204 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Abdallah ibn Amir, Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, Abdullah al-Aftah, Abdullah ibn Ja'far, Abu Bakr, Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Abu Hurairah, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Adam in Islam, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl al-Kisa, Ahmad ibn A'tham, Aisha, Al-Baladhuri, Al-Baqi', Al-Mada'in District, Al-Mada'ini, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Masudi, Al-Qādisiyyah (historical city), Al-Tabari, Al-Waqidi, Alhamdulillah, Ali, Ali al-Hadi, Ali al-Ridha, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Alid dynasties of northern Iran, Allah, Anatolia, Ansar (Islam), Antioch, Arabian Desert, Arabian Peninsula, Arabs, Archangel, Banu Fazara, Banu Hashim, Banu Ukhaidhir, Basra, Battle of Nahrawan, Battle of Siffin, Battle of the Camel, Bay'ah, Bayt al-mal, Bilad al-Sham, Byzantine Empire, ..., Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Christian, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Common Era, Damascus, Dirham, Eastern Christianity, Emir, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Iranica, Event of Mubahala, Family tree of Abu Bakr, Family tree of Ali, Family tree of Muhammad, Fatimah, Fatimah bint Hasan, Fatimid Caliphate, Gabriel, Genealogies of the Nobles, God, God in Islam, Great Mosque of Kufa, Hadith, Halal, Hama, Hammudid dynasty, Haram, Harun al-Rashid, Hasan al-Askari, Hasan al-Utrush, Hasan ibn Ali, Hasan ibn Zayd, Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Hasan, Hashemites, Hejaz, Hijri year, Hikmah, Homs, Hossein Nasr, Husain Mohammad Jafri, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Sa'd, Idris I of Morocco, Idrisid dynasty, Imam, Imamah (Shia), Imams of Yemen, Iran, Iraq, Iraqis, Islamic calendar, Isma'il ibn Jafar, Ja'da bint al-Ash'at, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jesus, Jesus in Islam, Jihad, Kafir, Kanz al-Ummal, Khatam an-Nabiyyin, Khawarij, Khawlah bint Ja'far, Kufa, Kunya (Arabic), List of Ismaili imams, Maghreb, Marwan I, Mary, mother of Jesus, Medina, Mesopotamia, Mir Jafar, Morocco, Mosul, Muawiya II, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Jawad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi, Muhammad ibn Isma'il, Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, Muhammad ibn Talha, Muhammad in Islam, Mule, Musa al-Kadhim, Musa al-Mubarraqa, Muslim, Musta'li, Najran, Nizari, Orontes River, Palestine (region), Prophet, Qasim ibn Hasan, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Qays ibn Sa'd, Quran, Quraysh, Rabi' al-awwal, Ramadan, Rashidun Caliphate, Rassids, Saudi Arabia, Sawad, Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Sayyid, Sevener, Shah Cheragh, Shia Islam, Shirk (Islam), Shura, Sousse, Suhayl ibn Amr, Sulaymanids, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syria (region), Syriac language, Syrian Desert, Takbir, Talhah, Talut, Tayyibi Isma'ilism, The Twelve Imams, The verse of purification, Tigris, Transjordan (region), Twelver, Ulama, Umar, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim, Ummah, Urdu, Uthman, Wahhabism, Western Europe, Wilferd Madelung, William Chittick, Ya'qubi, Yahya ibn Umar, Yazid I, Yemen, Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.
Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (d. 161 AH; 776 CE), also known as Abu Hashim was a member of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
Abdallah ibn Amir (عبدالله بن عامر) was a governor of Busra (647–656) and a notably successful military general during the reign of Rashidun Caliph Uthman ibn Affan.
Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (died 666The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung. Page 340.Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 edited by R. Khanam. Page 543) was the eldest son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph in Sunni Islam.
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq (d.766 CE / 149 A.H.) was the eldest surviving son of Ja'far al-Sadiq (after al-Sadiq’s death) and the full-brother of Isma'il ibn Jafar.
Abdullah ibn Ja'far (عبد الله بن جعفر) was a companion and relative of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a nephew of Ali.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, أبو حنيفة الدينوري) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.
Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsiyy al-Zahrāniyy (أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني‎; 603–681), often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
Âdam or Aadam (ʾĀdam) is believed to have been the first human being and Nabi (نَـبِي, Prophet) on Earth, in Islam.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahl al-Kisa' (Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, refers to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.
Abū Muḥammad Aḥmad ibn ʿAlī, known as Ibn Aʿtham al-Kūfī (أبو محمد أحمد بن أعثم الكوفي) (d. AH 314, AD 926-927 A.D) was a Muslim historian.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Muslim historian.
Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Al-Mada'in District is a district of the Baghdad Governorate, Iraq.
Abū'l-Ḥasan ʿAli ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Abī Sayf (752–843), better known by his nisba of al-Madāʾinī ("from al-Mada'in"), was an early Arab scholar, active under the Abbasids in Iraq in the first half of the 9th century.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Al-Qādisiyyah (القادسية) is a historical city in southern Mesopotamia, southwest of al-Hillah and al-Kūfah in Iraq.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Abu `Abdullah Muhammad Ibn ‘Omar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami (Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد بن عمر بن واقد الاسلمي) (c. 130 – 207 AH; c. 747 – 823 AD) was a historian commonly referred to as al-Waqidi (Arabic: الواقدي).
Al-ḥamdu lil-lāh (ٱلْـحَـمْـدُ للهِ) or Alḥamdulillāh, also known as Taḥmīd (lit), is an Arabic phrase meaning "praise be to the Lord", sometimes translated as "thank Lord!".
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (علي بن محمد بن علي; 828-868 C.E.) commonly called Ali al-Hadi and Alī an-Naqī was known as al-Hadi. He was the tenth of the Twelve Imams after his father Muhammad al-Jawad and before his son Hasan al-Askari. He remained in Medina teaching until the age of 30 when he was summoned to Samarra by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. There he was treated roughly by the caliph and his successors until, according to Shiite accounts, he was poisoned through intrigue of Al-Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph, in 254/868, and was buried in Samarra.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An archangel is an angel of high rank.
The Banu Fazāra were an Arab tribe whose original homeland was Najd.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir (بنو الأخيضر) was a dynasty that ruled in Najd and al-Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Battle of Nahrawan (Ma'rakat an-Nahrawān) was a battle between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph and the Kharijites (followers of the extremist Khawarij sect of Islam) commanded by Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi, near Nahrawan, twelve miles from Baghdad.
The Battle of Siffin (وقعة صفين; May–July 657 occurred during the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali ibn Abi Talib who ruled as the Fourth Caliph and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.
The Battle of the Camel, sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
The Event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Yemen), in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja, 10 AH (October 631, October 631-2, October 632-3), where Muhammad invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences.
Abū Bakr (c. 573–August 23, 634/13 AH) was the first Muslim ruler after Muhammad (632–634).
Alī ibn Abī Tālib (عَـلِي ابـن أَﺑِﻲ طَـالِـب, 599 – 661 ACE) was an early Islamic leader.
This article is about the family tree of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fātimah bint al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī (فاطمة بنت الـحسن بن علي) was a daughter of Hasan ibn ‘Alī, wife of ‘Alī ibn Husayn (fourth Twelver Imām), and mother of Muhammad al-Bāqir (fifth Twelver Imām).
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
Genealogies of the Nobles (أنساب الأشراف; transliterated: Ansab al-Ashraf) is a history book related to Islam, authored by Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri (d. 892 CE).
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
The Great Mosque of Kufa, or Masjid al-Kūfa (مسجد الكوفة المعظم/الأعظم), or Masjid al-Mu'azam/al-A'azam located in Kūfa, Iraq, is one of the earliest mosques in the world.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
The Hammudid dynasty was a Berberised Arab Muslim dynasty that briefly ruled the Caliphate of CórdobaLane-Poole (1894), p.21 and the taifas of Málaga and Algeciras and nominal control in Ceuta.
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
Hasan ibn Ali ibn Muhammad (846 – 874) was the 11th Imam of Twelver Shia Islam, after his father Ali al-Hadi.
Abu Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Ashraf ibn ‘Alī Zayn al-‘Ābidīn (Medina, ca. 844 – Amul, January/February 917), better known as al-Ḥasan al-Uṭrūsh ("the Deaf"), was an Alid Shia missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid rule.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd (الحسن بن زيد بن محمد; died 6 January 884), also known as al-Da‘ī al-kabīr (داعي الكبير, "the Great/Elder Missionary"), was an Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (died 783), was a notable Alid who served as governor of Medina under al-Mansur.
The Hashemites (الهاشميون, Al-Hāshimīyūn; also House of Hashim) are the ruling royal family of Jordan.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hikmah (also Hikmat, حكمة,, literally wisdom, philosophy; rationale, underlying reason) is a concept in Islamic philosophy and law.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Syed Husain Mohammad Jafri is the Chairman of Islamic Pakistan Study Centre, Aga Khan University of Karachi, Pakistan.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.
Idris I (إدريس الأول), also known as Idris ibn Abdillah, was the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in part of northern Morocco in alliance with the Berber tribe of Awraba.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraqi people (Arabic: العراقيون ʿIrāqiyyūn, Kurdish: گهلی عیراق Îraqîyan, ܥܡܐ ܥܝܪܩܝܐ ʿIrāqāyā, Iraklılar) are the citizens of the modern country of Iraq. Arabs have had a large presence in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire (224–637). Arabic was spoken by the majority in the Kingdom of Araba in the first and second centuries, and by Arabs in al-Hirah from the third century. Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucid Empire (3rd century BC).Ramirez-Faria, 2007, p. 33. The first Arab kingdom outside Arabia was established in Iraq's Al-Hirah in the third century. Arabic was a minority language in northern Iraq in the eighth century BC, from the eighth century following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it became the dominant language of Iraqi Muslims because Arabic was the language of the Quran and of the Abbasid Caliphate. Kurds who are Iraqi citizens live in the Zagros Mountains of northeast Iraq to the east of the upper Tigris. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's national languages.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak (إسماعيل بن جعفر; c. born: 719 AD, Medina - died circa 762 AD, Medina) was the eldest son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is also known as Isma'il Al-Ãraj ibn Ja'far (اسماعيل الاعرج ابن جعفر الصادق). Following Ja'far's death, the Shia community split between those who would become the Twelver Shia and those who believed that the Imamate passed to Isma'il's son; the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam is accordingly named for Isma'il. According to both the Nizari and Mustaali Shia sects, he is the rightful successor of the sixth Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and the seventh Imam.
Ja'da bint al-Ash'at (Full name:Ja'da bint al-Ash'at ibn Qays al-Kindi) was the wife of Imam Hasan Ibn Ali.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
Treasure of the Doers of Good Deeds (Kanz al-‘Ummāl fī sunan al-aqwāl wa'l af‘āl) is an Islamic hadith collection, collected by the Islamic scholar Ala al-Din Ali ibn Abd-al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (1472 CE/AH 888 - 1567 CE/AH 975).
Khatam an-Nabiyyin (خاتم النبيين, khātam an-nabīyīn; or Khātim an-Nabīyīn), translated as Seal of the Prophets, is a title used in the Qur'an to designate the prophet Muhammad.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Khawlah bint Ja'far al-Hanafiyyah / (Umm e Muhammad) (خولة بنت جعفر الحنفية) was one of the wives of imam Ali.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
A kunya (كنية, kunyah) is a teknonym in Arabic names, the name of an adult derived from his or her eldest child.
This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shia and their sub-branches.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mir Jafar Ali Khan Bahadur (মীর জাফর আলী খান বাহাদুর; c. 1691 — 5 February 1765) was the first Najafi Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Muawiya II or Muawiya ibn Yazid (Mu‘āwiyah ibn Yazīd; 664–684 CE) succeeded his father Yazid I as the third Umayyad caliph and last caliph of the Sufyanid line.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā (Arabic: محمد ابن علی ابن موسی) (circa April 12, 811 - c. November 29, 835) was the ninth of the Twelve Imams and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Ḥasan al-Muthannā ibn al-Ḥasan al-Mujtaba ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib or Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya (محمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن بن الحسن بن علي الملقَّب النفس الزكية, "The Pure Soul") was a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی, 16 March 1903 – 15 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.
Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq was a figure whose existence is contested: a portion of the Fathite Shia Muslims (followers of Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq), believed that Muhammad was the son of Imam Abdullah al-Aftah (died 766 CE), whom they believed to be the Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (محمد بن أبي بكر) was the son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (15 AH – 81 AH; AD 636 – 700) and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibne-Muhammed Nakî‘yyî’l-Hâdî was the son of Ali al-Hadi and the brother of Hasan al-Askari, the 10th and 11th Twelver Shia Imams respectively.
Muhammad ibn Ismāʿīl alias Maymūn Al-Qaddāḥ was the son of Isma'il ibn Jafar and an Ismāʿīlī Imam.
Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq, surnamed al-Dibaj ("the handsome"), the younger full brother of Musa al-Kadhim, and son of Ja'far al-Sadiq appeared in Mecca in the year 200 A.H. / 815 C.E. claiming that he was the Awaited Mahdi.
Muhammad ibn Talhah (محمد بن طلحة) was, according to a Sunni source, the son of the prominent Muslim general Talha ibn Obaidullah and Hammanah bint Jahsh.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (موسى بن جعفر الكاظم), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Musa al Mubaraqqa was the son of ninth Twelver Shia Imam Mohammad al-Taqi al Jawwad and the younger brother of tenth Shiite Imam Ali al-Hadi.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Musta‘lī (مستعلي) are a sect of Isma'ilism named for their acceptance of al-Musta'li as the legitimate nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir Billah.
Najran (نجران), is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen.
The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Qasim ibn al-Hasan (القاسم بن الحسن) (Sha'aban 7, 47 AH /October 2, 667 CE – Muharram 10, 61 AH /October 10, 680 CE), was the son of Hassan ibn Ali and grandson of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah.
Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (قاسم بن محمد) (born 36 or 38 AH; died 106 AH or 108 AH (corresponding to 660/662 and 728/730 AD)The Four Imams by Muhammad Abu Zahrah) was an important jurist in early Islam.
Qays ibn Sa'd قيس بن سعد occupies a position of prominence in Islam.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rabīʿ al-ʾawwal (ربيع الأوّل) is the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sawad was the name used in early Islamic times (7th–12th centuries) for southern Iraq.
Radhi ud-Deen Ali ibn Musa ibn Tawus (1193-1266 AD) commonly called Sayyed Ibn Tawus (Arabic: سید ابن طاووس) was a Shiite jurist, theologian, historian and astrologer.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.
Shāh Chérāgh (شاه چراغ) is a funerary monument and mosque in Shiraz, Iran, housing the tomb of the brothers Ahmad and Muhammad, sons of Mūsā al-Kādhim and brothers of ‘Alī ar-Ridhā.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
Shura (شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation".
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
Suhayl ibn Amr was a prominent leader among the Quraysh, being known as the Khatib or orator of the tribe.
The Sulaymanids were a sharif dynasty from the line of the Muhammad's grandson Hasan bin Ali which ruled around 1063–1174.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also transliterated Tekbir or Takbeer, is the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "God is greatest".
Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Talut (Ṭālūt) is considered to be the Qur’anic name for Saul, as he was the Malik (مَـلِـك, King) of Israel, or Gideon, with the reasoning that the Quran references the same incident of the drinking from the river as that found in the Book of Judges (7:5-7),Judges vii.
ayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism.
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.
The verse of purification (Arabic:آیه تطهیر) is verse (Ayah) in the Qur'an.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Transjordan, the East Bank, or the Transjordanian Highlands (شرق الأردن), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River, mostly contained in present-day Jordan.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim or Umm Farwah Fatimah was the wife of Muhammad al-Baqir, and the mother of the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.
William C. Chittick (born 1943) is a philosoper, writer, translator and interpreter of classical Islamic philosophical and mystical texts.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yahya ibn Umar ibn Yahya ibn Husayn ibn Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin ibn Al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Murtada was an Alid Imam.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
2nd imam, AL-HASAN, Al-Hasan, Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, Al-Hassan Ibn Ali, Al-Hassan ibn Ali, Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi talib, Hasan - al - mujtaba, Hasan Ibn Ali, Hasan al Mujtaba, Hasan al-mujtaba, Hasan b 'ali, Hasan bin 'ali, Hasan bin Ali, Hasan bin Ali A.S, Hasan ibn 'ali, Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib, Hasan ibn ‘Alī, Hasan ibne 'ali, Hasan-al-mujtaba, Hasanid, Hassan - al - mujtaba, Hassan I Pasha, Hassan al mujtaba, Hassan al-mujtaba, Hassan bin 'ali, Hassan ibn 'ali, Hassan ibn Ali, Hassan ibne 'ali, Hassan-al-mujtaba, Hessan, Ikinci Ali, Imaam Hasan ibn Ali, Imam Hasan, Imam Hassan, Imam Hessan, Imam hasan - al - mujtaba, Imam hasan al mujtaba, Imam hasan al-mujtaba, Imam hasan b ali, Imam hasan b. ali, Imam hasan bin ali, Imam hasan ibn ali, Imam hasan ibne ali, Imam hasan ibnu ali, Imam hasan-al-mujtaba, Imam hasanabnu ali, Imam hasanibnu ali, Imam hassan - al - mujtaba, Imam hassan al mujtaba, Imam hassan al-mujtaba, Imam hassan b ali, Imam hassan b. ali, Imam hassan bin ali, Imam hassan ibn ali, Imam hassan ibne ali, Imam hassan ibnu ali, Imam hassan-al-mujtaba, Second Imam, Shi'a view of Hasan ibn Ali, Shi'a view of Hassan ibn Ali.