493 relations: Actor-manager, Adolf Hitler, Aeschylus, African National Congress, Aide-de-camp, Alan Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, Alec Douglas-Home, Alexander Macmillan, 2nd Earl of Stockton, Algiers, Allen & Unwin, Allied Force Headquarters, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Andrew Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire, Andrew Goodpaster, Aneurin Bevan, Anglicanism, Anthony Eden, Anthony Trollope, Anti-establishment, Apartheid, Appeasement, Arab world, Archibald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso, Armistice Day, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Armoured fighting vehicle, Ashdown Forest, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Baghdad Pact, Balance of payments, Balliol College, Oxford, Ballistic missile, Battle of Flers–Courcelette, Battle of Loos, Battle of Mons, Battle of the Somme, Bedford, Beeching cuts, Beefsteak Club, Belgravia, Ben Pimlott, Benjamin Disraeli, Bermuda, Bill Deedes, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Birch Grove, Blue Steel (missile), ..., Blue Streak (missile), Bodleian Library, Bomber, Bonar Law, Brendan Bracken, British Army, British Empire, British Newspaper Archive, British Somaliland, British War Medal, Bromley (UK Parliament constituency), Bromley by-election, 1945, BT Group, Buck's Club, C. P. Snow, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Cadogan Place, Canaletto, Cape Town, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Carlton Club, Casablanca Conference, Caserta, Chairman of the Conservative Party, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Hill, Baron Hill of Luton, Charles Keightley, Charles, Prince of Wales, Chatsworth House, Chelsea Barracks, Chelsea, London, Chelwood Gate, Chief of the Defence Staff (United Kingdom), Chief Whip of the Conservative Party, Child's Special Allowance, Christopher Soames, Churchill caretaker ministry, Clement Attlee, Collaborationism, Common Agricultural Policy, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Secretary-General, Conscription in the United Kingdom, Conservative Monday Club, Conservative Party (UK), County Durham, Croft (land), Cuban Missile Crisis, Curtis Keeble, Daily Express, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, Damaskinos of Athens, Daniel MacMillan, David Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles, David Lloyd George, David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech, Decolonisation of Africa, Decolonization, Defensive fighting position, Dekemvriana, Demand management, Deng Xiaoping, Denis Thatcher, DePauw University, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory, Dominic Sandbrook, Drawing room, Duff Cooper, Duncan Sandys, Dunkirk evacuation, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earl of Stockton, East Sussex, Economic history of the United Kingdom, Economic planning, Economic Secretary to the Treasury, Edward Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth, Edward Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire, Edward Heath, Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 1952, Elizabeth II, Emrys Hughes, Enoch Powell, Ernest Marples, Eton College, European Economic Community, European Free Trade Association, Factories Act 1961, Falklands War, Federation of Malaya, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Ferdinand Mount, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, First Secretary of State, Frederick Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, Frederick Fox Riley, Frederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton, Free France, GAM-87 Skybolt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Geneva Summit (1955), Geoffrey Lloyd, Baron Geoffrey-Lloyd, George Chetwynd, George Hall, 1st Viscount Hall, George II of Greece, George M. Humphrey, Georgian era, Ghana, Gladwyn Jebb, Gold Coast (British colony), Government spending, Governor General of Canada, Great Depression, Greek People's Liberation Army, Grenadier Guards, Guy Kindersley, Guy Mollet, H. H. Asquith, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Harold Balfour, 1st Baron Balfour of Inchrye, Harold Macmillan, Harold Nicolson, Harold Watkinson, Harold Wilson, Harry Crookshank, Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, Henry Brooke, Baron Brooke of Cumnor, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Henry Channon, Henry Maitland Wilson, Herbert Hoover Jr., Hereditary peer, High church, Hitchin (UK Parliament constituency), HM Treasury, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Home Secretary, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Housing authority, Hugh Dalton, Hugh Gaitskell, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Humphry Berkeley, Iain Macleod, Incomes policy, Indiana University, Industrial Charter, Isle of Arran, Isotopes of polonium, Italian Somaliland, James Callaghan, Jane Austen, Jeremy Thorpe, John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, John Boyd-Carpenter, Baron Boyd-Carpenter, John F. 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Lord Chancellor, Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal, Lords Temporal, Macmillan Publishers, Malaysia, Margaret Thatcher, Mark Thatcher, Maurice Macmillan, Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, Means of production, Members of the House of Lords, Michael Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, Military history of Finland during World War II, Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Minister of Defence (United Kingdom), Minister of Supply, Ministry of Aviation, Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Ministry of Supply, Mixed economy, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Monetarism, Monetary policy, Multilateral Force, Munich Agreement, Nanny, Nassau Agreement, National Economic Development Council, National Liberation Front (Greece), NATO, Neil Kinnock, Neo-Keynesian economics, Neville Chamberlain, Nigel Birch, Baron Rhyl, Nigeria, Night of the Long Knives (1962), Nikita Khrushchev, Noel Charles, Northern England, Norway Debate, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom, Nuclear weapons of the United States, Nuri al-Said, Nursery (room), Officer (armed forces), Official bank rate, Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos, Oliver Poole, 1st Baron Poole, Oliver Stanley, Oliver Tambo, One-nation conservatism, Operation Avalanche, Operation Dragoon, Operation Grapple, Operation Keelhaul, Operation Torch, Order of Merit, Orpington by-election, 1962, Oswald Mosley, Ottawa, Oxford, Oxford by-election, 1938, Oxford Union, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary secretary, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Patrick Neill, Baron Neill of Bladen, Peerage, Percentages agreement, Percy Mills, 1st Viscount Mills, Permanent Secretary, Persian Gulf, Peter Hennessy, Peter Thorneycroft, PGM-17 Thor, Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, Philip Goodhart, Philippe Pétain, Pietro Badoglio, Polish Corridor, Pragmatism, Pratt's, Premium Bond, President of the Board of Trade, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Privatization, Privy council, Profumo affair, Prostate cancer, Quintin Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, Rab Butler, Raymond Asquith, Reginald Manningham-Buller, 1st Viscount Dilhorne, Reginald Maudling, Rembrandt, Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II, Resident (title), Richard Crossman, Richard Davenport-Hines, Robert Boothby, Baron Boothby, Robert Browning, Robert Daniel Murphy, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, Robert McNamara, Robert Strother Stewart, Ronald Knox, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Scobie, Roosevelt Institute for American Studies, Roy Jenkins, Royal Air Force, Royal Over-Seas League, Rule, Britannia!, Said bin Taimur, Sandie Lindsay, 1st Baron Lindsay of Birker, Saudi Arabia, Seán O'Casey, Second lieutenant, Secretary of State for Air, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of State for Education, Secretary of State for Employment, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Secretary of State for Scotland, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for Transport, Secretary to the Treasury, Sellafield, Selwyn Lloyd, Shridath Ramphal, Sierra Leone, Sir Edward Campbell, 1st Baronet, Sloane Square, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Somalia, Southern Cameroons, Soviet Union, Special Air Service, Special Relationship, Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire, Spencer, Indiana, St Giles' Church, Horsted Keynes, Stanley Baldwin, Stockton-on-Tees (UK Parliament constituency), Strategic Air Command, Sub-Saharan Africa, Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Summer Fields School, Supermac (cartoon), Tanganyika, Tanzania, Terence Lewin, The Economist, The Establishment, The Gondoliers, The Guardian, The Middle Way (Harold Macmillan book), The Midlands, The Minister and the Massacres, The New York Times, The Right Honourable, Theatre Record, Thermonuclear weapon, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Tibet, Tom Denning, Baron Denning, Tory corporatism, Tory Reform Group, Track (rail transport), Trades Union Congress, Treaty of Varkiza, Trinidad and Tobago, Truman Doctrine, Turf Club (gentlemen's club), Uganda, UGM-27 Polaris, UK miners' strike (1984–85), Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, United Kingdom general election, 1923, United Kingdom general election, 1924, United Kingdom general election, 1929, United Kingdom general election, 1931, United Kingdom general election, 1945, United Kingdom general election, 1951, United Kingdom general election, 1959, United Kingdom general election, 1964, United Kingdom general election, 1979, United States, United States Congress, United States Navy, United States Secretary of Defense, United States Secretary of the Treasury, United States Under Secretary of State, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, V Corps (United Kingdom), Vassall Tribunal, Vernon Bogdanor, Vichy France, Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire, Victor Weisz, Victorian era, Victory Medal (United Kingdom), Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne, Walter Monckton, Welfare state, West Berlin, Western Front (World War I), Westminster Abbey, Westminster St George's (UK Parliament constituency), White House, White House Office of the Staff Secretary, White's, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, William Ewart Gladstone, William Penney, Baron Penney, William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate, William Wordsworth, Wind of Change (speech), Windscale fire, Winston Churchill, Winter War, Winthrop W. Aldrich, Workweek and weekend, World War I, World War II, Wyndham Portal, 1st Viscount Portal, Yalta Conference, Zanzibar, 1922 Committee, 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, 1960 U-2 incident. Expand index (443 more) » « Shrink index
An actor-manager is a leading actor who sets up their own permanent theatrical company and manages the company's business and financial arrangements, sometimes taking over the management of a theatre, to perform plays of their own choice and in which they will usually star.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
Alan Tindal Lennox-Boyd, 1st Viscount Boyd of Merton, CH, PC, DL (18 November 1904 – 8 March 1983) was a British Conservative politician.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
Alexander Daniel Alan Macmillan, 2nd Earl of Stockton (born 10 October 1943) is a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ) was the headquarters that controlled all Allied operational forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II from late 1942 until the end of the war in Europe in May 1945.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andrew Robert Buxton Cavendish, 11th Duke of Devonshire, (2 January 1920 – 3 May 2004), styled Lord Andrew Cavendish until 1944 and Marquess of Hartington from 1944 to 1950, was a British Conservative and later Social Democratic Party politician.
Andrew Jackson Goodpaster (February 12, 1915 – May 16, 2005) was an American Army General.
Aneurin Bevan (15 November 1897 – 6 July 1960), often known as Nye Bevan, was a Welsh Labour Party politician who was the Minister for Health in the post-war Attlee ministry from 1945-51.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
Anthony Trollope (24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist of the Victorian era.
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Archibald Henry Macdonald Sinclair, 1st Viscount Thurso, (22 October 1890 – 15 June 1970), known as Sir Archibald Sinclair, Bt, between 1912 and 1952, and often as Archie Sinclair, was a British politician and leader of the Liberal Party.
Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
Ashdown Forest is an ancient area of tranquil open heathland occupying the highest sandy ridge-top of the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.
The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is responsible for the design, manufacture and support of warheads for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons.
The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was fought during the Battle of the Somme in France, by the French Sixth Army and the British Fourth Army and Reserve Army, against the German 1st Army, during the First World War.
The Battle of Loos was a battle that took place from 1915 in France on the Western Front, during the First World War.
The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the First World War.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England.
The Beeching cuts (also Beeching Axe) were a reduction of route network and restructuring of the railways in Great Britain, according to a plan outlined in two reports, The Reshaping of British Railways (1963) and The Development of the Major Railway Trunk Routes (1965), written by Dr Richard Beeching and published by the British Railways Board.
Beefsteak Club is the name or nickname of several 18th and 19th-century male dining clubs in Britain and Australia, that celebrated the beefsteak as a symbol of patriotic and often Whig concepts of liberty and prosperity.
Belgravia is an affluent district in West London, shared within the authorities of both the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Benjamin John Pimlott FBA (4 July 1945 – 10 April 2004), known as Ben Pimlott, was a British historian of the post-war period in Britain.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
William Francis Deedes, Baron Deedes, (1 June 1913 – 17 August 2007) was a British Conservative Party politician, army officer and journalist; he was the first person in Britain to have been both a member of the Cabinet and the editor of a major daily newspaper, The Daily Telegraph.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Birch Grove was the family mansion of former British prime minister Harold Macmillan, Earl of Stockton, who died there in 1986.
The Avro Blue Steel was a British air-launched, rocket-propelled nuclear armed standoff missile, built to arm the V bomber force.
The de Havilland Propellers Blue Streak was a British medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM), and later the first stage of the Europa satellite launch vehicle.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923), commonly called Bonar Law, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1922 to 1923.
Brendan Rendall Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, PC (15 February 1901 – 8 August 1958) was an Irish-born businessman and a minister in the British Conservative cabinet.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Newspaper Archive web site provides access to searchable digitised archives of British newspapers.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
The British War Medal is a campaign medal of the United Kingdom which was awarded to officers and men of British and Imperial forces for service in the First World War.
Bromley is a former borough constituency in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Bromley by-election of 1945 was held on 14 November 1945.
BT Group plc (trading as BT and formerly British Telecom) is a British multinational telecommunications holding company with head offices in London, United Kingdom.
Buck's Club is a gentlemen's club in London, located at 18 Clifford Street, established in June 1919.
Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, CBE (15 October 1905 – 1 July 1980) was a novelist and English physical chemist who also served in several important positions in the British Civil Service and briefly in the UK government.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
Cadogan Place is a street in Belgravia, London.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.
The Carlton Club is a gentlemen's club in London which describes itself as the "oldest, and most important of all Conservative clubs in Britain." Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.
The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
Caserta is the capital of the province of Caserta in the Campania region of Italy.
The Chairman of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is responsible for party administration, overseeing the Conservative Campaign Headquarters (formerly Conservative Central Office).
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Hill, Baron Hill of Luton, PC (15 January 1904 – 22 August 1989) was a British cabinet minister, doctor and television executive.
General Sir Charles Frederic Keightley, (24 June 1901 – 17 June 1974) was a British Army officer during and following the Second World War.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England, in the Derbyshire Dales north-east of Bakewell and west of Chesterfield.
Chelsea Barracks was a British Army barracks located in the City of Westminster, London, adjacent to Chelsea and Belgravia, on Chelsea Bridge Road.
Chelsea is an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames.
Chelwood Gate is a small village within the civil parish of Haywards Heath in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England.
The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister.
The Chief Whip of the Conservative Party is responsible for administering the whipping system in the party which ensures that members attend and vote in parliament when the party leadership requires a majority vote.
Child's Special Allowance was a payment under the United Kingdom system of Social Security.
Arthur Christopher John Soames, Baron Soames, (12 October 1920 – 16 September 1987) was a British politician, a member of the Conservative Party and son-in-law of Winston Churchill.
The caretaker ministry of 1945 held office for two months from May to July in the United Kingdom, during the latter stages of the Second World War.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Commonwealth Secretary-General is the head of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the central body which has served the Commonwealth of Nations since its establishment in 1965, and responsible for representing the Commonwealth publicly.
Conscription in the United Kingdom has existed for two periods in modern times.
The Conservative Monday Club (usually known as the Monday Club) is a British political pressure group, aligned with the Conservative Party, though no longer endorsed by it.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land, usually small and arable, usually, but not always, with a crofter's dwelling thereon.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
Sir Herbert Ben Curtis Keeble GCMG (18 September 1922 – 6 December 2008) was a British diplomat and Ambassador to the Soviet Union between 1978 and 1982.
The Daily Express is a daily national middle market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.
Archbishop Damaskinos Papandreou (3 March 1891 – 20 May 1949) was the archbishop of Athens and All Greece from 1941 until his death.
Daniel MacMillan (Dòmhnall MacMhaolain; 13 September 1813 – 27 June 1857) was a Scottish publisher from the Isle of Arran, Scotland.
David McAdam Eccles, 1st Viscount Eccles (18 September 1904 – 24 February 1999) was an English Conservative politician.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir, (29 May 1900 – 27 January 1967), known as Sir David Maxwell Fyfe from 1942 to 1954 and as Viscount Kilmuir from 1954 to 1962, was a British Conservative politician, lawyer and judge who combined an industrious and precocious legal career with political ambitions that took him to the offices of Solicitor General, Attorney General, Home Secretary and Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.
William David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech (20 May 1918 – 26 January 1985), known as David Ormsby-Gore until 1964, was a British diplomat and Conservative politician.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
A defensive fighting position (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context, generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers.
The Dekemvriana (Δεκεμβριανά, "December events") refers to a series of clashes fought during World War II in Athens from 3 December 1944 to 11 January 1945 between the communist insurgents, the EAM, some parts of its military wing, the ELAS stationed in Athens, the KKE and the OPLA from oneside and from the otherside, the, some parts of the Hellenic Royal Army, the Hellenic Gendarmerie, the Cities Police, the far-right Organization X, among others and also the British Army.
Demand management is a planning methodology used to forecast, plan for and manage the demand for products and services.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, (10 May 1915 – 26 June 2003) was a British businessman and the husband of Margaret Thatcher, who was the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, is a private liberal arts college with an enrollment of approximately 2,300 students.
The Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (DPM) is a senior member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Derick Heathcoat-Amory, 1st Viscount Amory,, (26 December 1899 – 20 January 1981) was a British Conservative politician and member of the House of Lords.
Dominic Christopher Sandbrook (born 2 October 1974) is a British historian, author, columnist and television presenter.
A drawing room is a room in a house where visitors may be entertained.
Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich, (22 February 1890 – 1 January 1954), known as Duff Cooper, was a British Conservative Party politician, diplomat and author.
Edwin Duncan Sandys, Baron Duncan-Sandys, (24 January 1908 – 26 November 1987) was a British politician and minister in successive Conservative governments in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earl of Stockton is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
East Sussex is a county in South East England.
The economic history of the United Kingdom deals with the economic history of England and Great Britain from 1500 to the early 21st century.
Economic planning is a mechanism for the allocation of resources between and within organizations which is held in contrast to the market mechanism.
The Economic Secretary to the Treasury is the fifth-most senior ministerial post in the UK Treasury, after the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Chief Secretary to the Treasury, the paymaster-general and the financial secretary.
Edward Charles Gurney Boyle, Baron Boyle of Handsworth, (31 August 1923 – 28 September 1981) was a British Conservative Party politician and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds.
Edward William Spencer Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire, (6 May 1895 – 26 November 1950), known as the Marquess of Hartington from 1908 to 1938, was a British politician.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Emrys Daniel Hughes (10 July 1894 – 18 October 1969) was a British Labour politician, journalist and author.
John Enoch Powell (16 June 19128 February 1998) was a British politician, classical scholar, author, linguist, soldier, philologist and poet.
Alfred Ernest Marples, Baron Marples, PC (9 December 1907 – 6 July 1978), was a British Conservative politician who served as Postmaster General (1957–1959) and Minister of Transport (1959–1964).
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The Factories Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South Atlantic Conflict, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands, and its territorial dependency, the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as the Central African Federation (CAF), was a semi-independent federation of three southern African territories – the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland – between 1953 and 1963.
Sir William Robert Ferdinand Mount, 3rd Baronet, FRSL (born 2 July 1939), is a British writer, novelist and columnist for The Sunday Times as well as a political commentator.
Financial Secretary to the Treasury is a junior Ministerial post in the British Treasury.
First Secretary of State is an honorary title occasionally used in the Government of the United Kingdom.
Frederick James Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale, TD, PC (27 May 1914 – 14 September 2000) was a British Conservative politician.
Frederick Fox Riley (17 August 1869 – 3 February 1934) was a British trade unionist and politician.
Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton, (23 August 1883 – 14 December 1964) was an English businessman and statesman.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
The Douglas GAM-87 Skybolt (AGM-48 under the 1962 Tri-service system) was an air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) developed by the United States during the late 1950s.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Geneva Summit of 1955 was a Cold War-era meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
Geoffrey William Geoffrey-Lloyd, Baron Geoffrey-Lloyd, PC (17 January 1902 – 12 September 1984) was a British Conservative politician.
Sir George Roland Chetwynd, (14 May 1916 – 2 September 1982) was a British lecturer, politician and public servant.
George Henry Hall, 1st Viscount Hall, PC (31 December 1881 – 8 November 1965) was a British Labour politician.
George II (Γεώργιος Βʹ, Geórgios II; 19 July 1890 (NS) – 1 April 1947) reigned as King of Greece from 1922 to 1924 and from 1935 to 1947.
George Magoffin Humphrey (March 8, 1890January 20, 1970) was an American lawyer, businessman and banker.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Hubert Miles Gladwyn Jebb, 1st Baron Gladwyn known as Gladwyn Jebb (25 April 1900 – 24 October 1996), was a prominent British civil servant, diplomat and politician as well as the Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations for a little over three months.
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Greek People's Liberation Army or ELAS (Ελληνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός (ΕΛΑΣ), Ellinikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), often mistakenly called the National People's Liberation Army (Εθνικός Λαϊκός Απελευθερωτικός Στρατός, Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Stratós), was the military arm of the left-wing National Liberation Front (EAM) during the period of the Greek Resistance until February 1945, then during the Greek Civil War.
The Grenadier Guards (GREN GDS) is an infantry regiment of the British Army.
Guy Molesworth Kindersley (28 February 1876 – 30 November 1956) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom who represented Hitchin, Hertfordshire.
Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 – 3 October 1975) was a French politician.
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928), generally known as H. H. Asquith, was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Harold Harington Balfour, 1st Baron Balfour of Inchrye, (1 November 1897 – 21 September 1988) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom, and a flying ace of the First World War.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Sir Harold George Nicolson (21 November 1886 – 1 May 1968) was a British diplomat, author, diarist and politician.
Harold Arthur Watkinson, 1st Viscount Watkinson, (25 January 1910, in Walton on Thames – 19 December 1995, in Bosham) was a British businessman and Conservative Party politician.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
Harry Frederick Comfort Crookshank, 1st Viscount Crookshank, (27 May 1893 – 17 October 1961) was a British Conservative politician.
General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, (21 June 1887 – 17 December 1965), nicknamed Pug, was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat, remembered primarily for his role as Winston Churchill's chief military assistant during the Second World War and his service as the first Secretary General of NATO from 1952 to 1957.
Henry Brooke, Baron Brooke of Cumnor (9 April 1903 – 29 March 1984) was a British Conservative Party politician.
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 183622 April 1908) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1908 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 1899 to 1908.
Sir Henry Channon (7 March 1897 – 7 October 1958), often known as Chips Channon, was an American-born British Conservative politician, author and diarist.
Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson, (5 September 1881 – 31 December 1964), also known as Jumbo Wilson, was a senior British Army officer of the 20th century.
Herbert Charles Hoover Jr. (August 4, 1903 – July 9, 1969) was an engineer, businessman, and politician.
The Hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
Hitchin was a parliamentary constituency in Hertfordshire which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1885 until it was abolished for the 1983 general election.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
Holtzbrinck Publishing Group is a privately-held Stuttgart-based company which owns publishing companies worldwide.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A housing authority or ministry of housing is generally a governmental body that governs some aspect of the territory's housing or (called in general "shelter" or "living spaces"), often providing low rent or free apartments to qualified residents.
Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton, (16 August 1887 – 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Party economist and politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He shaped Labour Party foreign-policy in the 1930s, opposed pacifism, promoted rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938. He served in Churchill's wartime coalition cabinet. As Chancellor, he pushed his cheap money policy too hard, and mishandled the sterling crisis of 1947. Dalton's political position was already in jeopardy in 1947, when, he, seemingly inadvertently, revealed a sentence of the budget to a reporter minutes before delivering his budget speech. Prime Minister Clement Attlee accepted his resignation, but he later returned to the cabinet in relatively minor positions. His biographer Ben Pimlott characterised Dalton as peevish, irascible, given to poor judgment and lacking administrative talent. He also recognised that Dalton was a genuine radical and an inspired politician; a man, to quote his old friend and critic John Freeman, "of feeling, humanity, and unshakeable loyalty to people which matched his talent.".
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party.
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
Humphry John Berkeley (21 February 1926 – 14 November 1994) was a British politician noted for his many changes of parties and his efforts to effect homosexual law reform.
Iain Norman Macleod (11 November 1913 – 20 July 1970) was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister.
Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
The Industrial Charter: A Statement of Conservative Industrial Policy was a 1947 pamphlet and policy statement by the United Kingdom Conservative Party.
Arran (Eilean Arainn) or the Isle of Arran is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh largest Scottish island, at.
Polonium (84Po) has 33 isotopes, all of which are radioactive, with between 186 and 227 nucleons.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), often known as Jim Callaghan, served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980.
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
John Jeremy Thorpe (29 April 1929 – 4 December 2014) was a British politician who served as Member of Parliament for North Devon from 1959 to 1979, and as leader of the Liberal Party between 1967 and 1976.
John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed the "Home Front Prime Minister".
John Archibald Boyd-Carpenter, Baron Boyd-Carpenter, PC, DL (2 June 1908 – 11 July 1998) was a British Conservative politician.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
John Horace Freeman, (19 February 1915 – 20 December 2014) was a British politician, diplomat and broadcaster.
John Gretton, 1st Baron Gretton, (1 September 1867 – 2 June 1947) was a British businessman and Conservative politician.
John Hugh Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham, OBE, PC, DL (22 January 1911 – 7 March 1982) was a British Conservative politician.
Sir John Leonard Hunt (27 October 1929 – 19 September 2017) was a UK Conservative Party politician.
Colonel John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin (6 February 1893 – 24 January 1957) was a British army officer, Conservative Party politician and minister in Winston Churchill's war government.
John Scott Maclay, 1st Viscount Muirshiel, (26 October 1905 – 17 August 1992) was a British politician, sitting as a National Liberal and Conservative Member of Parliament before the party was fully assimilated into the Unionist Party in Scotland in the early 1960s.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
William John Christopher Vassall (20 September 1924 – 18 November 1996) was a British civil servant who spied for the Soviet Union, allegedly under pressure of blackmail, from 1954 until his arrest in 1962.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
Colonel Josiah Clement Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, (16 March 1872 – 26 July 1943), sometimes referred to as Josiah Wedgwood IV, was a British Liberal and Labour politician who served in government under Ramsay MacDonald.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Harold Julian Amery, Baron Amery of Lustleigh, PC (27 March 1919 – 3 September 1996), was a British politician of the Conservative Party, who served as a Member of Parliament (MP) for 39 of the 42 years between 1950 and 1992.
The Junior Carlton Club was a London gentlemen's club, now dissolved, which was established in 1864 and was disbanded in 1977.
Kathleen Agnes Cavendish, Marchioness of Hartington (née Kennedy; February 20, 1920 – May 13, 1948), also known as "Kick" Kennedy, was an American socialite.
Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, (17 January 1918 – 10 December 1994), known as Sir Keith Joseph, 2nd Baronet, for most of his political life, was a British barrister and politician.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The King's Royal Rifle Corps was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army that was originally raised in British North America as the Royal American Regiment (also known as the Royal Americans) in the Seven Years' War and for Loyalist service in the American Revolutionary War.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lady Ann Caroline Faber (29 August 1923 – 14 September 2016) was the daughter of Harold Macmillan (created Earl of Stockton in 1984) and his wife Lady Dorothy Macmillan.
Lady Dorothy Evelyn Macmillan (née Cavendish; 28 July 1900 – 21 May 1966) was a daughter of Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire and Evelyn Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire and the wife of the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.
The Leader of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom is the most senior politician of the Conservative Party.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The British Ambassador to the United States is in charge of the British Embassy, Washington, D.C., the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to the United States.
The United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (known formally in the United Kingdom as Ambassador of the United States to the Court of St James's) is the official representative of the President and the Government of the United States of America to the Queen and Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
This is a list of Chancellors of the University of Oxford in England by year of appointment.
Past elected Presidents of the Oxford Union at the University of Oxford are listed below, with their college and the year/term in which they served, if known.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom by age.
Literae Humaniores is the name given to an undergraduate course focused on Classics (Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Latin, ancient Greek and philosophy) at the University of Oxford and some other universities.
Ljubljana Gap (Ljubljanska vrata) is a geographical term for the transition area between the Alps and Dinaric Alps that passes from southwest to northeast between Trieste and Ljubljana.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal.
The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain.
In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is a British businessman.
Maurice Victor Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (27 January 1921 – 10 March 1984) was a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament.
William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, PC, ONB (25 May 1879 – 9 June 1964) was a Canadian-British newspaper publisher and backstage politician who was an influential figure in British media and politics of the first half of the 20th century.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
This is a list of members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Michael Antony Cristobal Noble, Baron Glenkinglas, PC (19 March 1913 – 15 May 1984) was a Scottish Tory politician. Noble was the youngest son of Sir John Noble, 1st Baronet, and the grandson of Sir Andrew Noble, 1st Baronet, and was educated at Eton College and Magdalen College, Oxford. A farmer, he was president of the Black Face Sheep Breeders' Association and the Highland Cattle Society. He was an Argyll County Councillor and a director of Associated Fisheries. From a by-election in June 1958 until his retirement in 1974 he was Member of Parliament for Argyll. Noble was a Scottish whip from 1960 and Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 1961. He was Secretary of State for Scotland from 1962 to 1964 in the governments of Harold Macmillan and Alec Douglas-Home, taking over from John Maclay after the Night of the Long Knives. He returned to government as President of the Board of Trade in 1970 and as Minister for Trade from 1970 to 1972 under Edward Heath. As Scottish Secretary, he presided over the last execution in Scotland when Henry John Burnett was hanged at Craiginches Prison in Aberdeen on the morning of 15 August 1963 by the hangman Harry Allen for the murder of merchant seaman Thomas Guyan. On 3 May 1974 Noble was elevated to the peerage as Baron Glenkinglas, of Cairndow in the County of Argyll. Although he was a good 25 years younger than the architectural historian Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel, the two had a very friendly feud. Noble is said to have joked that they were "best of enemies." He died in May 1984, aged 71.
Finland participated in the Second World War, twice battling the Soviet Union, and then against Nazi Germany.
The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food was a United Kingdom cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
The post of Minister of Defence was responsible for co-ordination of defence and security from its creation in 1940 until its abolition in 1964.
The Minister of Supply was the minister in the British Government responsible for the Ministry of Supply, which existed to co-ordinate the supply of equipment to the national armed forces.
The Ministry of Aviation was a department of the United Kingdom government established in 1959.
The Ministry of Housing and Local Government was a United Kingdom government department formed after the Second World War, covering the areas of housing and local government.
The Ministry of Supply (MoS) was a department of the UK Government formed in 1939 to co-ordinate the supply of equipment to all three British armed forces, headed by the Minister of Supply.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
The Multilateral Force (MLF) was an American proposal to produce a fleet of ballistic missile submarines and warships, each manned by international NATO crews, and armed with multiple nuclear-armed Polaris ballistic missiles.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
A nanny provides child care within the children's family setting.
The Nassau Agreement, concluded on 21 December 1962, was an agreement negotiated between President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and Harold Macmillan, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as a result of a series of meetings by the two leaders over three days in the Bahamas following Kennedy's announcement of his intended cancellation of the Skybolt.
The National Economic Development Council (NEDC) was a corporatist economic planning forum set up in 1962 in the United Kingdom to bring together management, trades unions and government in an attempt to address Britain's relative economic decline.
The National Liberation Front or EAM (Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο (ΕΑΜ), Ethniko Apeleftherotiko Metopo) was the main movement of the Greek Resistance during the Axis occupation of Greece.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, (born 28 March 1942) is a Welsh Labour Party politician.
Neo-Keynesian economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that was developed in the post-war period from the writings of John Maynard Keynes.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
Evelyn Nigel Chetwode Birch, Baron Rhyl (18 November 1906 – 8 March 1981) was a British Conservative politician.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
In British politics, the "Night of the Long Knives" was a major Cabinet reshuffle that took place on 13 July 1962.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Sir Noel Hughes Havelock Charles, KCMG, MC, 3rd Baronet (20 November 1891 - 8 September 1975) was a British diplomat.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
The Norway Debate, sometimes called the Narvik Debate, was a momentous debate in the British House of Commons during the Second World War on 7 and 8 May 1940.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.
In October 1952, the United Kingdom (UK) became the third country to independently develop and test nuclear weapons.
The United States was the first country to manufacture nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in combat, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
Nuri Pasha al-Said (December 1888 – 15 July 1958) (نوري السعيد) was an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate of Iraq and the Kingdom of Iraq.
A nursery is usually, in American connotations, a bedroom within a house or other dwelling set aside for an infant or toddler.
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
The official bank rate (also called the Bank of England base rate or BOEBR) is the interest rate that the Bank of England charges Banks for secured overnight lending.
Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos, (15 March 1893 – 21 January 1972) was a British businessman from the Lyttelton family who was brought into government during the Second World War, holding a number of ministerial posts.
Oliver Brian Sanderson Poole, 1st Baron Poole (11 August 191128 January 1993), was a British Conservative Party politician, soldier and businessman.
Oliver Frederick George Stanley, (4 May 1896 – 10 December 1950) was a prominent British Conservative politician who held many ministerial posts before his relatively early death.
Oliver Reginald Kaizana Tambo (27 October 191724 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and revolutionary who served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1967 to 1991.
One-nation conservatism (also known as one-nationism, or Tory democracy) is a form of British political conservatism advocating preservation of established institutions and traditional principles combined with political democracy, and a social and economic programme designed to benefit the common man.
Operation Avalanche was the codename for the Allied landings near the port of Salerno, executed on 9 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy.
Operation Dragoon (initially Operation Anvil) was the code name for the Allied invasion of Southern France on 15August 1944.
Operation Grapple was the name of four series of British nuclear weapons tests of early atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs carried out in 1957 and 1958 at Malden Island and Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean as part of the British hydrogen bomb programme.
Operation Keelhaul was a forced repatriation of former Soviet Armed Forces POWs of the Nazis to the Soviet Union, carried out in Northern Italy by British and American forces between 14 August 1946 and 9 May 1947.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.
The Orpington by-election in 1962 is often described as the start of the Liberal Party revival in the United Kingdom.
Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet of Ancoats (16 November 1896 – 3 December 1980) was a British politician who rose to fame in the 1920s as a Member of Parliament and later in the 1930s became leader of the British Union of Fascists (BUF).
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford by-election, 1938 was a parliamentary by-election for the British House of Commons constituency of Oxford, held on 27 October 1938.
The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, England, whose membership is drawn primarily from the University of Oxford.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary secretary is a member of a Parliament in the Westminster system who assists a more senior minister with his or her duties.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
Francis Patrick Neill, Baron Neill of Bladen, QC (8 August 1926 – 28 May 2016) was a British barrister and cross bench member of the House of Lords.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The Percentages agreement was a secret agreement between British prime minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin during the Fourth Moscow Conference in.
Percy Herbert Mills, 1st Viscount Mills, KBE, PC (4 January 1890 – 10 September 1968), known as Sir Percy Mills, Bt, between 1953 and 1957 and as The Lord Mills between 1957 and 1962, was a British industrialist, public servant and politician.
The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-secretary of State or PUS (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Peter John Hennessy, Baron Hennessy of Nympsfield, (born 28 March 1947) is an English historian and academic specialising in the history of government.
George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft, (26 July 1909 – 4 June 1994) was a British Conservative Party politician.
Thor was the first operational ballistic missile deployed by the U.S. Air Force (USAF).
Philip Cunliffe-Lister, 1st Earl of Swinton, (1 May 1884 – 27 July 1972), known as Philip Lloyd-Greame until 1924 and as The Viscount Swinton between 1935 and 1955, was a prominent British Conservative politician from the 1920s until the 1950s.
Sir Philip Carter Goodhart (3 November 1925 – 5 July 2015) was a British Conservative politician, the son of Arthur Lehman Goodhart.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Pratt's is a gentlemen's club in London.
A Premium Bond is a lottery bond issued by the United Kingdom government's National Savings and Investments agency.
The President of the Board of Trade is head of the Board of Trade.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.
The Profumo affair was a British political scandal that originated with a brief sexual relationship in 1961 between John Profumo, the Secretary of State for War in Harold Macmillan's Conservative government, and Christine Keeler, a 19-year-old would-be model.
Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Quintin McGarel Hogg, Baron Hailsham of St Marylebone, (9 October 1907 – 12 October 2001), who held the title 2nd Viscount Hailsham from 1950 to 1963, was a British politician known for the length of his career, the vigour with which he campaigned for the Conservative Party, and the influence of his political writing.
Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), generally known as R. A. Butler and familiarly known from his initials as Rab, was a prominent British Conservative politician.
Raymond Herbert Asquith (6 November 1878 – 15 September 1916) was an English barrister and son of British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith.
Reginald Edward Manningham-Buller, 1st Viscount Dilhorne, (1 August 1905 – 7 September 1980), known as Sir Reginald Manningham-Buller, Bt, from 1954 to 1962 and as The Lord Dilhorne from 1962 to 1964, was an English lawyer and Conservative politician.
Reginald Maudling (7 March 1917 – 14 February 1979) was a British politician who held several Cabinet posts, including Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Repatriation of Cossacks happened when Cossacks and ethnic Russians and Ukrainians who had collaborated with Nazi Germany were handed over to the USSR after the Second World War.
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.
Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 – 5 April 1974), sometimes known as Dick Crossman, was a British Labour Party Member of Parliament, as well as a key figure among the party's Zionists and anti-communists.
Richard Davenport-Hines (born 21 June 1953 in London) is a noted British historian and literary biographer, best known for his biography of the poet W. H. Auden.
Robert John Graham Boothby, Baron Boothby, (12 February 1900 – 16 July 1986), often known as Bob Boothby, was a British Conservative politician.
Robert Browning (7 May 1812 – 12 December 1889) was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets.
Robert Daniel Murphy (October 28, 1894 – January 9, 1978) was an American diplomat.
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 183022 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British statesman of the Conservative Party, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, (27 August 1893 – 23 February 1972), known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Robert Strother Stewart (16 May 1878 – 15 November 1954) was an English lawyer, colonial judge and Liberal Party politician.
Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (17 February 1888 – 24 August 1957) was an English Catholic priest, theologian and author of detective stories.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Lieutenant General Sir Ronald MacKenzie Scobie KBE, CB, MC (8 June 1893 – 23 February 1969) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 70th Infantry Division and later III Corps.
The Roosevelt Institute for American Studies (RIAS) is a research institute, graduate school, conference center, and library for the study of US history and transatlantic relations in the modern era located in the twelfth-century Abbey of Middelburg, the Netherlands.
Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, (11 November 1920 – 5 January 2003) was a British Labour Party, SDP and Liberal Democrat politician, and biographer of British political leaders.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Over-Seas League (ROSL) is a non-profit members’ organisation with international headquarters in its clubhouse in central London, England.
"Rule, Britannia!" is a British patriotic song, originating from the poem "Rule, Britannia" by James Thomson and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740.
Sultan Said bin Taimur (13 August 1910 – 19 October 1972; سعيد بن تيمور; Saíd bin Temúr) was the sultan of Muscat and Oman (the country later renamed to Oman) from 10 February 1932 until his overthrow on 23 July 1970 by his son Qaboos.
Alexander Dunlop Lindsay, 1st Baron Lindsay of Birker (born 14 May 1879 in Glasgow, Scotland; died 18 March 1952), known as Sandie Lindsay, was a Scottish academic and peer.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.
Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.
The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet-level British position.
The Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations was a British Cabinet minister responsible for dealing with the United Kingdom's relations with members of the Commonwealth of Nations (its former colonies).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Defence (Defence Secretary) is an official within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Ministry of Defence.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Education (frequently shortened to the Education Secretary) is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government.
The Secretary of State for Employment was a position in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba, Secretar o State for Scotland) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland.
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport.
In the United Kingdom, there are several Secretaries to the Treasury, who are Treasury ministers nominally acting as secretaries to HM Treasury.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
John Selwyn Brooke Lloyd, Baron Selwyn-Lloyd, (28 July 1904 – 18 May 1978), known for most of his career as Selwyn Lloyd, was a British politician.
Sir Shridath Surendranath "Sonny" Ramphal (born 3 October 1928) was the second Commonwealth Secretary-General, from 1975 to 1990.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Sir Edward Taswell Campbell, 1st Baronet, JP (9 April 1879 – 17 July 1945) was a Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom.
Sloane Square is a small hard-landscaped square on the boundaries of the central London districts of Knightsbridge, Belgravia and Chelsea, located southwest of Charing Cross, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British Mandate territory of British Cameroons in West Africa.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.
Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire, (23 July 1833 – 24 March 1908), styled The Honourable Spencer Cavendish in 1833, Lord Cavendish of Keighley between 1834 and 1858 and Marquess of Hartington between 1858 and 1891, was a British statesman.
Spencer is a town in Washington Township, Owen County, in the U.S. state of Indiana.
St Giles' Church is an Anglican church in the village of Horsted Keynes in Mid Sussex, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex.
Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, (3 August 186714 December 1947) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who dominated the government in his country between the world wars.
Stockton-on-Tees is a former borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Summer Fields is a fee-paying boys' independent day and boarding preparatory school in Summertown, Oxford.
"Super-Mac" was a 1958 cartoon image of Harold Macmillan, which became an enduring nickname for him.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Admiral of the Fleet Terence Thornton Lewin, Baron Lewin, (19 November 1920 – 23 January 1999) was a Royal Navy officer.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Establishment generally denotes a dominant group or elite that holds power or authority in a nation or organisation.
The Gondoliers; or, The King of Barataria is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Middle Way is a book on political philosophy written by Harold Macmillan (British Conservative Party politician and later prime minister of the United Kingdom).
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Minister and the Massacres is a 1986 book written by Nikolai Tolstoy that described the 1945 Bleiburg repatriations as well as the Cossack repatriations.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Right Honourable (The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon.) is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and to certain collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, India, some other Commonwealth realms, the Anglophone Caribbean, Mauritius, and occasionally elsewhere.
Theatre Record is a periodical that reprints reviews, production photographs, and other information about the British theatre.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, FRS FRSE PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a British historian and Whig politician.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Alfred Thompson “Tom” Denning, Baron Denning, (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge.
Tory corporatism is a corporatist political culture that is distinct from fascist corporatism in that rather than having a dictatorship impose order through force, the Tory corporatist culture is already settled and ongoing.
The Tory Reform Group (TRG) is a group aligned to, but independent of, the British Conservative Party, that works to promote the values of the One Nation Tory vision.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.
The Treaty of Varkiza (also known as the Varkiza Pact or the Varkiza Peace Agreement) was signed in Varkiza (near Athens) on February 12, 1945 between the Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) for EAM-ELAS.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
The Turf Club is a London gentlemen's club, established in 1861 as the Arlington Club.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.
The Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies was a junior Ministerial post in the United Kingdom government, subordinate to the Secretary of State for the Colonies and, from 1948, also to a Minister of State.
The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is a UK government research organisation responsible for the development of nuclear fusion power.
The 1923 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 6 December 1923.
The 1924 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 29 October 1924, as a result of the defeat of the Labour minority government, led by Ramsay MacDonald, in the House of Commons on a motion of no confidence.
The 1929 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 30 May 1929, and resulted in a hung parliament.
The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government which had been formed two months previously after the collapse of the second Labour government.
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The 1951 United Kingdom general election was held twenty months after the 1950 general election, which the Labour Party had won with a slim majority of just five seats.
The 1959 United Kingdom general election was held on 8 October 1959.
The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, and thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power.
The 1979 United Kingdom general election was held on 3 May 1979 to elect 635 members to the British House of Commons.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
Under Secretary of State (U/S) is a title used by senior officials of the United States Department of State who rank above the Assistant Secretaries and below the Deputy Secretaries.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
V Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.
The Vassall Tribunal was a public inquiry undertaken in 1963 by the British government in the wake of the John Vassall affair.
Vernon Bernard Bogdanor (born 16 July 1943) is Research Professor at the Institute for Contemporary British History at King's College London and Professor of Politics at the New College of the Humanities.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (31 May 18686 May 1938), known as Victor Cavendish until 1908, was a British politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the 11th since Canadian Confederation.
Victor Weisz (25 April 1913 in Berlin, Germany - 22 February 1966 in London, England) was a Hungarian-British political cartoonist, drawing under the name of Vicky.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The Victory Medal (also called the Inter-Allied Victory Medal) is a United Kingdom and British Empire First World War campaign medal.
Walter Edward Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne, DSO & Bar, PC (29 March 1880 – 6 November 1944) was an Anglo-Irish politician and businessman.
Walter Turner Monckton, 1st Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, (17 January 1891 – 9 January 1965) was a British politician.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Westminster St George's, originally named St George's, Hanover Square, was a parliamentary constituency in Central London.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The Staff Secretary ("Staff Sec") is a position in the White House Office responsible for managing paper flow to the President and circulating documents among senior staff for comment.
White's is a gentleman's club in St James's, London, regarded as one of the most exclusive of its kind.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, (8 May 1720 – 2 October 1764), styled Lord Cavendish before 1729 and Marquess of Hartington between 1729 and 1755, was a British Whig statesman and nobleman who was briefly nominal Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Major William John Robert "Billy" Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington (10 December 1917 – 9 September 1944) was an English politician and soldier.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William George Penney, Baron Penney (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
Air Commodore William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate, DSO, DFC, PC (10 May 1877 – 17 November 1960) was a British Liberal politician who later joined the Labour Party.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
The "Wind of Change" speech was a historically significant address made by the UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on 3 February 1960 in Cape Town.
The Windscale fire of 10 October 1957 was the worst nuclear accident in Great Britain's history, ranked in severity at level 5 out of a possible 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
Winthrop Williams Aldrich GBE (November 2, 1885February 25, 1974) was an American banker and financier, scion of a prominent political family, and US Ambassador to the United Kingdom.
The workweek and weekend are those complementary parts of the week devoted to labour and rest, respectively.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyndham Raymond Portal, 1st Viscount Portal, (9 April 1885 – 6 May 1949) was a British politician.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
The Conservative Private Members' Committee (colloquially known as the 1922 Committee) is the parliamentary group of the Conservative Party in the UK House of Commons.
The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defense Agreement, or UK–US Mutual Defence Agreement, is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons cooperation.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
1st Earl of Stockton, 1st earl of Stockton, Harold MacMillan, Harold MacMillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, Harold Macmillan, Earl of Stockton, Harold McMillan, Harold McMillen, Harold McMillian, Harold mac, Harold macmillan, Maurice Harold Macmillan, Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, PM Macmillan, Premiership of Harold Macmillan, Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, Prime Minister Macmillan, Prime ministership of Harold Macmillan, The Rt. Hon. The Lord Stockton, You've never had it so good.