127 relations: Academic Press, Albedo, Amorphous ice, Aperture, Apparent magnitude, Astronomical naming conventions, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Ataegina, California Institute of Technology, Charon (moon), Chthonic, Classical Kuiper belt object, Clearing the neighbourhood, Collisional family, Color index, Cosmic ray, Cryovolcano, David L. Rabinowitz, Density, Digitized Sky Survey, Dwarf planet, Earth mass, Ecliptic, Ellipsoid, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Gemini Observatory, Geometric mean, Gravity, Haumea (mythology), Haumea family, Hawaii (island), Hawaiian religion, Herschel Space Observatory, Hiʻiaka, How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrostatic equilibrium, Ice, Impact crater, Impact event, Infrared, International Astronomical Union, International Year of Astronomy, Invariable plane, Jacobi ellipsoid, José Luis Ortiz Moreno, Julian day, Julian year (astronomy), Kelvin, ..., Kozai mechanism, Light curve, List of optical telescopes, List of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun in 2015, List of the brightest Kuiper belt objects, Mauna Kea Observatories, Mean motion, Methane, Michael E. Brown, Micrometre, Minor planet, Minor Planet Center, Minor planet designation, Minor-planet moon, Moon, Moons of Haumea, Moons of Pluto, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Nāmaka, Neptune, Occultation, Olivine, Opposition (planets), Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital resonance, Orders of magnitude (length), Organic compound, Osculating orbit, Palomar Mountain, Palomar Observatory, Papahānaumoku, Perihelion and aphelion, Perturbation (astronomy), Photometry (astronomy), Planetary differentiation, Planets beyond Neptune, Plasticity (physics), Plutino, Pluto, Plutoid, Precovery, Protoplanetary disk, Provisional designation in astronomy, Pyroxene, Regular moon, Resonant trans-Neptunian object, Rigid body dynamics, Ring system, Roche limit, Rotation around a fixed axis, Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, Santa Claus, Santa Claus's reindeer, Scattered disc, Sierra Nevada Observatory, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Small Solar System body, Solar System, Space.com, Spectrum, Spheroid, Spitzer Space Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, Tholin, Tidal acceleration, Trans-Neptunian object, Visible spectrum, Volatiles, W. M. Keck Observatory, Wākea, William Herschel Telescope. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
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Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
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Amorphous ice (non-crystalline ("vitreous") ice) is an amorphous solid form of water.
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In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
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The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
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Astronomical naming conventions
In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names.
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The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
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Ataegina or Ataecina (Spanish; Atégina) was a popular goddess worshipped by the ancient Iberians, Lusitanians, and Celtiberians of the Iberian Peninsula.
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California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
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Charon, also known as (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto.
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Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.
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Classical Kuiper belt object
A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ("QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune.
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Clearing the neighbourhood
"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.
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In astronomy, a collisional family is a group of objects that are thought to have a common origin in an impact (collision).
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In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.
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Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
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A cryovolcano (sometimes informally called an ice volcano) is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock.
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David L. Rabinowitz
David Lincoln Rabinowitz (born 1960) is an American astronomer, discoverer of minor planets and researcher at Yale University.
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Digitized Sky Survey
The Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) is a digital version of several photographic atlases of the night sky, and an ongoing project to produce more digital versions of photographic astronomical datasets.
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A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
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Earth mass (where ⊕ is the standard astronomical symbol for planet Earth) is the unit of mass equal to that of Earth.
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The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
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An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
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Formation and evolution of the Solar System
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
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The Gemini Observatory is an astronomical observatory consisting of two 8.19-metre (26.9 ft) telescopes, Gemini North and Gemini South, which are located at two separate sites in Hawaii and Chile, respectively.
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In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).
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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
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Haumea (pronounced in the Hawaiian language) is the goddess of fertility and childbirth in Hawaiian mythology.
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The Haumea or Haumean family is the only identified trans-Neptunian collisional family; that is, the only group of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with similar orbital parameters and spectra (nearly pure water-ice) that suggest they originated in the disruptive impact of a progenitor body.
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Hawaiʻi is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
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Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians.
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Herschel Space Observatory
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
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In Hawaiian mythology, Hiʻiaka is a daughter of Haumea and Kāne.
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How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming
How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming is the 2010 memoir by Mike Brown, the American astronomer most responsible for the reclassification of the former planet Pluto from planet to dwarf planet.
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Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
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In fluid mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
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An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
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An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
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International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
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International Year of Astronomy
The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-long celebration of astronomy that took place in 2009 to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the first recorded astronomical observations with a telescope by Galileo Galilei and the publication of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia nova in the 17th century.
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The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
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A Jacobi ellipsoid is a triaxial (i.e. scalene) ellipsoid under equilibrium which arises when a self-gravitating fluid body of uniform density rotates with a constant angular velocity.
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José Luis Ortiz Moreno
José Luis Ortiz Moreno (born 1967) is a Spanish astronomer, and former Vicedirector of Technology at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA), Spain.
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Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.
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Julian year (astronomy)
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
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In celestial mechanics, the Kozai mechanism or Lidov–Kozai mechanism or Kozai–Lidov mechanism, also known as the Kozai, Lidov–Kozai or Kozai–Lidov effect, oscillations, cycles or resonance, is a dynamical phenomenon affecting the orbit of a binary system perturbed by a distant third body under certain conditions, causing the orbit's argument of pericenter to oscillate about a constant value, which in turn leads to a periodic exchange between its eccentricity and inclination.
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In astronomy, a light curve is a graph of light intensity of a celestial object or region, as a function of time.
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List of optical telescopes
* List of largest optical reflecting telescopes - List of large optical telescopes.
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List of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun in 2015
This is a list of Solar System objects most distant from the Sun discovered by December of 2015. The objects are sorted by their approximate heliocentric distance from the Sun in December 2015 (as opposed to those with the greatest calculated aphelion in their orbit).
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List of the brightest Kuiper belt objects
Since the year 2000, a number of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with diameters of between 500 and 1500 km (more than half that of Pluto) have been discovered.
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Mauna Kea Observatories
The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are a number of independent astronomical research facilities and large telescope observatories that are located at the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, United States.
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In orbital mechanics, mean motion (represented by n) is the angular speed required for a body to complete one orbit, assuming constant speed in a circular orbit which completes in the same time as the variable speed, elliptical orbit of the actual body.
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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
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Michael E. Brown
Michael E. Brown (born June 5, 1965) is an American astronomer, who has been professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since 2003.
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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
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A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
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Minor Planet Center
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.
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Minor planet designation
A formal minor planet designation is, in its final form, a number–name combination given to a minor planet (asteroid, centaur, trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet but not comet).
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A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite.
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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
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Moons of Haumea
The outer Solar System dwarf planet Haumea has two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, named after Hawaiian goddesses.
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Moons of Pluto
The dwarf planet Pluto has five moons down to a detection limit of about 1 km in diameter.
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A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
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Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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In Hawaiian mythology, Nāmaka (or Nā-maka-o-Kahai, the eyes of Kahai) appears as a sea goddess or a water spirit in the Pele cycle.
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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
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An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
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The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
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In positional astronomy, two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body (usually Earth).
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The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
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Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
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The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
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In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
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Orders of magnitude (length)
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.
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In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
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In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.
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Palomar Mountain is a mountain ridge in the Peninsular Ranges in northern San Diego County.
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Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.
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Papahānaumoku, sometimes called Papa, is the earth mother goddess in Hawaiian religion of the Kanaka Maoli.
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Perihelion and aphelion
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
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In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
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Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
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In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
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Planets beyond Neptune
Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit.
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In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
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In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects in the outermost region of the Solar System that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune.
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Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
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A plutoid or ice dwarf is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet, i.e. a body orbiting beyond Neptune that is massive enough to be rounded in shape.
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In astronomy, precovery (short for pre-discovery recovery) is the process of finding the image of an object in old archived images or photographic plates for the purpose of calculating a more accurate orbit.
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A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
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Provisional designation in astronomy
Provisional designation in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery.
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The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
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In astronomy, a regular moon is a natural satellite following a relatively close and prograde orbit with little orbital inclination or eccentricity.
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Resonant trans-Neptunian object
In astronomy, a resonant trans-Neptunian object is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) in mean-motion orbital resonance with Neptune.
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Rigid body dynamics
Rigid-body dynamics studies the movement of systems of interconnected bodies under the action of external forces.
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A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.
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In celestial mechanics, the Roche limit, also called Roche radius, is the distance in which a celestial body, held together only by its own gravity, will disintegrate due to a second celestial body's tidal forces exceeding the first body's gravitational self-attraction.
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Rotation around a fixed axis
Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.
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Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, popularly known as "Santa's ninth reindeer", is a fabled reindeer created by Robert Lewis May.
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Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
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Santa Claus's reindeer
In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to children on Christmas Eve.
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The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
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Sierra Nevada Observatory
The Sierra Nevada Observatory (Observatorio de Sierra Nevada; OSN; code: J86) is located at Loma de Dilar (2896 m altitude) in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, in the province of Granada, Spain; established in 1981.
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In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
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Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
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Small Solar System body
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
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The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
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Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
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A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
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Spitzer Space Telescope
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
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The Astronomical Journal
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
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The Astrophysical Journal
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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Tholins (after the Greek θολός (tholós) "hazy" or "muddy"; from the ancient Greek word meaning "sepia ink") are a wide variety of organic compounds formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation or cosmic rays from simple carbon-containing compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane or ethane, often in combination with nitrogen.
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Tidal acceleration is an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite (e.g. the Moon), and the primary planet that it orbits (e.g. Earth).
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A trans-Neptunian object (TNO, also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).
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The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
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In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
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W. M. Keck Observatory
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
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In the Hawaiian religion, Wākea, the Sky father weds Papahānaumoku, the earth mother.
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William Herschel Telescope
The William Herschel Telescope (WHT) is a optical/near-infrared reflecting telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain.
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(136108) 2003 EL61, (136108) 2003 EL₆₁, (136108) Haumea, 136108, 136108 Haumea, 2003 EL 61, 2003 EL61, 2003 EL61 (Santa), 2003 EL₆₁, 2003EL 61, 2003EL61, Ataecina (dwarf planet), EL 61, EL61, Hamea, Haumea (DP), Haumea (dwarf planet), K40506A, Minor Planet Haumea, Rings of Haumea.