291 relations: Aaron HaLevi ben Moses of Staroselye, Aaron Teitelbaum, Abraham Kalisker, Acronym, Activities prohibited on Shabbat, Adam, Age of Enlightenment, Aharon of Karlin (I), Aharon Rokeach, Ahijah the Shilonite, Aleksander (Hasidic dynasty), Aleksandrów Łódzki, Alexander I of Russia, Anti-Zionism, Antinomianism, Antwerp, Aramaic language, Ashkenaz, Ashkenazi Hasidim, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashkenazi Jews, Azriel Hildesheimer, Baal Shem, Baal Shem Tov, Baal teshuva movement, Batei Ungarin, Beaver, Beitar Illit, Bekishe, Belz, Belz (Hasidic dynasty), Benjamin Brown (scholar), Bessarabia, Bialik Institute, Bnei Brak, Bobov (Hasidic dynasty), Bobov-45, Bobowa, Borough Park, Brooklyn, Boruch of Medzhybizh, Boston (Hasidic dynasty), Bratislava, Breslov (Hasidic group), Brody, Brooklyn, Bukovina, Carpathian Mountains, Central Rabbinical Congress, Chabad, Chaim Elazar Spira, ..., Chaim Halberstam, Chaim of Volozhin, Chaim Potok, Chernobyl, Child sexual abuse, Congress Poland, Council of Four Lands, Crown Heights, Brooklyn, Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Cultural mandate, David Ellenson, Devekut, Dov Ber of Mezeritch, Dovber Schneuri, Dushinsky (Hasidic dynasty), Eastern Europe, Eastern Galicia, Edah HaChareidis, Ein Sof, El'ad, Elimelech of Lizhensk, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Eruvin (Talmud), First Great Awakening, First haircut, Gabbai, Galicia (Eastern Europe), Galilee, Gartel, Góra Kalwaria, Genesis creation narrative, Ger (Hasidic dynasty), Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Haaretz, Halakha, Haredi Judaism, Hasid (term), Hasideans, Haskalah, Headgear, Hebrew language, Herem (censure), Hershel of Ostropol, Hillel Lichtenstein, Holocaust theology, Immanence, Interwar period, Isaac Luria, Israel, Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn, Israeli settlement, Izbica, Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah, Jacob Joseph of Polonne, Jerusalem, Jewish holidays, Jewish national movements, Joel Teitelbaum, Joseph Dan, Joseph Perl, Judea, Kabbalah, Karlin-Stolin (Hasidic dynasty), Kavanah, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Kiev, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Kingdom of Hungary, Kiryas Joel, New York, Kiryas Tosh, Kiryat Sanz, Netanya, Klausenburg (Hasidic dynasty), Kolpik, Komarno (Hasidic dynasty), Kosov (Hasidic dynasty), Kvitel, Land of Israel, Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, Likutei Torah/Torah Or, List of Hasidic dynasties, Louis Jacobs, Lurianic Kabbalah, Lviv, Maariv, Maggid, Martin Buber, Medzhybizh, Melaveh Malkah, Menachem Mendel of Kotzk, Menachem Mendel of Rimanov, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, Menachem Nachum Twersky, Messiah, Messiah in Judaism, Michael Levi Rodkinson, Mikveh, Mincha, Misnagdim, Mitzvah tantz, Modern Hebrew, Modern Orthodox Judaism, Modi'in Illit, Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah, Moldavia, Monroe, New York, Monsey, New York, Montreal, Mordechai Twersky, Mordechai Yosef Leiner, Moses, Moses Sofer, Moshe Teitelbaum (Ujhel), Multiculturalism, Munkacs (Hasidic dynasty), Nachman of Breslov, Necktie, Neo-Hasidism, New England, New Jersey, New Square, New York, New York (state), Nigun, Nowy Wiśnicz, Nusach Ashkenaz, Nusach Sefard, Ohr, Old Believers, Old Yishuv, Orthodox Judaism, Panentheism, Partitions of Poland, Payot, Perushim, Pietism, Pinsk, Podolia, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Posek, Prestwich, Prut, Przysucha, Pshevorsk (Hasidic dynasty), Qliphoth, Rabbi Meir, Rachel Elior, Ramot, Jerusalem, Rebbe, Rekel, Religious Zionism, Revival of the Hebrew language, Rhineland, Russian Civil War, Sabbatai Zevi, Sabbateans, Salomon Maimon, Sanz, Satin, Satmar (Hasidic dynasty), Satu Mare, Sátoraljaújhely, Schocken Books, Second Temple period, Sefirot, Sephardi Jews, Seudah Shlishit, Shabbat, Shatnez, Sheitel, Shlomo Halberstam (first Bobover rebbe), Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Sholom Rokeach, Shomer Emunim, Shpitzel, Shtetl, Shtiebel, Shtreimel, Shulchan Aruch, Simcha Bunim of Peshischa, Simon Dubnow, Skver (Hasidic dynasty), Skvyra, Snood (headgear), Soviet Union, Spodik, Stamford Hill, Szlachta, Talmud, The Holocaust, The New York Times, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Theurgy, Tichel, Tikunei haZohar, Tish (Hasidic celebration), Toldos Aharon (Hasidic dynasty), Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok (Hasidic dynasty), Torah, Tosh (Hasidic dynasty), Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Tzadik, Tzimtzum, Tzniut, Tzvi Hirsh of Zidichov, United Kingdom, United States, United Torah Judaism, Unterlander Jews, Velyki Mezhyrichi, Vienna, Vilna Gaon, Vizhnitz (Hasidic dynasty), Volhynia, Vyzhnytsia, Wahhabism, Warsaw, West Galicia, Western Ukraine, Williamsburg, Brooklyn, Wool, World Agudath Israel, World War I, World War II, Yaakov Aryeh Alter, Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin, Yaakov Yitzchak Rabinowicz, Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam, Yeshiva, Yiddish, Yisrael Alter, Yisrael Hopsztajn, Yissachar Dov Rokeach (fifth Belzer rebbe), Yissachar Dov Rokeach (third Belzer rebbe), Yitzchak Meir Alter, Zadok HaKohen, Zalman Teitelbaum, Zidichov (Hasidic dynasty), Zionism, Zusha of Hanipol, Zvi Hirsch Chajes, 18th century. 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Aaron HaLevi ben Moses (Hurwitz) of Staroselye was a Talmudic scholar and Kabbalist of note, who lived in Poland during the latter part of the eighteenth century and the early part of the nineteenth.
Aaron Teitelbaum (born 20 October 1947) is one of the two Grand Rebbes of Satmar, and the chief rabbi of the Satmar community in Kiryas Joel, New York.
Abraham Ben Alexander Ha-Kohen of Kalisk (1741–1810) was a prominent Chassidic rabbi of the 3rd generation of Chassidic leaders.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Halakha (Jewish law), especially the Talmud tractate Shabbat, identifies thirty-nine categories of activity prohibited on Shabbat (ל״ט אבות מלאכות, lamed tet avot melakhot), and clarifies many questions surrounding the application of the biblical prohibitions.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aaron ben Jacob Perlov of Karlin, known among the Ḥasidim as Rabbi Aaron the Great, or simply as the "Preacher" or "Censor"; born in 1736; died 1772.
Aharon Rokeach (19 December 1880Israel, Yosef (2005). "Rescuing the Rebbe of Belz". NY:Mesorah Publications, Ltd.. – 18 August 1957) was the fourth Rebbe of the Belz Hasidic dynasty.
Ahijah the Shilonite (was a Levite prophet of Shiloh in the days of Solomon, as mentioned in the Hebrew Bible's 1 Kings.
The Aleksander (Alt. Alexander, Hebrew script: אלכסנדר) hasidic movement flourished in Poland from 1880 until it was largely destroyed by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Aleksandrów Łódzki (listen; 1943-45 Wirkheim) - is a town in Łódź Voivodeship that is part of Łódź agglomeration.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antinomianism (from the Greek: ἀντί, "against" + νόμος, "law"), is any view which rejects laws or legalism and is against moral, religious, or social norms (Latin: mores), or is at least considered to do so.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Ashkenaz in the Hebrew Bible is one of the descendants of Noah.
The Hasidim of Ashkenaz (חסידי אשכנז, trans. Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists") were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Azriel Hildesheimer (also Esriel and Israel, עזריאל הילדעסהיימער; 11 May 1820 – 12 July 1899) was a German rabbi and leader of Orthodox Judaism.
Baal Shem (Hebrew: בַּעַל שֵׁם, pl. Baalei Shem) in Hebrew meaning "Master of the Name", refers to a historical Jewish occupation of certain kabbalistic rabbis with knowledge of using names of God in Judaism for practical kabbalah healing, miracles, exorcismStudies in East European Jewish Mysticism and Hasidism, Joseph Weiss, Littman Library: chapter 1 "Some Notes on the Social Background of Early Hasidism", chapter 2 "A Circle of Pneumatics in Pre-Hasidism" and blessing.
Israel ben Eliezer (born circa 1700, died 22 May 1760), known as the Baal Shem Tov (בעל שם טוב) or as the Besht, was a Jewish mystical rabbi considered the founder of Hasidic Judaism.
The Baal Teshuva movement is a description of the return of secular Jews to religious Judaism.
Batei Ungarin (בתי אונגרין, lit. Hungarian Houses) is a Haredi neighborhood in Jerusalem.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Beitar Illit (בֵּיתָר עִלִּית; officially Betar Illit; "Illit" is pronounced "ee-leet"; بيتار عيليت) is an Israeli settlement organized as a city in Gush Etzion, south of Jerusalem, in the Judaean Mountains of the West Bank.
A bekishe, or beketshe (בעקעשע), is a long coat, usually made of black silk or polyester worn by Hasidic Jews, and by some non-Hasidic Haredi Jews.
Belz (Белз; Bełz ; בעלז &thinsp) is a small city in Sokal Raion of Lviv Oblast (region) of Western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, is located between the Solokiya river (a tributary of the Bug River) and the Rzeczyca stream.
Belz (בעלזא) is a Hasidic dynasty founded in the town of Belz in Western Ukraine, near the Polish border, historically the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
Benjamin Brown (born July 1, 1966 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli professor, researcher of Judaism and Jewish thought, lecturer at the Department of Jewish thought at Hebrew University and a researcher at the Israel Democracy Institute.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Bialik Institute (מוסד ביאליק, Mosad Bialik) is a research institution and publishing house, mostly dealing with the history and culture of the Hebrew language.
Bnei Brak (בְּנֵי בְרַק, bənê ḇəraq) is a city located on the central Mediterranean coastal plain in Israel, just east of Tel Aviv.
Bobov (or Bobover Hasidism) (חסידות באבוב) is a Hasidic community within Haredi Judaism originating in Bobowa, Galicia, in southern Poland, and now headquartered in the neighborhood of Borough Park in Brooklyn, New York.
Bobov-45 (Hebrew: 45-חסידות באבוב) is a Hasidic sect within Haredi Judaism.
Bobowa (באבאוו, Bobov) is a town in the Gorlice County, Poland.
Borough Park (also spelled Boro Park) is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of the borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, United States.
Rabbi Boruch of Medzhybizh (1753–1811), was a grandson of the Baal Shem Tov.
Boston is a Hasidic sect, originally established in 1915 by Grand Rabbi Pinchas Duvid Horowitz.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
Breslov (also Bratslav, also spelled Breslev) is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772–1810), a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism.
Brody (Броди; Brody; Brody; Brody; Brody) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Central Rabbinical Congress (in full: Central Rabbinical Congress of the U.S.A. and Canada, commonly abbreviated to CRC; in Hebrew: Hisachdus HaRabbonim DeArtzos HaBris VeCanada התאחדות הרבנים) is a rabbinical organization that is a consortium of various Orthodox Jewish groups including the Satmar Hasidic group.
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.
Chaim Elazar Spira (December 17, 1868 – May 13, 1937) was one of the rebbes of the Hasidic movement Munkacz (pronounced Munkatsh).
Chaim Halberstam of Sanz (Nowy Sącz) (1793–1876) (חיים הלברשטאם מצאנז), known as the Divrei Chaim after his magnum opus on halakha, was a famous Hasidic Rebbe and the founder of the Sanz Hasidic dynasty.
Chaim of Volozhin (also known as Chaim ben Yitzchok of Volozhin or Chaim Ickovits; January 21, 1749 – June 14, 1821)Jewish Encyclopedia Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, pp. 347-349; idem, Kiryah Ne'emanah, pp. 156-158; Lewin, Aliyyot Eliyahu (ed. Stettin), p. 70; Schechter, Studies in Judaism, p. 85, Philadelphia, 1896; Jatzkan, Rabbenu Eliyah mi-Wilna, pp. 100-106, St.
Chaim Potok (February 17, 1929 – July 23, 2002) was an American Jewish author and rabbi.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Council of Four Lands (Va'ad Arba' Aratzot) in Lublin, Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from the second half of the 16th century to 1764.
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland (Korona Królestwa Polskiego, Latin: Corona Regni Poloniae), commonly known as the Polish Crown or simply the Crown, is the common name for the historic (but unconsolidated) Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including Poland proper.
The cultural mandate or creation mandate is the divine injunction found in Genesis 1:28, in which God (YHWH), after having created the world and all in it, ascribes to humankind the tasks of filling, subduing, and ruling over the earth.
David Ellenson is an American rabbi and academic who is known as a leader of the Reform movement in Judaism.
Devekut, debekuth, deveikuth or deveikus (Heb. דבקות; Mod. Heb. "dedication", traditionally "clinging on" to God) is a Jewish concept referring to closeness to God.
Rabbi Dov Baer ben Avraham of Mezeritch (דֹּב בֶּר מִמֶּזְרִיטְשְׁ) (died December 1772 OS), also known as the Maggid of Mezritch, was a disciple of Rabbi Yisrael Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism, and was chosen as his successor to lead the early movement.
Dovber Schneuri (November 13, 1773 – November 16, 1827 OS) was the second Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch Chasidic movement.
Dushinsky is one of the few Hasidic dynasties not named after the place where it originated; instead, it is named after the surname of the Rebbe.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Eastern Galicia, or Eastern Halychyna (Східна Галичина) is a geographical region in Western Ukraine (present day oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil) and Poland that has historic importance.
The Orthodox Council of Jerusalem (OJC) (העדה החרדית, ha-Edah ha-Charedit, Ashkenazi pronunciation: ha-Aideh Charaidis or ha-Eido ha-Chareidis; "Congregation of God-Fearers") is a large Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communal organization based in Jerusalem, with several thousands affiliated households.
Ein Sof, or Eyn Sof (אין סוף), in Kabbalah, is understood as God prior to his self-manifestation in the production of any spiritual realm, probably derived from Ibn Gabirol's term, "the Endless One" (she-en lo tiklah).
El'ad, also spelled Elad (אלעד), is a city in the Center District of Israel.
Elimelech Weisblum of Lizhensk (1717–March 11, 1787), a Rabbi and one of the great founding Rebbes of the Hasidic movement, was known after his hometown, Leżajsk (translit) near Rzeszów in Poland.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
Eruvin is the second tractate in the Order of Moed, dealing with the various types of eruvs.
The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.
The first haircut for a human has special significance in certain cultures and religions.
A gabbai (גבאי), also known as shamash (sometimes spelled shamas) or warden (UK, similar to churchwarden) is a beadle or sexton, a person who assists in the running of synagogue services in some way.
Galicia (Ukrainian and Галичина, Halyčyna; Galicja; Czech and Halič; Galizien; Galícia/Kaliz/Gácsország/Halics; Galiția/Halici; Галиция, Galicija; גאַליציע Galitsiye) is a historical and geographic region in Central Europe once a small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and later a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, that straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
The gartel is a belt used by Jewish males, predominantly (but not exclusively) Hasidim, during prayer.
Góra Kalwaria is a town on the Vistula River in the Mazovian Voivodship, Poland, about southeast of Warsaw.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
Ger, or Gur (or Gerrer when used as an adjective) is a Hasidic dynasty originating from Ger, the Yiddish name of Góra Kalwaria, a small town in Poland.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Hasid (חסיד, "pious"; plural "Hasidim", חסידים) is a Jewish honorific, frequently used as a term of exceptional respect in the Talmudic and early medieval periods.
The Hasideans (Hassideans, Hasidæans or Assideans; חסידים הראשונים, Hasidim ha-Rishonim, "ancient Pietists", Greek Ἀσιδαῖοι) were a Jewish religious party which commenced to play an important role in political life only during the time of the Maccabean wars, although it had existed for quite some time previous.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Headgear, headwear or headdress is the name given to any element of clothing which is worn on one's head.
Herem (also Romanized chērem, ḥērem) is the highest ecclesiastical censure in the Jewish community.
Hershel of Ostropol (translit, 1757 – 1811) is a prominent figure in Jewish humor.
Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein (1814-1891) was an Hungarian rabbi and the leader of the extreme Orthodoxy in Hungary.
Holocaust theology is a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God in the universe in light of the Holocaust of the late 1930s and 1940s.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Isaac (ben Solomon) Luria Ashkenazi (1534Fine 2003, p. – July 25, 1572) (יִצְחָק בן שלמה לוּרְיָא אשכנזי Yitzhak Ben Sh'lomo Lurya Ashkenazi), commonly known in Jewish religious circles as "Ha'ARI" (meaning "The Lion"), "Ha'ARI Hakadosh" or "ARIZaL", was a foremost rabbi and Jewish mystic in the community of Safed in the Galilee region of Ottoman Syria.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn (ישראל פרידמן מרוז'ין) (5 October 1796 – 9 October 1850Assaf, The Regal Way, p. 170.), also called Israel Ruzhin, was a Hasidic rebbe in 19th-century Ukraine and Austria.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
Izbica (איזשביצע Izhbitz, Izhbitze) is a village in the Krasnystaw County of the Lublin Voivodeship in eastern Poland.
Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah (17th century) was a Portuguese kabalist and physician.
Rabbi Jacob Joseph of Polonne, (1710–1784) (in Hebrew יעקב יוסף הכהן) or Rabbi Yaakov Yosef of Pollonye, was one of the first and most known of the disciples of the founder of Hasidic Judaism, the Baal Shem Tov.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
* Zionism, seeking territorial concentration of all Jews in the Land of Israel.
Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum (יואל טייטלבוים, Ashkenazi pronunciation:; 13 January 1887 – 19 August 1979) was the founder and first Grand Rebbe of the Satmar dynasty.
Joseph Dan (יוסף דן, born 1935) is an Israeli scholar of Jewish mysticism.
Joseph Perl (also Josef Perl; November 10, 1773, Ternopil – October 1, 1839, Ternopil), was an Ashkenazi Jewish educator and writer, a scion of the Haskalah or Jewish Enlightenment.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karlin-Stolin is a Hasidic dynasty originating with Rebbe Aaron the Great of Karlin in present-day Belarus.
Kavanah, kavvanah or kavana (also pronounced /kaˈvonə/ by some Ashkenazi Jews) (כַּוָּנָה; in Biblical Hebrew kawwānā), plural kavanot or kavanos, literally means "intention" or "sincere feeling, direction of the heart".
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
Kiryas Joel (קרית יואל, Kiryas Yoyel,, often locally abbreviated as KJ) is a village within the town of Monroe in Orange County, New York, United States.
Kiryas Tosh (Hebrew/Yiddish: קִרְיַת טאהש) is a Hasidic Jewish community in the town of Boisbriand, Quebec.
Kiryat Sanz (קריית צאנז, also spelled Kiriat Tzanz) is a Haredi neighborhood located at the northwestern end of Netanya, Israel.
Klausenburg, also known as Sanz-Klausenburg, is a Hasidic dynasty that originated in the Transylvanian city of Cluj-Napoca (formerly Klausenburg), Romania.
In Jewish tradition, a kolpik is a type of traditional headgear worn in families of some Chassidic rebbes (Hasidic rabbis), by unmarried children on Shabbat, and by some rebbes on some special occasions other than Shabbat or major holidays.
Komarno is a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Aleksander Sender Safrin (born 1770, died August 28, 1818 in Hungary and is barried there (Ukraine)|Komarno) of Komarno, Ukraine.
Kosov is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Hager of Kosiv, a town in Galicia, presently in Ukraine.
Kvitel (קוויטל, "little note"; plural קוויטלך, kvitelach) refers to a practice developed by Hasidic Judaism in which a Hasid (a follower of Hasidic Judaism) writes a note with a petitionary prayer and gives it to a Rebbe (Hasidic Jewish leader) in order to receive the latter's blessing.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev (Levi Yitzchok Derbarmdiger) (1740–1809), also known as the Berdichever, and the Kedushas Levi, was a Hasidic master and Jewish leader.
Torah Or/Likutei Torah is a compilation of Chassidic treatises, maamarim, by the first Chabad Rebbe, Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi.
A Hasidic dynasty is a dynasty led by Hasidic Jewish spiritual leaders known as rebbes, and usually has some or all of the following characteristics.
Louis Jacobs CBE (17 July 1920 – 1 July 2006) was the founder of Masorti (Conservative) Judaism in the United Kingdom, and a leading writer and theologian.
Lurianic Kabbalah is a school of kabbalah named after the Jewish rabbi who developed it: Isaac Luria (1534–1572; also known as the "ARI'zal", "Ha'ARI" or "Ha'ARI Hakadosh").
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
Maariv or Ma'ariv, also known as Arvit, is a Jewish prayer service held in the evening or night.
Maggid (מַגִּיד), also spelled as magid, is a term used to describe two distinct concepts, the more common one defining a concrete person, and the other defining a celestial entity.
Martin Buber (מרטין בובר; Martin Buber; מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian-born Israeli Jewish philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism centered on the distinction between the I–Thou relationship and the I–It relationship.
Medzhybizh, previously known as Mezhybozhe, population 1731, (Census 2001) (Меджибіж, Меджибож, Translit: Medzhibozh, Międzybóż, Medschybisch, מעזשביזש, translit. Mezhbizh) is a town in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Melaveh Malkah (also, Melave Malka or Melava Malka) (מלווה מלכּה, lit. "Escorting the Queen") is the name of a meal that, as per halakha, is customarily held by Jews after their Sabbath (Shabbat), in other words, on Saturday evening.
Menachem Mendel Morgensztern of Kotzk, better known as the Kotzker Rebbe (1787–1859) was a Hasidic rabbi and leader.
Menachem Mendel of Rimanov (1745–May 29, 1815) was a Hasidic Rebbe and author.
Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk (1730?–1788), also known as Menachem Mendel of Horodok, was an early leader of Hasidic Judaism.
Menachem Mendel Schneerson (April 18, 1902 OS – June 12, 1994 / AM 11 Nissan 5662 – 3 Tammuz 5754), known to many as the Lubavitcher Rebbe or simply as the Rebbe, was a Russian Empire–born American Orthodox Jewish rabbi, and the last rebbe of the Lubavitcher Hasidic dynasty.
Rabbi Menachem Nochum Twersky of Chernobyl (born 1730, Norynsk(uk), Volhynia - died 1787, Chernobyl, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) was the founder of the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.
Michael Levi Rodkinson (1845–1904) was an American-Jewish publisher, known for being the first to translate the Babylonian Talmud to English.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Mincha (מִנחַה, pronounced as; sometimes spelled Minchah or Minha) is the afternoon prayer service in Judaism.
Misnagdim (also Mitnagdim; singular misnaged/mitnaged) is a Hebrew word meaning "opponents".
Mitzvah tantz (lit. "mitzvah-dance" in Yiddish) is the Hasidic custom of the men dancing before the bride on the wedding night, after the wedding feast.
Modern Orthodox Judaism (also Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law, with the secular, modern world.
Modi'in Illit (מוֹדִיעִין עִלִּית; موديعين عيليت, lit. "Upper Modi'in") is a Haredi Israeli settlement and city in the West Bank, situated midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.
Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah ("Council of Torah Sages") is the supreme rabbinical policy-making council of several related prestigious Haredi intra-national organizations.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Monroe is a town in Orange County, New York, United States.
Monsey is a hamlet and census-designated place in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States, located north of Airmont; east of Viola; south of New Hempstead; and west of Spring Valley.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Rabbi Mordechai Twersky (1770–1837), known as the Maggid of Chernobyl, was the son of Rabbi Menachem Nachum Twersky of Chernobyl and the second rebbe of the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty.
Mordechai Yosef Leiner of Izbica (איזשביצע, איזביצע Izhbitze, Izbitse, Ishbitze) (1801-1854: "Jewish Civil Registry of Izbica Lubelski", 1854, Akt#: 6, Registration Type: death, Registration Year: 1854, Location: Izbica Lubelski, Surname: Lajner, Given Name: Mordko. Indexed by JRI-Poland.) was a rabbinic Hasidic thinker and founder of the Izhbitza-Radzyn dynasty of Hasidic Judaism.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Moses Schreiber (1762–1839), known to his own community and Jewish posterity in the Hebrew translation as Moshe Sofer, also known by his main work Chatam Sofer, Chasam Sofer or Hatam Sofer, (trans. Seal of the Scribe and acronym for Chiddushei Torat Moshe Sofer), was one of the leading Orthodox rabbis of European Jewry in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum (1759 – 17 July 1841), also known as the Yismach Moshe, was the Rebbe of Ujhely (Sátoraljaújhely) in Hungary.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Munkatch (or Munkacs) Hasidism (חסידות מונקאטש) is a Hasidic sect within Haredi Judaism of mostly Hungarian Hasidic Jews.
Nachman of Breslov (נחמן מברסלב), also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Reb Nachman Breslover (רבי נחמן ברעסלאווער), Nachman from Uman (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810), was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.
A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
Neo-Hasidism is a name given to contemporary Jewish trends of a significant fusing or revival of interest in the teachings of Kabbalah and Hasidism by members of other existing Jewish movements.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Square (ניו סקווער, שיכון סקווירא) is an all-Hasidic village in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
A nigun (ניגון meaning "tune" or "melody", pl. nigunim) or niggun (pl. niggunim) is a form of Jewish religious song or tune sung by groups.
Nowy Wiśnicz (ווישניצא Vishnitsa) is a small town in Bochnia County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,724 inhabitants (2004).
Nusach Ashkenaz is a style of Jewish religious service conducted by Ashkenazi Jews, originating from Central and Western Europe.
Nusach Sefard, Nusach Sepharad, or Nusach Sfard is the name for various forms of the Jewish siddurim, designed to reconcile Ashkenazi customs (מנהג "Custom", pl. minhagim) with the kabbalistic customs of Isaac Luria.
Ohr ("Light" אור; plural: Ohros/Ohrot "Lights") is a central Kabbalistic term in the Jewish mystical tradition.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
The Old Yishuv (היישוב הישן, ha-Yishuv ha-Yashan) were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War I. As opposed to the later Zionist aliyah and the New Yishuv, which came into being with the First Aliyah (of 1882) and was more based on a socialist and/or secular ideology emphasizing labor and self-sufficiency, the Old Yishuv, whose members had continuously resided in or had come to Eretz Yisrael in the earlier centuries, were largely ultra-orthodox Jews dependent on external donations (Halukka) for living.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Payot (פֵּאָה), also pronounced pe'ot, peyot; or payos, peyos, peyois, payois in Ashkenazi pronunciation, is the Hebrew word for sidelocks or sidecurls.
The perushim (פרושים) were disciples of the Vilna Gaon, Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, who left Lithuania at the beginning of the 19th century to settle in the Land of Israel, which was then part of Ottoman Syria under Ottoman rule.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
Prestwich is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Greater Manchester, England, north of Manchester city centre, north of Salford and south of Bury.
The Prut (also spelled in English as Pruth;, Прут) is a long river in Eastern Europe.
Przysucha is a town in Poland.
Pshevorsk is a small Hasidic movement based in Antwerp, Belgium, led by the Leiser rabbinical dynasty, originating in the Polish town of Przeworsk.
The Qliphoth/Qlippoth/Qlifot or Kelipot (the different English spellings are used in the alternative Kabbalistic traditions of Hermetic Qabalah and Jewish Kabbalah respectively), literally "Peels", "Shells" or "Husks" (from singular: qlippah "Husk"), are the representation of evil or impure spiritual forces in Jewish mysticism, the polar opposites of the holy Sefirot.
Rabbi Meir (רַבִּי מֵאִיר) or Rabbi Meir Baal HaNes (Rabbi Meir the miracle maker) was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna.
Rachel Elior (born 28 December 1949) is an Israeli professor of Jewish philosophy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Jerusalem, Israel.
Ramot (רָמוֹת, lit. Heights), also known as Ramot Alon (רמות אלון), is a large neighborhood in a northern part of East Jerusalem.
Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.
Rekel (רעקל) or Lang Rekel (plural rekelech) is a type of frock coat worn mainly by Hasidic Jewish men during the Jewish work-week (Sunday-Friday).
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
Sabbateans (Sabbatians) is a complex general term that refers to a variety of followers of disciples and believers in Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676), a Jewish rabbi who was proclaimed to be the Jewish Messiah in 1665 by Nathan of Gaza.
Salomon Maimon (שלמה מימון‎; 1753 – 22 November 1800) was a German-speaking philosopher, born of Jewish parentage in present-day Belarus.
The Sanz (or Tsanz) Hasidic dynasty was founded by Rabbi Chaim Halberstam (1793–1876) who was the rabbi of Nowy Sącz (Sanz, צאנז Tsanz) and the author of the work Divrei Chaim by which name he is known as well.
Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back.
Satmar (סאטמאר or) is a Hasidic group originating from the city of Szatmárnémeti, Hungary (now Satu Mare, Romania), where it was founded in 1905 by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum.
Satu Mare (Szatmárnémeti; Sathmar; סאטמאר or סאַטמער) is a city with a population of 102,400 (2011) and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area.
Sátoraljaújhely (archaic; Nové Mesto pod Šiatrom; איהעל (Ihel) or (Uhely)) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border.
Schocken Books is an offspring of the Schocken Verlag, a publishing company that was established in Berlin in 1931 with a second office in Prague by the Schocken Department Store owner Salman Schocken.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
Sefirot (סְפִירוֹת səphîrôṯ), meaning emanations, are the 10 attributes/emanations in Kabbalah, through which Ein Sof (The Infinite) reveals Itself and continuously creates both the physical realm and the chain of higher metaphysical realms (Seder hishtalshelus).
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Seudah shlishit (סעודה שלישית, "third meal") or shaleshudes (Ashkenazic and שלוש־סעודות) is the third meal customarily eaten by Sabbath-observing Jews on Shabbat (observed on Saturdays).
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shatnez (or shaatnez,; Biblical Hebrew Šaʿatnez Shaatnez.ogg) is cloth containing both wool and linen (linsey-woolsey), which Jewish law, derived from the Torah, prohibits wearing.
Sheitel (שייטל, m.sg.; שייטלעך, m.pl. or שייטלען, m.pl.; פאה נוכרית) is a wig or half-wig worn by some Orthodox Jewish married women in order to conform with the requirement of Jewish law to cover their hair.
Shlomo Halberstam (1847–1905) was a Hasidic Rebbe, founder of the Hasidic dynasty of Bobov.
Shneur Zalman of Liady (שניאור זלמן מליאדי, September 4, 1745 – December 15, 1812 O.S. / 18 Elul 5505 – 24 Tevet 5573), was an Orthodox rabbi and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi in the Russian Empire.
Sholom Rokeach (1781 – 10 September 1855), also known as the Sar Sholom (שר שלום, "Angel of Peace"), was the first Belzer Rebbe.
Shomer Emunim (meaning "Guardian of the Faith") is a devout, insular Hasidic group based in Jerusalem.
A shpitzel is a head covering worn by some married Hasidic women.
Shtetlekh (שטעטל, shtetl (singular), שטעטלעך, shtetlekh (plural)) were small towns with large Jewish populations, which existed in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
A shtiebel (shtibl, pl. shtiblekh or shtiebels, meaning "little house" or "little room") is a place used for communal Jewish prayer.
A shtreimel (שטרײַמל, plural שטרײַמלעך) is a fur hat worn by many married Haredi Jewish men, particularly (although not exclusively) members of Hasidic Judaism, on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and other festive occasions.
The Shulchan Aruch (שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך, literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.
Rabbi Simcha Bunim Bonhart of Peshischa (Przysucha, in Poland) (1765–1827) was one of the key leaders of Hasidic Judaism in Poland.
Simon Dubnow (alternatively spelled Dubnov, sʲɪˈmʲɵn ˈmarkəvʲɪtɕ ˈdubnəf; שמעון דובנאָװ, Shimen Dubnov; 10 September 1860 – 8 December 1941) was a Jewish-born Russian historian, writer and activist.
Skver (also Skvir or Skwere; סקווער) is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rebbe Yitzchok Twersky in the city of Skver (as known in Yiddish; or Skvyra, in present-day Ukraine) during the mid-19th century.
Skvyra (Скви́ра; Yiddish: skver, סקווער) is a city in Kiev Oblast (region) of central Ukraine.
A snood is historically a type of female headgear designed to hold the hair in a cloth or yarn bag.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A spodik (or spodek) is a tall fur hat worn by some Hasidic Jews, particularly members of sects originating in Congress Poland.
Stamford Hill is a district in the London Borough of Hackney in north-east London, England, located about 5.5 miles north-east of Charing Cross.
The szlachta (exonym: Nobility) was a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia, Samogitia (both after Union of Lublin became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) and the Zaporozhian Host.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe is a two-volume, English-language reference work on the history and culture of Eastern Europe Jewry in this region, prepared by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and published by Yale University Press in 2008.
Theurgy (from Greek θεουργία, Theourgia) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action or evoking the presence of one or more gods, especially with the goal of achieving henosis (uniting with the divine) and perfecting oneself.
Tichel (Yiddish טיכל tikhl), also called a mitpachat (Hebrew מִטפַּחַת miṭpaḥat), is the Yiddish word for the headscarf worn by many married Orthodox Jewish women in compliance with the code of modesty known as tzniut, which requires married women to cover their hair.
Tikunei haZohar (תקוני הזהר, lit. "Rectifications of the Zohar"), also known as the Tikunim (תקונים), is a main text of the Kabbalah.
A tish (lit, label) is a gathering of Hasidim around their Rebbe.
Toldos Aharon is a strongly anti-Zionist Hasidic movement, headquartered in Jerusalem's Meah Shearim neighborhood.
Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok is a Hasidic movement located in Jerusalem's Meah Shearim neighborhood.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Tosh (also "Tash"; Hebrew/Yiddish: טאהש) is a Hasidic dynasty originating in Nyirtass, Hungary.
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
Tzadik/Zadik/Sadiq (צדיק, "righteous one", pl. tzadikim ṣadiqim) is a title in Judaism given to people considered righteous, such as Biblical figures and later spiritual masters.
The tzimtzum or tsimtsum (Hebrew צמצום ṣimṣūm "contraction/constriction/condensation") is a term used in the Lurianic Kabbalah to explain Isaac Luria's doctrine that God began the process of creation by "contracting" his Ein Sof (infinite) light in order to allow for a "conceptual space" in which finite and seemingly independent realms could exist.
Tzniut (צניעות, tzniut, Sephardi pronunciation, tzeniut(h); Ashkenazi pronunciation, tznius, "modesty", or "privacy") describes both the character trait of modesty and humility, as well as a group of Jewish laws pertaining to conduct in general, and especially between the sexes.
Tzvi Hirsh Eichenstein also known as Hirsh Zydaczower, (1763, Sambor - June 22, 1831, Zidichov), was a famous Hasidic Rebbe, a noted Talmudist, Kabbalist and author of novellae on Torah and Responsa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United Torah Judaism (יַהֲדוּת הַתּוֹרָה הַמְאוּחֶדֶת, Transliterated: Yahadut HaTora HaMeuhedet; UTJ) is an alliance of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel, two small Israeli Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) political parties in the Knesset.
Unterlander Jews (אונטערלאנד, translit. Unterland, "Lowland"; גליל תחתון, translit. Galil Takhton, "Lower Province") were the Jews who resided in the northeastern regions of the historical Kingdom of Hungary, or present-day eastern Slovakia, Zakarpattia Oblast in Ukraine and Northern Transylvania.
Mezhirichi (Velyki Mezhyrichi) is a village in the Korets Raion of the Rivne Oblast, Ukraine.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, (ר' אליהו בן שלמה זלמן Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman) known as the Vilna Gaon (דער װילנער גאון, Gaon z Wilna, Vilniaus Gaonas) or Elijah of Vilna, or by his Hebrew acronym HaGra ("HaGaon Rabbenu Eliyahu") or Elijah Ben Solomon (Sialiec, April 23, 1720 – Vilnius October 9, 1797), was a Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of misnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries.
Vizhnitz is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Hager.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Vyzhnytsia (Wischnitza or Wiznitz, Vijnița,, translit. Vizhnitsa, Vizhnitz) is a town located on the Cheremosh River in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
New Galicia or West Galicia (Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, Neugalizien or Westgalizien) was an administrative region of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, constituted from the territory annexed in the course of the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
Western Ukraine or West Ukraine (Західна Україна) is a geographical and historical relative term used in reference to the western territories of Ukraine.
Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordering Greenpoint to the north; Bedford–Stuyvesant to the south; Bushwick, East Williamsburg, and Ridgewood, Queens to the east; and Fort Greene and the East River to the west.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
World Agudath Israel (אגודת ישראל), usually known as the Aguda, was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yaakov Aryeh Alter (Jakub Arie Alter, יעקב אריה אלתר, born 1939), is the eighth and current Rebbe of the Hasidic dynasty of Ger, a position he has held since 1996.
Jacob Isaac Horowitz (יעקב יצחק הורוביץ), known as The Seer of Lublin", ha-Chozeh MiLublin; c. 1745 - August 15, 1815) was a Hasidic rebbe from Poland. "Rabbi Yaacov Yitzchak, the Chozeh of Lublin, is one of the truly beloved figures of Chassidism. He merited the title of Chozeh, which means seer or visionary..." A leading figure in the early Hasidic movement, he became known as the "seer" or "visionary" due to his purported ability to gaze across great distance by supernatural means. He was a disciple of the Maggid of Mezritch. He continued his studies under Rabbi Shmelke of Nilkolsburg and Rabbi Elimelech of Lizhensk. He lived for a while in Lantzut before moving to Lublin. After Yaakov Yitzchak moved to Lublin, thousands of Hasidim flocked to learn from him. Among his disciples were such Hasidic luminaries as the Yid Hakodesh ("The Holy Jew"), Rabbi Simcha Bunim of Peshischa, Rabbi Meir of Apta, Rabbi David of Lelov, the Yismach Moshe, Rabbi Tzvi Elimelech of Dinov, Rabbi Naftali Zvi of Ropshitz, the Ma'or Vashemesh, and Sar Shalom of Belz. The Seer of Lublin also gained a reputation as a miracle-worker who could accomplish the tikkun, or repair of the soul, of those who sought his assistance and guidance. During his stay in Lublin, Yaakov Yitzchak was opposed by a prominent rabbi, Rabbi Ezriel Horowitz. Yaakov Yitzchak was a descendant of Isaiah Horowitz (Hebrew: ישעיה הלוי הורוביץ), also known as the Shelah ha-Kadosh (Hebrew: של"ה הקדוש), a prominent Levite rabbi and mystic, and his maternal grandfather, Rabbi Yaakov Koppel Likover, also a prominent rabbi, a scholar, and a contemporary of the Ba'al Shem Tov. He was injured in a fall from a window on Simchat Torah night, following HaKaFos, and died almost a year later on Tisha B'av from injuries relating to this fall. He is buried at Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin.
Yaakov Yitzchak Rabinowicz (Jakub Izaak Rabinowicz; 1766–1813), also known as the Yid Hakodosh (Yiddish: ייִד הקדוש; Hebrew: היהודי הקדוש, HaYehudi HaKadosh, "The Holy Jew"), was the founder of the Peshischa (פשיסחא, Yiddish) sect of Hasidism in Przysucha, Poland, which was "an elitist, rationalistic Hasidism that centered on Talmudic study and formed a counterpoint to the miracle-centered Hasidism of Lublin." He held court in the grand synagogue of Przysucha.
Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam (January 10, 1905 – June 18, 1994) was an Orthodox rabbi and the founding Rebbe of the Sanz-Klausenburg Hasidic dynasty.
Yeshiva (ישיבה, lit. "sitting"; pl., yeshivot or yeshivos) is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and the Torah.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yisrael Alter, (Izrael Alter, Hebrew:; October 1895 – 20 February 1977), also known as the Beis Yisroel after the works he authored, was the fifth Rebbe of the Hasidic dynasty of Ger, a position he held from 1948 until 1977.
Yisrael Hopstein (1737–1814), also known as the Maggid of Kozhnitz, was one of the more important Hasidic leaders of Poland during the 18th and early 19th century.
Yissachar Dov Rokeach (born 19 January 1948)Landesman, Yerucham.
Yissachar Dov Rokeach (1854 – 29 October 1926)A World That Was, Hamodia Magazine, 12 November 2009, p. 15.
Yitzchak Meir Rotenberg-Alter (Icchak Meir Rothenberg Alter, יצחק מאיר אלתר, 1799 – 10 March 1866), was the first Rebbe of the Ger Hasidic dynasty, which he founded in the town of Góra Kalwaria (known as "Ger" in Yiddish), Poland.
Rabbi Zadok ha-Kohen Rabinowitz of Lublin (in Hebrew: צדוק הכהן מלובלין) (Kreisburg, 1823 - Lublin, Poland, 1900), (or Tzadok Hakohen or Tzadok of Lublin), was a significant Jewish thinker and Hasidic leader.
Yekusiel Yehuda III Teitelbaum, known by the Yiddish colloquial name Zalman Leib (born 23 December 1951; יקותיאל יהודה טייטלבוים, זלמן לייב טייטלבוים) is one of two Grand Rebbes of Satmar, and the third son of Grand Rabbi Moshe Teitelbaum, the late Rebbe of the Satmar Hasidim.
Ziditshov is a Hasidic dynasty originating in town Ziditshoyv (as known in Yiddish; or Zhydachiv in Ukrainian), in Galicia (a province of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire).
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
Rabbi Meshulam Zusha of Hanipol or Meshulum Zusil of Anipoli (1718–1800), Reb Zusha, Reb Zushe, The Rebbe Reb Zusha (sometimes spelled Zusil, Zoussia, Zušya, Zushya, Zushia, Zisha of Anipoli) was an Orthodox rabbi and an early Hasidic luminary and well-known tzaddik.
Zvi Hirsch Chajes (צבי הירש חיות - November 20, 1805 - October 12, 1855; also Chayes or Hayot) was one of the foremost Galician talmudic scholars.
The 18th century lasted from January 1, 1701 to December 31, 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.
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