276 relations: Aberdeen Proving Ground, Air Defense Artillery Branch, Albany, New York, American entry into World War I, American Revolutionary War, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-submarine indicator loop, Anti-submarine net, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Auger (drill), Barbette, Barnum's American Museum, Battery Weed, Battle of Brandywine, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Fort Washington, Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery, Battle of France, Battle of Harlem Heights, Battle of Long Island, Battle of Pell's Point, Battle of White Plains, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Battles of Saratoga, Bear Mountain (Hudson Highlands), Benjamin Franklin, Bermuda Base Command, Black Tom explosion, Blockade of Germany, Blockhouse, Board of Fortifications, Bofors 40 mm gun, Breezy Point, Queens, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Burning of Washington, Buttermilk Channel, Caliber (artillery), Canon de 155mm GPF, Cape Charles Air Force Station, Caponier, Casemate, Castle Clinton, Castle Williams, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Charles Lee (general), Chesapeake–Leopard affair, Cheval de frise, Cliff, Coast Artillery fire control system, ..., Coastal artillery, Coastal defence and fortification, Collect Pond, Coney Island Light, Conscription in the United States, Continental Army, Continental Congress, Copperhead (politics), Court-martial, David Bushnell, David Pietersz. de Vries, Davids' Island (New York), Delaware River, Disappearing gun, Dominion of New England, Dreadnought, Dutch East India Company, Dutch West India Company, Dynamite gun, East Coast of the United States, East River, Eastern Defense Command, Edmund Andros, Edward Rutledge, Elihu Root, Ellis Island, Embrasure, Estêvão Gomes, Evacuation Day (New York), Ezra Lee, Factory (trading post), Far Rockaway, Queens, Federal Hall, Field gun, First United States Army, Flagstaff Fort, Fort Amsterdam, Fort Delaware, Fort Drum (Philippines), Fort Gansevoort, Fort Hamilton, Fort Hancock, New Jersey, Fort Jay, Fort Lafayette, Fort Lee Historic Park, Fort Lee, New Jersey, Fort Michie, Fort Nassau (North River), Fort Orange (New Netherland), Fort Pulaski National Monument, Fort Schuyler, Fort Slocum, Fort Tilden, Fort Tompkins (Staten Island), Fort Totten (Queens), Fort Totten Officers' Club, Fort Wadsworth, Fort Washington (Manhattan), Fortification, Fortifications of New Netherland, Founding Fathers of the United States, France in the American Revolutionary War, Francis Nicholson, Frederick North, Lord North, Freemasonry, French and Indian War, Gateway National Recreation Area, George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville, George Washington, George Washington Bridge, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Glorious Revolution, Governors Island, Governors Island National Monument, Harbor Defense Command, Harbor Defense Museum, Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound, Hartshorne Woods Park, Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730), Henry Hudson, Henry Larcom Abbot, Henry Sloughter, Heraldry, Hessian (soldier), Highlands Air Force Station, HMS Asia (1764), HMS Eagle (1774), Hudson River, Jacob Leisler, James II of England, James S. Wadsworth, Jersey City, New Jersey, John Adams, John Burgoyne, John F. Kennedy International Airport, John Paul Jones Park, John Sullivan (general), Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story, Joseph H. Potter, Kingston, New York, Landing at Kip's Bay, Leisler's Rebellion, Liberty Island, List of coastal fortifications of the United States, Long Island Sound, Man-of-war, Manhattan, Mary II of England, Masonry, Militia, Miller Field (Staten Island), Mobilization, National Archives and Records Administration, National Park Service, Naval Air Station Rockaway, Naval mine, Navesink, New Jersey, New Amsterdam, New France, New Jersey, New Netherland, New Netherland Company, New Rochelle, New York, New Sweden, New York (state), New York Army National Guard, New York City, New York City draft riots, New York Harbor, Newport, Rhode Island, No taxation without representation, North American fur trade, Oozlefinch, Ordnance Corps (United States Army), Parapet, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parrott rifle, Patriot (American Revolution), Peach Tree War, Pelham (village), New York, Pepperrell Air Force Base, Peter Stuyvesant, Picatinny Arsenal, Plunging fire, Prisoner of war, Project Nike, Province of New Jersey, Province of New York, QF 4.7-inch Gun Mk I–IV, QF 6 inch /40 naval gun, Queens, Quick-firing gun, Railway gun, Regular Army (United States), Rhode Island, Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Robert Cobb Kennedy, Robert E. Lee, Rockaway Township, New Jersey, Rodman gun, Sandstone, Sandy Hook, Sandy Hook Proving Ground, Schenectady massacre, Seacoast defense in the United States, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Seven Years' War, Sons of Liberty, Spanish Navy, Stamp Act 1765, Stamp Act Congress, State University of New York Maritime College, Staten Island, Staten Island Peace Conference, Statue of Liberty, Submarine mines in United States harbor defense, Swinburne Island, The Bronx, The Narrows, The New York Times, Third Anglo-Dutch War, Thirteen Colonies, Throggs Neck, Tory, Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Westminster (1674), Turtle (submersible), U.S. Army Engineer School, United States Army Coast Artillery Corps, United States Army Reserve, United States Declaration of Independence, United States Navy, United States Secretary of War, Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Wall Street, War of 1812, Washington Heights, Manhattan, Western Front (World War I), Whigs (British political party), William Crowninshield Endicott, William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, William III of England, Yorktown campaign, 10-inch gun M1895, 12"/45 caliber Mark 5 gun, 12-inch coast defense mortar, 12-inch gun M1895, 120 mm M1 gun, 14-inch gun M1907, 16"/50 caliber M1919 gun, 16"/50 caliber Mark 2 gun, 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun, 1689 Boston revolt, 244th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, 245th Coast Artillery (United States), 3-inch gun M1903, 3-inch Gun M1918, 5-inch gun M1897, 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment, 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, 6-inch gun M1897, 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, 8-inch M1888, 8-inch Mk. 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Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving Grounds) is a United States Army facility located adjacent to Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford County).
The Air Defense Artillery branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles).
Albany is the capital of the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County.
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An anti-submarine indicator loop was a submerged cable laid on the sea bed and used to detect the passage of enemy submarines.
An anti-submarine net or anti-submarine boom is a boom placed across the mouth of a harbour or a strait for protection against submarines.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material.
Barbettes are several types of gun emplacement in terrestrial fortifications or on naval ships.
Barnum's American Museum was located at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street in New York City, United States, from 1841 to 1865.
Battery Weed is a four-tiered 19th century fortification guarding the Narrows, the main approach from the Atlantic Ocean to New York City.
The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777.
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Fort Washington was a battle fought in New York on November 16, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain.
The Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery was an American Revolutionary War battle fought in the highlands of the Hudson River valley, not far from West Point, on October 6, 1777.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Harlem Heights was fought during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Long Island is also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights.
The Battle of Pell's Point (October 18, 1776), also known as the Battle of Pelham, was a skirmish fought between British and American troops during the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battle of White Plains was a battle in the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 28, 1776, near White Plains, New York.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
Bear Mountain is one of the best-known peaks of New York's Hudson Highlands.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Bermuda Base Command was a command of the United States Army, established to defend the British Colony of Bermuda, located 640 miles off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
The Black Tom explosion on July 30, 1916, in Jersey City, New Jersey, was an act of sabotage by German agents to destroy American-made munitions that were to be supplied to the Allies in World War I. This incident, which happened prior to American entry into World War I, is also notable for causing damage to the Statue of Liberty.
The Blockade of Germany, or the Blockade of Europe, occurred from 1914 to 1919.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
Several boards have been appointed by US presidents or Congress to evaluate the US defensive fortifications, primarily coastal defenses near strategically important harbors on the US shores, its territories, and its protectorates.
--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
Breezy Point is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens, located on the western end of the Rockaway peninsula, between Rockaway Inlet and Jamaica Bay on the landward side, and the Atlantic Ocean.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Brooklyn Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood within the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812.
The Buttermilk Channel, shown in red, in Upper New York Bay Buttermilk Channel is a small tidal strait in Upper New York Bay in New York City, approximately long and wide, separating Governors Island from Brooklyn.
In artillery, caliber or calibredifference in British English and American English spelling is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or by extension a relative measure of the length.
The Canon de 155 Grande Puissance Filloux (GPF) mle.1917 was a WWI-era French-designed 155 mm cannon used by the French Army and the United States Army during the first half of the 20th century in both towed and self-propelled mountings.
Cape Charles Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
A caponier is a type of defensive structure in a fortification.
A casemate, sometimes erroneously rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired.
Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton, previously known as Castle Garden, is a circular sandstone fort now located in Battery Park, in Manhattan, New York City.
Castle Williams is a circular fortification of red sandstone on the northwest point of Governors Island, part of a system of forts designed and constructed in the early 19th century to protect New York City from naval attack.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
Charles Lee (– 2 October 1782) served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence.
The Chesapeake–Leopard affair was a naval engagement that occurred off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, on 22 June 1807, between the British warship and the American frigate.
The cheval de frise (plural: chevaux de frise, "Frisian horses") was a medieval defensive anti-cavalry measure consisting of a portable frame (sometimes just a simple log) covered with many projecting long iron or wooden spikes or spears.
In geography and geology, a cliff is a vertical, or nearly vertical, rock exposure.
In the U.S. Coast Artillery, the term fire control system was used to refer to the personnel, facilities, technology and procedures that were used to observe designated targets, estimate their positions, calculate firing data for guns directed to hit those targets, and assess the effectiveness of such fire, making corrections where necessary.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, an example of an Early Modern coastal defense Coastal defence (or defense) and coastal fortification are measures taken to provide protection against military attack at or near a coastline (or other shoreline), for example, fortification and coastal artillery.
The Collect Pond, or Fresh Water Pond,, p. 250.
Coney Island (Nortons Point) Light is a lighthouse located in Sea Gate, on the west end of Coney Island, Brooklyn, in New York City, east of New York Harbor's main channel.
Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
In the 1860s, the Copperheads were a vocal faction of Democrats in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War and wanted an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
David Bushnell (August 30, 1740 – 1824 or 1826), of Westbrook, Connecticut, was an American inventor, a patriot, a scholar, and a veteran of the Revolutionary War.
Captain David Pieterszoon de Vries (c. 1593 in La Rochelle – September 13, 1655 in HoornJoris van der Meer, 2001 (Dutch)) was a Dutch navigator from Hoorn, Holland.
Davids' Island is a island off the coast of New Rochelle, New York, in Long Island Sound.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
A disappearing gun, a gun mounted on a disappearing carriage, is an obsolete type of artillery which enabled a gun to hide from direct fire and observation.
The Dominion of New England in America (1686–89) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies (except for the Colony of Pennsylvania).
The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
A dynamite gun is any of a class of artillery pieces that use compressed air to propel an explosive projectile (such as one containing dynamite).
The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City.
The Eastern Defense Command was first established as the Northeast Defense Command on 17 March 1941 as one of four U.S. Army continental defense commands to plan and prepare for and, if need be, execute defense against enemy attack in the months before America's entry into World War II.
Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in North America.
Edward Rutledge (November 23, 1749 – January 23, 1800) was an American politician, and youngest signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Elihu Root (February 15, 1845February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt and as Secretary of War under Roosevelt and President William McKinley.
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954.
In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle.
Estêvão Gomes, also known in the Spanish versions of his name as Estevan Gómez or Esteban Gómez (Porto, Kingdom of Portugal, c. 1483 - Paraguay River, 1538), was a Portuguese cartographer and explorer.
Evacuation Day on November 25 marks the day in 1783 when British troops departed from New York City on Manhattan Island, after the end of the American Revolutionary War.
Ezra Lee (August 1749 – October 29, 1821) was an American colonial soldier, best known for commanding the Turtle submarine.
"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.
Far Rockaway is a neighborhood on the Rockaway Peninsula in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States.
Federal Hall is the name given to the first of two historic buildings located at 26 Wall Street, New York City.
A field gun is a field artillery piece.
The First Army is the oldest and longest established field army of the United States Army, having seen service in both World War I and World War II, under some of the most famous and distinguished officers of the U.S. Army.
A Patriot redoubt built in June 1776, located on Signal Hill at The Narrows on Staten Island.
Fort Amsterdam (subsequently named Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick, Fort James (again), Fort William Henry, Fort Anne and Fort George) was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan that was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626 until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution.
Fort Delaware is a harbor defense facility, designed by chief engineer Joseph Gilbert Totten and located on Pea Patch Island in the Delaware River.
Fort Drum (originally known as El Fraile Island), also known as "the concrete battleship", is a heavily fortified island situated at the mouth of Manila Bay in the Philippines, due south of Corregidor Island.
Fort Gansevoort was a former United States Army fort in the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Historic Fort Hamilton is located in the southwestern corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn surrounded by the communities of Bay Ridge and Dyker Heights, and is one of several posts that are part of the region which is headquartered by the Military District of Washington.
Fort Hancock is a former United States Army fort at Sandy Hook in Middletown Township New Jersey.
Fort Jay, a coastal star fort and the name of the former Army post, is located on Governors Island in New York Harbor.
Fort Lafayette was an island coastal fortification in the Narrows of New York Harbor, built offshore from Fort Hamilton at the southern tip of what is now Bay Ridge in the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Fort Lee Historic Park is located atop a bluff of the Hudson Palisades overlooking Burdett's Landing, known as Mount Constitution, in Fort Lee, New Jersey.
Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, situated atop the Hudson Palisades.
Fort Michie was a United States Army coastal defense site on Great Gull Island, New York.
Fort Nassau (a.k.a. Fort van Nassouwen) was the first Dutch settlement in North America, located beside the "North River" (the modern Hudson) within present-day Albany, New York, in the United States.
Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.
Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island between Savannah and Tybee Island, Georgia.
Fort Schuyler is a preserved 19th century fortification in the New York City borough of the Bronx.
Fort Slocum, New York was a US military post which occupied Davids' Island in the western end of Long Island Sound in the city of New Rochelle, New York from 1867 to 1965.
Fort Tilden, also known as Fort Tilden Historic District, is a former United States Army installation on the coast in the New York City borough of Queens.
Fort Tompkins is a fort on Staten Island in New York City, within what is now Fort Wadsworth at the Narrows.
Fort Totten is a former active United States Army installation in the New York City borough of Queens.
Fort Totten Officers' Club, also known as the Castle, is a historic clubhouse located at Fort Totten in Bayside, Queens, New York.
Fort Wadsworth is a former United States military installation on Staten Island in New York City, situated on The Narrows which divide New York Bay into Upper and Lower halves, a natural point for defense of the Upper Bay and Manhattan beyond.
Fort Washington was a fortified position near the north end of Manhattan Island (now part of the New York City neighborhood of Washington Heights) and was located at the highest point on the island.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th century colony of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the northeastern coast of North America.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.
Lieutenant-General Sir Francis Nicholson (12 November 1655 –) was a British Army general and colonial official who served as the Governor of South Carolina from 1721 to 1725.
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, (13 April 17325 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790 was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
Gateway National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area in the Port of New York and New Jersey, U.S.A. Scattered over Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island, New York, and Monmouth County, New Jersey, it provides recreational opportunities that are rare for a dense urban environment, including ocean swimming, bird watching, boating, hiking and camping.
George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville PC (26 January 1716 – 26 August 1785), styled The Honourable George Sackville until 1720, Lord George Sackville from 1720 to 1770 and Lord George Germain from 1770 to 1782, was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American War of Independence.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River between the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, and the borough of Fort Lee in New Jersey.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, approximately from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by Buttermilk Channel, approximately.
Governors Island National Monument, a unit of the US National park system, is located in New York City on of Governors Island, a island located a few hundred meters off the southern tip of Manhattan Island at the confluence of the Hudson and East Rivers in New York Harbor.
A Harbor Defense Command was a military organization of the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps designated in 1925 from predecessor organizations dating from circa 1895.
The Harbor Defense Museum, sometimes called The Caponier, located within the grounds of Fort Hamilton in the Bay Ridge section of Brooklyn is a 19th-century fort, New York City's only military museum and one of only seventy military museums in the United States that is funded and operated by the Defense Department.
The Harbor Defenses of Long Island Sound was a United States Army Coast Artillery Corps harbor defense command.
Hartshorne Woods Park (pronounced: heart shorn) is a county park located in Northern Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, in New Jersey's Bayshore Region.
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB, MP (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795.
Henry Hudson (1565–1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.
Henry Larcom Abbot (August 13, 1831 – October 1, 1927) was a military engineer and career officer in the United States Army.
Henry Sloughter (died 1691) was briefly colonial governor of New York and Massachusetts in 1691.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.
Highlands Air Force Station was a military installation in Middletown Township near the borough of Highlands, New Jersey.
HMS Asia was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 3 March 1764 at Portsmouth Dockyard.
HMS Eagle was a 64-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 2 May 1774 at Rotherhithe.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
Jacob Leisler (ca. 1640 – May 16, 1691) was a German-born colonist in the Province of New York.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Samuel Wadsworth (October 30, 1807 – May 8, 1864) was a philanthropist, politician, and a Union general in the American Civil War.
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey, after Newark.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, dramatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792.
John F. Kennedy International Airport (often referred to as Kennedy Airport, New York-JFK or simply JFK) is the primary international airport serving New York City.
John Paul Jones Park is a public park located in Fort Hamilton, Bay Ridge, Brooklyn.
John Sullivan (February 17, 1740 – January 23, 1795) was an Irish-American General in the Revolutionary War, a delegate in the Continental Congress, Governor of New Hampshire and a United States federal judge.
Joint Expeditionary Base-Fort Story, commonly called simply Fort Story is a sub-installation of Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek–Fort Story, which is operated by the United States Navy.
Joseph Haydn Potter (October 12, 1822 – December 1, 1892) was a career soldier from the state of New Hampshire who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Kingston is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States.
The Landing at Kip's Bay was a British amphibious landing during the New York Campaign in the American Revolutionary War on September 15, 1776, occurring on the eastern shore of present-day Manhattan.
Leisler's Rebellion was an uprising in late 17th century colonial New York in which German American merchant and militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of the colony's south and ruled it from 1689 to 1691.
Liberty Island is a federally owned island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty.
The United States built numerous coastal defenses to defend major cities, ports and straits from the Colonial era through World War II.
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of Bronx County, New York City, southern Westchester County, and Connecticut to the north, and the North Shore of Long Island, to the south.
The man-of-war (pl. men-of-war; also man of war, man-o'-war, man o' war, or simply man) was a British Royal Navy expression for a powerful warship or frigate from the 16th to the 19th century.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Miller Field was a United States Army facility on Staten Island, New York, in New Dorp.
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
Naval Air Station Rockaway adjoined Fort Tilden on the western portion of the Rockaway Peninsula in the New York City borough of Queens.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
Navesink is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) within Middletown Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Netherland Company was a chartered company of Dutch merchants.
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state.
New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige; Uusi Ruotsi; Nova Svecia) was a Swedish colony along the lower reaches of the Delaware River in North America from 1638 to 1655, established during the Thirty Years' War, when Sweden was a great power.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The New York Army National Guard is a component of the New York National Guard and the Army National Guard.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
The North American fur trade was the industry and activities related to the acquisition, trade, exchange, and sale of animal furs in North America.
The Oozlefinch is the unofficial historic mascot of the Air Defense Artillery – and formerly of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps.
The United States Army Ordnance Corps, formerly the United States Army Ordnance Department, is a Sustainment branch of the United States Army, headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia.
A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Parrott rifle was a type of muzzle-loading rifled artillery weapon used extensively in the American Civil War.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
The Peach Tree War, also known as the Peach War, was a large-scale attack by the Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River (then called the North River), centered on New Amsterdam and Pavonia on September 15, 1655.
The Village of Pelham is a village in Westchester County, New York, United States.
Pepperrell Air Force Base, previously known as Fort Pepperrell, was a former United States military base located in St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada which operated from 1941-1961.
Peter Stuyvesant (English pronunciation /ˈstaɪv.ə.sənt/; in Dutch also Pieter and Petrus Stuyvesant; (1610Mooney, James E. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in p.1256–1672) served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city (e.g. Stuyvesant High School, Stuyvesant Town–Peter Cooper Village, Stuyvesant Plaza, Bedford–Stuyvesant neighborhood, etc.). Stuyvesant's accomplishments as director-general included a great expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, and Broadway. Stuyvesant, himself a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, opposed religious pluralism and came into conflict with Lutherans, Jews, Roman Catholics and Quakers as they attempted to build places of worship in the city and practice their faiths.
The Picatinny Arsenal is an American military research and manufacturing facility located on of land in Jefferson and Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States, encompassing Picatinny Lake and Lake Denmark.
Plunging fire is a form of indirect fire, gunfire fired at a trajectory such as to fall on its target from above.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
Project Nike, (Greek: Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced), was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
The Province of New Jersey was one of the Middle Colonies of Colonial America and became New Jersey, a state of United States in 1783.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
The QF 4.7 inch Gun Mks I, II, III, and IVMk I.
The QF 6 inch 40 calibre naval gun (Quick-Firing) was used by many United Kingdom-built warships around the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century.
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
A quick-firing gun (in U.S. parlance, 'rapid-firing') is an artillery piece, typically a gun or howitzer, which has several characteristics which taken together mean the weapon can fire at a fast rate.
A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.
The Regular Army of the United States succeeded the Continental Army as the country's permanent, professional land-based military force.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.
Robert Cobb Kennedy (25 October 1835–25 March 1865) was a Confederate operative who was hanged for his role in a failed plot to burn New York City during the American Civil War.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Rockaway Township is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States.
Drawing comparing Model 1844 8-inch columbiad and Model 1861 10-inch "Rodman" columbiad. The powder chamber on the older columbiad is highlighted by the red box. The Rodman gun is any of a series of American Civil War–era columbiads designed by Union artilleryman Thomas Jackson Rodman (1815–1871).
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sandy Hook is a barrier spit in Middletown Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States.
The Sandy Hook Proving Ground was a military facility along the Atlantic coast of New Jersey established by the Secretary of War on August 7, 1874, to serve as the United States Army's first proving ground for the testing of ordnance and materiel.
The Schenectady Massacre was an attack against the village of Schenectady in the colony of New York on 8 February 1690.
Seacoast defense was a major concern for the United States from its independence until World War II.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization that was created in the Thirteen American Colonies.
The Spanish Navy (Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world.
The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that imposed a direct tax on the colonies of British America and required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765, in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
SUNY Maritime College is a maritime college located in the Bronx, New York, United States in historic Fort Schuyler on the Throggs Neck peninsula where the East River meets Long Island Sound.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
The Staten Island Peace Conference was a brief meeting held in the hope of bringing an end to the American Revolutionary War.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
The modern era of defending American harbors with controlled mines or submarine mines (also called "naval mines" and originally referred to as "torpedoes") began in the post-Civil War period, and was a major part of US harbor defenses from circa 1900 to 1947.
Swinburne Island is the smaller of two artificial islands created in the Lower New York Bay east of South Beach, Staten Island for quarantine of immigrants, the other being Hoffman Island.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Third Anglo-Dutch War or the Third Dutch War (Derde Engelse Oorlog "Third English War", or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog "Third English Sea War") was a military conflict between the Kingdom of England and the Dutch Republic, that lasted between April 1672 and early 1674.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Throggs Neck (also known as Throgs Neck) is a narrow spit of land in the southeastern portion of the borough of the Bronx in New York City.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
Turtle (also called American Turtle) was the world's first submersible vessel with a documented record of use in combat.
The United States Army Engineer School (USAES) is located at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri.
The U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps (CAC) was an administrative corps responsible for coastal, harbor, and anti-aircraft defense of the United States between 1901 and 1950.
The United States Army Reserve (USAR) is the federal reserve force of the United States Army.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration.
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (also referred to as the Verrazano Bridge and formerly the Narrows Bridge) is a double-decked suspension bridge that connects the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn and is named for Giovanni da Verrazzano.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Washington Heights is a neighborhood in the northern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Crowninshield Endicott (November 19, 1826 – May 6, 1900) was an American politician and Secretary of War in the first administration of President Grover Cleveland.
General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British Army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
The Yorktown or Virginia campaign was a series of military maneuvers and battles during the American Revolutionary War that culminated in the decisive Siege of Yorktown in October 1781.
The 10-inch Gun M1895 (254 mm) and its variants the M1888 and M1900 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945.
The 12″/45 caliber Mark 5 gun was an American naval gun that first entered service in 1906.
The 12-inch coast defense mortar was a weapon of caliber emplaced during the 1890s and early 20th century to defend US harbors from seaborne attack.
The 12-inch coastal defense gun M1895 (305 mm) and its variants the M1888 and M1900 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945.
The 120 mm Gun M1 is the United States Army's standard super-heavy anti-aircraft gun, complementing the smaller and more mobile M2 90 mm gun in service.
The 14-inch Gun M1907 (356 mm) and its variants the M1907MI, M1909, and M1910 were large coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1895 and 1945.
The 16 inch Gun M1919 (406 mm) was a large coastal artillery piece installed to defend the United States' major seaports between 1920 and 1946.
The 16"/50 caliber Mark 2 gun and the near-identical Mark 3 were guns originally designed and built for the United States Navy as the main armament for the ''South Dakota''-class battleships and s. At the time, they were among the heaviest guns built for use as naval artillery.
The 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 – United States Naval Gun was the main armament of the s.
The 1689 Boston revolt was a popular uprising on April 18, 1689 against the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England.
The 244th Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in June 24, 1799 as the 6th Regiment of Infantry (NYNG).
The 245th Coast Artillery Regiment was a Coast Artillery Corps regiment in the New York National Guard.
The 3-inch gun M1903 and its predecessors the M1898 and M1902 were rapid fire breech-loading artillery guns with a 360-degree traverse.
The 3-inch M1918 gun was a United States 3-inch anti-aircraft gun that entered service in 1918 and served until it was finally superseded by the 3" M3 gun in 1930.
The 5-inch gun M1897 (127 mm) and its variant the M1900 were coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1897 and 1920.
The 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army first organized in 1917 as a railway gun unit.
The 5th Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an Air Defense Artillery regiment of the United States Army, first formed in 1861 in the Regular Army as the 5th Regiment of Artillery.
The 6-inch gun M1897 (152 mm) and its variants the M1900, M1903, M1905, M1908, and M1 (a.k.a. T2) were coastal artillery pieces installed to defend major American seaports between 1897 and 1945.
The 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army, first constituted in the Regular Army as the 7th Regiment of Artillery on 8 March 1898.
The 8-inch Gun M1888 (203 mm) was a U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps gun, initially deployed 1898-1908 in about 75 fixed emplacements, usually on a disappearing carriage.
The 8-inch Navy gun MkVIM3A2 on railway mount M1A1 was a World War II improved replacement for the World War I-era 8-inch (203 mm) M1888 gun and was used by the US Army's Coast Artillery Corps in US harbor defenses.
The 90–mm Gun M1/M2/M3 is an American heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun, playing a role similar to the German 8.8cm Flak 18.
Coast Defenses of Eastern New York, Coast Defenses of Sandy Hook, Coast Defenses of Southern New York, Harbor Defenses of Eastern New York, Harbor Defenses of Sandy Hook, Harbor Defenses of Southern New York.