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Haplogroup R (mtDNA)

Index Haplogroup R (mtDNA)

Haplogroup R is a widely distributed human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. [1]

143 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Abusir, Adivasi, Adygea, Adyghe people, Alor Island, Americas, Ancient Egypt, Andhra Pradesh, Arabian Peninsula, Arunachal Pradesh, Australasia, Australia, Australia (continent), Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Bali, Balochistan, Pakistan, Batak people (Philippines), Bình Thuận Province, Berbers, Bihar, Borneo, Brahmin, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Central Asia, Chams, China, Copts, Dravidian languages, Dravidian people, Early human migrations, East Asia, East India, East Timor, Eastern Europe, Egypt (Roman province), Eurasia, Europe, Georgia (country), Guangdong, Gujarat, Haplogroup B (mtDNA), Haplogroup F (mtDNA), Haplogroup H (mtDNA), Haplogroup HV (mtDNA), Haplogroup J (mtDNA), Haplogroup JT (mtDNA), Haplogroup K (mtDNA), ..., Haplogroup M (mtDNA), Haplogroup N (mtDNA), Haplogroup P (mtDNA), Haplogroup pre-JT, Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA), Haplogroup T (mtDNA), Haplogroup U (mtDNA), Haplogroup V (mtDNA), Horn of Africa, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, Iberomaurusian, India, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Indochina, Indonesia, Iran, Jahaic languages, Japan, Java, Jharkhand, Kabardians, Kurdish languages, Lahu people, Lembata, Lesser Sunda Islands, Madagascar, Madhya Pradesh, Maghreb, Malay Archipelago, Malaysia, Maluku Islands, Maniq people, Mataram (city), Medan, Melanesia, Micronesia, Middle East, Munda languages, Near East, Negrito, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nicobar Islands, North Africa, Northwest Caucasian languages, Odisha, Pakistan, Palawan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Poles, Polynesia, Proto-Malay, Ptolemaic dynasty, Punjab, Rajasthan, Rajput, Reddy, Russians, Sami people, Santal people, Saudi Arabia, Semelai language, Senoi, Shompen people, Shors, Sinhalese people, Soqotri people, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southern Thailand, Sri Lanka, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sulawesi, Sumba, Taforalt, Taiwan, Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Temuan people, Thailand, Tharu people, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uttar Pradesh, Vietnam, Waingapu, Western Asia, Yunnan. Expand index (93 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Abusir (ابو صير; Egyptian pr wsjr; ⲃⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲓ, "the House or Temple of Osiris"; Βούσιρις) is the name given to an Egyptian archaeological locality – specifically, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, together with later additions – in the vicinity of the modern capital Cairo.

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Adivasi is the collective term for the indigenous peoples of mainland South Asia.

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The Republic of Adygea (r; Адыгэ Республик, Adygæ Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai.

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Adyghe people

The ethnonym "Adyghe" (Адыгэ/Adygè, Ады́ги) is used as an endonym by the Caucasian-speaking Circassians of the North Caucasus and as a demonym for the inhabitants of the Republic of Adygea, a federal subject of Russia located in the southwestern part of European Russia, enclaved within Krasnodar Krai, where it is also rendered as Adygeans (Адыгейцы).

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Alor Island

Alor (Pulau Alor) is the largest island in the Alor Archipelago and is one of the 92 officially listed outlying islands of Indonesia.

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The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.

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Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.

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Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.

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Balochistan, Pakistan

Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.

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Batak people (Philippines)

The Batak are one of about 140 indigenous peoples of the Philippines.

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Bình Thuận Province

Bình Thuận is a province of Vietnam.

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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.

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Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

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Dravidian people

Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.

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Early human migrations

The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East India

East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.

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Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Haplogroup B (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup F (mtDNA)

Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup H (mtDNA)

Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup HV (mtDNA)

Haplogroup HV is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup J (mtDNA)

Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup JT (mtDNA)

Haplogroup JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup K (mtDNA)

Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup M (mtDNA)

Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade.

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Haplogroup P (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup pre-JT

Haplogroup pre-JT is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).

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Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA)

Haplogroup R0 (formerly known as haplogroup pre-HV) is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup T (mtDNA)

Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Haplogroup U (mtDNA)

Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup (mtDNA).

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Haplogroup V (mtDNA)

Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.

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The Iberomaurusian ("of Iberia and Mauritania"; it was once believed that it extended into Spain) or Oranian is a backed bladelet lithic industry found throughout North Africa.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Jahaic languages

The Northern Aslian languages (formerly called Jehaic or Semang) are a group of Aslian languages spoken by about 5,000 people in inland areas of Peninsular Malaysia, with a few pockets in southern Thailand.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.

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The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Lahu people

The Lahu people (Lahu: Ladhulsi / Kawzhawd; La Hủ) are an ethnic group of China and Mainland Southeast Asia.

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Lembata is an island in the Lesser Sunda Islands, formerly known as Lomblen island; it is the largest island of the Solor Archipelago, in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.

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Lesser Sunda Islands

The Lesser Sunda Islands (Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara "southeastern archipelago" or Kepulauan Sunda Kecil "lesser Sundanese archipelago") are a group of islands in Maritime Southeast Asia, north of Australia.

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Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.

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The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Malay Archipelago

The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Maluku Islands

The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.

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Maniq people

The Maniq or Mani (มันนิ) are an ethnic group of Thailand.

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Mataram (city)

Mataram (Indonesian: Kota Mataram) is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara.

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Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.

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Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.

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Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Munda languages

The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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The Negrito are several different ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of South and Southeast Asia.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.

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Nicobar Islands

The Nicobar Islands are an archipelagic island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Northwest Caucasian languages

The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.

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Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.

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Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.

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The term Proto-Malay, which translates to Melayu Asli (aboriginal Malay) or Melayu Purba (ancient Malay) or Melayu Tua (old Malay), refers to Austric people, possibly from mainland Asia, who moved to the Malay peninsula and Malay archipelago in a long series of migrations between 2500 and 1500 BC, and in one model the first of two migrations of early Malay speakers, before that of the Deutero-Malays.

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Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).

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Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.

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Reddy (also transliterated as Raddi, Reddi, Reddiar, Reddappa, Reddy) is a caste that originated in India, predominantly settled in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Santal people

The Santal, or rarely Santals (Santali:ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ,सांथाल, translit, translit), are an ethnic group, native to Nepal and the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Semelai language

Semelai is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the Malay Peninsula.

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The Senoi (also spelled Sengoi and Sng'oi) are a group of Malaysian peoples classified among the Orang Asli, the indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Shompen people

The Shompen or Shom Pen are the indigenous people of the interior of Great Nicobar Island, part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

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Shors or Shorians (Shor шор-кижи) are a Turkic people in the Kemerovo Oblast in Russia.

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Sinhalese people

The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.

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Soqotri people

The Soqotri people sometimes referred to as Socotran are an ethnic group native to the island of Socotra.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Thailand

Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.

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Sumba (Pulau Sumba) is an island in eastern Indonesia.

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Taforalt or Grotte des Pigeons is a cave in northern Oujda, Morocco, and possibly the oldest cemetery in North Africa (Humphrey 2012).

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Taiwanese indigenous peoples

Taiwanese indigenous peoples or formerly Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gaoshan people are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number nearly 530,000 or 2.3% of the island's population, or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese Plain Indigenous Peoples officially in the future.

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Temuan people

The Temuan people (Temuan: Uwang/Eang Temuan, Malaysian: Orang Temuan) are a Proto-Malay ethnic group indigenous to western parts of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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Tharu people

The Tharu people are an ethnic group indigenous to the southern foothills of the Himalayas; most of the Tharu people live in the Nepal Terai.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Waingapu is the largest town on the island of Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R_(mtDNA)

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