fought in 214 BC between Hannibal and a Roman army led by Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
The Second Battle of Nola was fought in 215 BC between Hannibal's army and a Roman Army under Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
The First Battle of Nola was fought in 216 BC between the forces of Hannibal and a Roman force led by Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
The Battle of Numistro was fought in 210 BC between Hannibal's army and one of the Roman consular armies led by consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
The Battle of Petelia was an ambush during the Second Punic War that took place in 208 BC near Petelia.
The Battle of the Rhône Crossing took place during the Second Punic War.
The Battle of Tarentum of 212 BC was a battle in the Second Punic War.
The Battle of the Eurymedon was fought in 190 BC between a Seleucid fleet and the navy of the city state of Rhodes, who were allied with the Roman Republic.
The Battle of the Metaurus was a pivotal battle in the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage, fought in 207 BC near the Metauro River in Italy.
The Battle of the Silarus was fought in 212 BC between Hannibal's army and a Roman force led by centurion Marcus Centenius Penula.
The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was the first major battle of the Second Punic War, fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Roman Republic in December of 218 BC, on or around the winter solstice.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great.
The Battle of Ticinus was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio in November 218 BC.
The Battle of Zama—fought in 202 BC near Zama (Tunisia)—marked the end of the Second Punic War.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Cannae (now Canne della Battaglia) is an ancient village of the Apulia region of south east Italy.
Capua is a city and comune in the province of Caserta, Campania, southern Italy, situated north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain.
The Carpetani (Greek: Karpetanoi) were one of the Celtic pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania, modern Spain and Portugal), akin to the Celtiberians, dwelling in the central part of the meseta - the high central upland plain of the Iberian Peninsula.
Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
Col de Clapier (French Col Clapier, Italian Colle Clapier) is a mountain pass over the mountain massif Mont Cenis in the Cottian Alps and Graian Alps between Savoy in France and Piemont in Italy.
The Col de la Traversette (Italian: Colle delle Traversette) is a bridle pass with an altitude of 2,947 m in the Cottian Alps.
The Col de Montgenèvre (elevation 1854 m.) is a high mountain pass in the Cottian Alps, in France 2 kilometres away from Italy.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crotone (Crotonese: Cutrone or Cutruni) is a city and comune in Calabria.
Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
In geography, a defile is a narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills.
The Drôme (Droma), a river in southeastern France, has a length of 111 km and a watershed of 1,663 km² and is a left tributary of the Rhône.
The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Eumenes II (Εὐμένης Βʹ; ruled 197–159 BC) surnamed Soter meaning "Savior" was a ruler of Pergamon, and a son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis and a member of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon.
Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh (12 July 1843 – 10 July 1906) was an English academic and schoolmaster, known as classical scholar and translator.
The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles and frontal assaults are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition and indirection.
Fire-setting is a method of traditional mining used most commonly from prehistoric times up to the Middle Ages.
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
Gaius Claudius Nero (circa 237 BC until circa 199 BC) was a Roman general active during the Second Punic War against the invading Carthaginian force, led by Hannibal Barca.
Gaius Flaminius C. f. L. n. was a leading Roman politician in the third century BC.
Gaius Terentius Varro served as the Roman ambassador to Carthage around the time of the siege of Saguntum (219-218 BC) and then went on (fl. 3rd century BC) to be a Roman consul and commander, along with his colleague, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, he commanded at the Battle of Cannae in August 216 BC, during the Second Punic War, against the Carthaginian general Hannibal.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Gebze is a district in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
George A. Bournoutian (جورج بورنوتیان., 25 September 1943, Isfahan, Iran) is an Iranian-American professor, historian, and author of Armenian descent.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In the modern world, personal names among people of Greek language and culture generally consist of a given name, a patronymic and a family name.
The Gulf of Tunis is a large Mediterranean bay in north-eastern Tunisia, extending for from Cap Farina in the west to Cap Bon in the east.
Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (c. 275 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Mago.
Hannibal's crossing of the Alps in 218 BC was one of the major events of the Second Punic War, and one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare.
Hasdrubal Barca (245–207 BC) was Hamilcar Barca's second son and a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War.
Hasdrubal the Fair (c. 270–221 BC) was a Carthaginian military leader and politician, governor in Iberia after Hamilcar Barca's death, and founder of Cartagena.
Hebrew names are names that have a Hebrew language origin, classically from the Hebrew Bible.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Hieronymus (Ἱερώνυμος; 231–214 BC) was a tyrant of Syracuse.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The Hundred and Four, or Council of 104 (Phoenician Miat, from the Mia - "hundred", Εκατόν, Ordo judicum), was a Carthaginian tribunal of judges.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Isère is a river in the Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacob Abbott (November 14, 1803 – October 31, 1879) was an American writer of children's books.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
Lake Trasimeno (Lago Trasimeno,; Trasumennus; Etruscan Tarśmina), also referred to as Trasimene or Thrasimene in English, is a lake in the province of Perugia, in the Umbria region of Italy.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The Roman legionary (Latin: legionarius, pl. legionarii) was a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army after the Marian reforms.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
The Little St Bernard Pass (French: Col du Petit Saint-Bernard, Italian: Colle del Piccolo San Bernardo) is a mountain pass in the Alps on the France–Italy border.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Locri is a town and comune (municipality) in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lucania (Leukanía) was an ancient area of Southern Italy.
Lucius Aemilius Paullus (died August 2, 216 BC) was a Roman consul twice, in 219 and 216 BC.
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (3rd century BC–aft. 183 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
The Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty was an anti-Roman treaty between Philip V of Macedon and Hannibal, leader of the Carthaginians, which was drawn up after the Battle of Cannae when Hannibal seemed poised to conquer Rome.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Mago, son of Hamilcar Barca, also spelled Magon, Phoenician MGN, "God sent" (243–203 BC), was a member of the Barcid family, and played an important role in the Second Punic War, leading forces of Carthage against the Roman Republic in Hispania, Gallia Cisalpina and Italy.
Maharbal (fl. 3rd century BC) was Hannibal's chief cavalry commander and second-in-command during the Second Punic War.
Manius Acilius Glabrio was a Roman general and consul of the Roman Republic in 191 BC.
Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 268 – 208 BC), five times elected as consul of the Roman Republic, was an important Roman military leader during the Gallic War of 225 BC and the Second Punic War.
Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.
The Matterhorn (Matterhorn; Cervino; Mont Cervin) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.
The military of Carthage was one of the largest military forces in the ancient world.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.
Mont Cenis (Moncenisio) is a massif (el. 3,612 m / 11,850 ft) and pass (el. 2081 m / 6827 ft) in Savoie (France), which forms the limit between the Cottian and Graian Alps.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
Naravas was a Berber and Numidian leader in the Mercenary War of the Carthaginian state.
Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was a United States Army general.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
Numidian cavalry was a type of light cavalry developed by the Numidians.
The Numidians were the Berber population of Numidia (present day Algeria) and in a smaller part of Tunisia.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
The Olcades were an ancient stock-raising pre-Roman people from Hispania, who lived to the west of the Turboletae in the southeastern fringe of the Iberian system mountains.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Ordona is a small town and comune of the province of Foggia in the region of Apulia in southern Italy.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
Peníscola or Peñíscola, anglicised as Peniscola, is a municipality in the Province of Castellón, Valencian Community, Spain.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
Peter Connolly FSA (8 May 1935 – 2 May 2012) was a renowned British scholar of the ancient world, Greek and Roman military equipment historian, reconstructional archaeologist and illustrator.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
Piacenza (Piacentino: Piaṡëinsa) is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Po Valley, Po Plain, Plain of the Po, or Padan Plain (Pianura Padana, or Val Padana) is a major geographical feature of Northern Italy.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Prusias I Cholus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Χωλός "the Lame") (lived c. 243 – 182 BC, reigned c. 228 – 182 BC) was a king of Bithynia, the son of Ziaelas of Bithynia.
Publius Cornelius Scipio (died 211 BC) was a general and statesman of the Roman Republic.
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, surnamed Cunctator (280 BC – 203 BC), was a Roman statesman and general of the third century BC.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Richard John Alexander Talbert (born April 26, 1947) is a British-American contemporary ancient historian and classicist on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is William Rand Kenan, Jr., Professor of Ancient History and Classics.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Sagunto (Sagunt, Sagunto) is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
Samnium (Sannio) is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites.
The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was the name given after World War I to the thinking behind the German invasion of France and Belgium on 4 August 1914.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
In Hebrew and several other Semitic languages, shopheṭ or shofeṭ (plural shophṭim or shofeṭim) literally means "Judge", from the verb "Š-P-Ṭ", "to pass judgment".
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
The Siege of Saguntum was a battle which took place in 219 BC between the Carthaginians and the Saguntines at the town of Saguntum, near the modern town of Sagunto in the province of Valencia, Spain.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Syphax was a king of the ancient Numidian tribe Masaesyli of western Numidia during the last quarter of the 3rd century BC.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
Theodore Ayrault Dodge (May 28, 1842 – October 26, 1909) was an American officer, military historian, and businessman.
Tiberius Sempronius Longus (c. 260 BC – 210 BC) was a Roman consul during the Second Punic War and a contemporary of Publius Cornelius Scipio.
Titus Pomponius Atticus (– 31 March 32 BC; also known as Quintus Caecilius Pomponianus) is best known for his correspondence and close friendship with prominent Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
The Trebbia (stressed Trèbbia; Trebia) is a river predominantly of Liguria and Emilia Romagna in northern Italy.
A turning movement is a military tactic in which an attacker's forces reach the rear of a defender's forces, separating the defenders from their principal defensive positions and threatening to place them in a pocket.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The Vaccaei or Vaccei were a pre-Roman Celtic people of Spain, who inhabited the sedimentary plains of the central Duero valley, in the Meseta Central of northern Hispania (specifically in Castile and León).
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office.