108 relations: A Brief History of Time, Absorption cross section, AdS/CFT correspondence, Age of the universe, Alexei Starobinsky, Analog models of gravity, Angular momentum, Antiparticle, Arutz Sheva, Black hole, Black hole information paradox, Black hole starship, Black hole thermodynamics, Black-body radiation, Boltzmann constant, CERN, Charge (physics), Cosmic microwave background, Detailed balance, Don Page (physicist), Doppler effect, Earth, Electromagnetic radiation, Elementary particle, Energy, Entropy, Equivalence principle, Event horizon, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Frequency, Gamma ray, Gibbons–Hawking effect, Gram, Gravitational constant, Gravitational singularity, Gravity, Hermann Minkowski, Holographic principle, Infinity, International System of Units, Jacob Bekenstein, Kelvin, Large extra dimension, Large Hadron Collider, Loop quantum gravity, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Matter, Micro black hole, Mohammad H Ansari, ..., Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Moscow, Nano-, NASA, Natural units, Negative energy, New Journal of Physics, No-hair theorem, Perfect fluid, Phonon, Photon, Planck constant, Planck length, Planck mass, Planck time, Planck's law, Power (physics), Primordial black hole, Proportionality (mathematics), Quantum, Quantum field theory, Quantum field theory in curved spacetime, Quantum fluctuation, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum tunnelling, Radiation, Rindler coordinates, Rotating black hole, Schwarzschild metric, Schwarzschild radius, Semiclassical gravity, Solar mass, Sonic black hole, Spacetime, Special relativity, Speed of light, Sphere, Spin (physics), Stefan–Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Stephen Hawking, Surface gravity, Temperature, Thermal radiation, Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet, TNT equivalent, Trans-Planckian problem, Ultrarelativistic limit, Unruh effect, Virtual particle, Wavelength, White hole, Wien's displacement law, Wired (magazine), X-ray, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.
In theoretical physics, the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, sometimes called Maldacena duality or gauge/gravity duality, is a conjectured relationship between two kinds of physical theories.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Alexei Alexandrovich Starobinsky (Алексе́й Алекса́ндрович Староби́нский; born 19 April 1948) is a Soviet and Russian astrophysicist and cosmologist.
Analog models of gravity are attempts to model various phenomena of general relativity (e.g., black holes or cosmological geometries) using other physical systems such as acoustics in a moving fluid, superfluid helium, or Bose–Einstein condensate; gravity waves in water; and propagation of electromagnetic waves in a dielectric medium.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Arutz Sheva (lit), also known in English as Israel National News, is an Israeli media network identifying with Religious Zionism.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
The black hole information paradox is a puzzle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
A black hole starship is a theoretical idea for enabling interstellar travel by propelling a starship by using a black hole as the energy source.
In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
The principle of detailed balance is formulated for kinetic systems which are decomposed into elementary processes (collisions, or steps, or elementary reactions): At equilibrium, each elementary process should be equilibrated by its reverse process.
Don Nelson Page,, (born December 31, 1948) is an American-born Canadian theoretical physicist at the University of Alberta, Canada.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Gibbons–Hawking effect is the statement that a temperature can be associated to each solution of the Einstein field equations that contains a causal horizon.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Hermann Minkowski (22 June 1864 – 12 January 1909) was a German mathematician and professor at Königsberg, Zürich and Göttingen.
The holographic principle is a principle of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.
Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Jacob David Bekenstein (יעקב בקנשטיין; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In particle physics, the ADD model, also known as the model with large extra dimensions (LED), is a model framework that attempts to solve the hierarchy problem by explaining the weakness of gravity relative to the other forces.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.
Mohammad H. Ansari is a theoretical physicist expert in quantum physics.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Nano- (symbol n) is a unit prefix meaning "one billionth".
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In physics, natural units are physical units of measurement based only on universal physical constants.
Negative energy is a concept used in physics to explain the nature of certain fields, including the gravitational field and various quantum field effects.
New Journal of Physics is an online-only, open-access, peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in all aspects of physics, as well as interdisciplinary topics where physics forms the central theme.
The no-hair theorem postulates that all black hole solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations of gravitation and electromagnetism in general relativity can be completely characterized by only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electric charge, and angular momentum.
In physics, a perfect fluid is a fluid that can be completely characterized by its rest frame mass density \rho_m; and isotropic pressure p. Real fluids are "sticky" and contain (and conduct) heat.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.
In physics, the Planck mass, denoted by mP, is the unit of mass in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
In quantum mechanics, the Planck time is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
Primordial black holes are a hypothetical type of black hole that formed soon after the Big Bang.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
In particle physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an extension of standard, Minkowski space quantum field theory to curved spacetime.
In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or vacuum state fluctuation or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space, as explained in Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In relativistic physics, the coordinates of a hyperbolically accelerated reference frame constitute an important and useful coordinate chart representing part of flat Minkowski spacetime.
A rotating black hole is a black hole that possesses angular momentum.
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.
The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is a physical parameter that shows up in the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein's field equations, corresponding to the radius defining the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole.
Semiclassical gravity is the approximation to the theory of quantum gravity in which one treats matter fields as being quantum and the gravitational field as being classical.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
A sonic black hole, sometimes called a dumb hole, is a phenomenon in which phonons (sound perturbations) are unable to escape from a fluid that is flowing more quickly than the local speed of sound.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter ''σ'' (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.
The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
The Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet was a public bet on the outcome of the black hole information paradox made in 1997 by physics theorists Kip Thorne and Stephen Hawking on the one side, and John Preskill on the other, according to the document they signed February 6, 1997, as shown in Hawking's The Universe in a Nutshell.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
In black hole physics and inflationary cosmology, the trans-Planckian problem refers to the appearance of quantities beyond the Planck scale, which raise doubts on the physical validity of some results in these two areas, since one expects the physical laws to suffer radical modifications beyond the Planck scale.
In physics, a particle is called ultrarelativistic when its speed is very close to the speed of light.
The Unruh effect (or sometimes Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect) is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe blackbody radiation where an inertial observer would observe none.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it.
Wien's displacement law states that the black body radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich (Я́каў Бары́савіч Зяльдо́віч, Я́ков Бори́сович Зельдо́вич; 8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987), also known as YaB, was a Soviet physicist of Belarusian Jewish ethnicity, who is known for his prolific contributions in cosmology and the physics of thermonuclear and hydrodynamical phenomena.
Acoustic Hawking radiation, Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, Bekenstein–Hawking radiation, Black hole evaporation, Black hole radiation, Classical Hawking radiation, Hawking Effect, Hawking Radiation, Hawking effect, Hawking evaporation, Hawking process, Hawking temperature, Hawking–Zel'dovich radiation, Hawkins radiation, Sonic Hawking radiation, Virtual particle production, Virual particle production.