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Haplotype

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent. [1]

44 relations: Allele, Ambiguity, Autosome, Chromosome, Clade, Coalescent theory, Conserved sequence, Correlation and dependence, Disease, DNA, DNA sequencing, Expectation–maximization algorithm, Gametic phase, Genealogical DNA test, Genetic linkage, Genetic recombination, Genotype, Haplogroup, Haplotype estimation, Haploview, Hardy–Weinberg principle, Hidden Markov model, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, International HapMap Project, Linkage disequilibrium, Locus (genetics), Markov chain Monte Carlo, Matrilineality, Metaphase, Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping, Microsatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Modal haplotype, Mutation, Occam's razor, Organism, Patrilineality, Ploidy, Punnett square, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Unique-event polymorphism, XYY syndrome, Y-STR, Zygosity.

Allele

An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Ambiguity

Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.

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Autosome

An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Coalescent theory

Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.

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Conserved sequence

In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Expectation–maximization algorithm

In statistics, an expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm is an iterative method to find maximum likelihood or maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of parameters in statistical models, where the model depends on unobserved latent variables.

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Gametic phase

In a diploid individual, the gametic phase represents the original allelic combinations that an individual received from its parents.

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Genealogical DNA test

A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genotype

The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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Haplogroup

A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.

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Haplotype estimation

In genetics, haplotype estimation (also known as "phasing") refers to the process of statistical estimation of haplotypes from genotype data.

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Haploview

Haploview is a commonly used bioinformatics software which is designed to analyze and visualize patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetic data.

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Hardy–Weinberg principle

The Hardy–Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, model, theorem, or law, states that allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.

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Hidden Markov model

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved (i.e. hidden) states.

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Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).

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International HapMap Project

The International HapMap Project was an organization that aimed to develop a haplotype map (HapMap) of the human genome, to describe the common patterns of human genetic variation.

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Linkage disequilibrium

In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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Markov chain Monte Carlo

In statistics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods comprise a class of algorithms for sampling from a probability distribution.

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Matrilineality

Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Metaphase

Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).

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Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping

Microfluidic whole genome haplotyping is a technique for the physical separation of individual chromosomes from a metaphase cell followed by direct resolution of the haplotype for each allele.

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Microsatellite

A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Modal haplotype

A modal haplotype is an ancestral haplotype derived from the DNA test results of a specific group of people, using genetic genealogy.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Patrilineality

Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.

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Ploidy

Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Punnett square

The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Unique-event polymorphism

In genetic genealogy, a unique-event polymorphism (UEP) is a genetic marker that corresponds to a mutation that is likely to occur so infrequently that it is believed overwhelmingly probable that all the individuals who share the marker, worldwide, will have inherited it from the same common ancestor, and the same single mutation event.

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XYY syndrome

XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.

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Y-STR

A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome.

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Zygosity

Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

Haplotype diversity, Haplotype match, Haplotypes, Haplotyping, Y-STR haplotype.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplotype

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