275 relations: Abdülaziz, Abu Bakr, Admiral, Admiral of the fleet, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Ahmet Şimşirgil, Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri, Albanians, Alexandria, Algeria, Algiers, Ali, Alicante, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Andalusia, Andrea Doria, Andros, Annaba, Antalya, Antibes, Antoine Duprat, Antonio Rincon, Apulia, Arabic, Arabic calligraphy, Aragon, Atlantic Ocean, Austrian Empire, Île Sainte-Marguerite, Îles d'Hyères, Üsküdar, İzmir, Şehzade Korkut, Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı, Balearic Islands, Barbary Coast, Barque, Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Preveza, Béjaïa, Büyükdere, Sarıyer, Beşiktaş, Bedouin, Beylerbey, Bodrum, Bodrum Castle, Bonifacio, Corse-du-Sud, ..., Borghetto Santo Spirito, Bosporus, Bravely Default, Cabrera, Balearic Islands, Cairo, Calabria, Calanna, Campania, Cannes, Cape Palinuro, Capri, Cariati, Carrack, Castiglione della Pescaia, Castignano, Castro, Apulia, Catona, Cádiz, Ceriale, Cetraro, Ceuta, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Cherchell, Chios, Civitavecchia, Conquest of Tunis (1534), Conquest of Tunis (1535), Constantinople, Corsica, Counts and dukes of Savoy, Crotone, Cyprus, Dalmatia, Diano Marina, Djerba, Dragut, Ducat, Elba, Eminönü, Euboea, Europa Universalis IV, Fall of Tlemcen (1518), Favignana, Fiumara, Fondi, Forio, Francis I of France, Fusta, Gaeta, Galley, Gattilusi, Genoa, Gera, Lesbos, Giannitsa, Giovanni Doria (bishop), Greece, Greek Orthodox Church, Greeks, Grosseto, Habsburg Spain, Hafsid dynasty, Hasan Pasha (son of Barbarossa), Herceg Novi, Hernán Cortés, Holy Roman Empire, House of Habsburg, Ionian Sea, Ios, Ischia, Isfendiyarids, Islam, Isola del Giglio, Isola di Capo Rizzuto, Istanbul, Istanbul Naval Museum, Istanbul University, Janissaries, Jean de La Forêt, Jijel, Kadıköy, Kapudan Pasha, Karamanids, Karpathos, Kasos, Kemal Reis, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, Knights Hospitaller, Koroni, Kotor, Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis, Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis, Kythira, La Goulette, La Turbie, Lampedusa, Lazio, Lütfi Pasha, Leone Strozzi, Lesbos, Levant, Levent, Liguria, Lipari, Mahdia, Mallorca, Mamluk, Manisa, Marseille, Maslak, Mausoleum, Málaga, Médéa, Menorca, Messina, Mika Waltari, Miliana, Mimar Sinan, Montecristo, Montiano, Morea, Morisco, Mudéjar, Muhammad, Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Murat Reis the Elder, Mytilene, Nafpaktos, Naples, Naxos, New World, Nintendo 3DS, Occhiali, Oran, Orbetello, Oruç Reis, Ostia Antica, Otranto, Ottoman embassy to France (1533), Ottoman embassy to France (1534), Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Navy, Papal States, Paros, Pasha, Patras, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, Pesaro, Piali Pasha, Piombino, Piri Reis, Ponza, Pope, Pope Paul III, Porto Ercole, Pozzuoli, Preveza, Privateer, Procida, Provence, Quran, Rashidun Caliphate, Reborrowing, Reggio Calabria, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Rhodes, Risan, Salah Rais, Salerno, San Lucido, Sanjak, Sanremo, Sarıyer, Sardinia, Scimitar, Seal of Solomon, Selim I, Serifos, Seydi Ali Reis, Sicily, Siege of Corfu (1537), Siege of Nice, Siege of Rhodes (1522), Sinan Reis, Sipahi, Skiathos, Skyros, Spain, Sperlonga, Star of David, Star polygons in art and culture, Strait of Messina, Suleiman the Magnificent, Syros, Tabarca, Talamone, Ténès, Türbe, Terracina, The Wanderer (Waltari novel), Tiber, Tinos, Tlemcen, Topkapı Palace, Toulon, Toulon Cathedral, Tripoli, Tripoli, Lebanon, Tunis, Tunisia, Turkish language, Turkish Naval Forces, Tuscany, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ugento, Umar, Uthman, Vado Ligure, Valencia, Viareggio, Villa Santa Lucia, Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, Yakup Ağa, Zulfiqar. Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz, Abdülaziz; 8 February 18304 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (sometimes also known as admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Ahmet Şimşirgil (born 25 May 1959, in Sinop) is a Turkish academic.
Al-Ashraf Qansuh Al-Ghuri (الأشرف قانصوه الغوري) was the second-to-last of the Mamluk Sultans.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Andrea Doria (30 November 146625 November 1560) was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.
Andros (Άνδρος) is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, about southeast of Euboea, and about north of Tinos.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Antalya is the fifth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.
Antibes (Provençal Occitan: Antíbol) is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice.
Antoine Duprat (17 January 1463 – 1535) was a French Cardinal and politician, who was chancellor of France.
Antonio Rincon (died 1541), also Antoine de Rincon, was a Spanish-born diplomat in the service of France An influential envoy from the King of France to Sultan Soleyman I of the Ottoman Empire, he made various missions to Constantinople between 1530 and 1541.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy based on the Arabic alphabet.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Île Sainte-Marguerite is the largest of the Lérins Islands, about half a mile off shore from the French Riviera town of Cannes.
The Îles d'Hyères (or Îles d'Or) are a group of four Mediterranean islands off Hyères in the Var département of south-east France.
Üsküdar, traditionally known in Italian and English as Scutari (Σκουτάριον in Greek), is a large and densely populated district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Şehzade Korkut (1467–1513) was an Ottoman prince who was a short time regent for the Ottoman throne.
Babıali Kültür Yayıncılığı (Babiali Cultural Publications in English, abbreviated as BKY) is a publishing company based in Istanbul, Turkey.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen (the aftmost mast) rigged fore-and-aft.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies.
Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
Büyükdere is a quarter of Sarıyer district in Istanbul Province, Turkey.
Beşiktaş (pronounced) is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
Bodrum is a district and a port city in Muğla Province, in the southwestern Aegean Region of Turkey.
Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey in the port city of Bodrum, was built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St.
Bonifacio is a commune at the southern tip of the island of Corsica, in the Corse-du-Sud department of France.
Borghetto Santo Spirito is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Savona in the Italian region Liguria, located about southwest of Genoa and about southwest of Savona.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Bravely Default, known in Japan as Bravely Default: Flying Fairy, is a role-playing video game developed by Silicon Studio for the Nintendo 3DS handheld video game console.
Cabrera (Capraia) is an uninhabited islet in the Balearic Islands, Spain, located in the Mediterranean Sea off the southern coast of Majorca.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Calanna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.
Cape Palinuro (Italian: Capo Palinuro) is located in southwestern Italy, approximately 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Salerno, in southern part of Cilento region.
Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.
Cariati is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.
Castiglione della Pescaia, regionally simply abbreviated as Castiglione, is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, Italy.
Castignano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Ascoli Piceno in the Italian region Marche, located about south of Ancona and about northeast of Ascoli Piceno.
Castro (Salentino: Casciu) is a town and comune in the Italian province of Lecce in the Apulia region of south-eastern Italy.
Catona (in the local dialect A Catùna) is an urban district (independent municipality until 1927) of Reggio Calabria, Italy, as part of the 8th district with neighborhoods Salice, Villa San Giuseppe and Rosalì.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Ceriale (Ligurian: O Çejâ) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Savona in the Italian region of Liguria, located about southwest of Genoa and about southwest of Savona.
Cetraro (Calabrian: U Citràru) is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
Chios (Χίος, Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast.
Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
The conquest of Tunis occurred on 16 August 1534 when Hayreddin Barbarossa captured the city from the Hafsid ruler Muley Hasan.
The Conquest of Tunis in 1535 was an attack on Tunis, then under the control of the Ottoman Empire, by the Habsburg Empire of Charles V and its allies.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
The following is a list of rulers of Savoy.
Crotone (Crotonese: Cutrone or Cutruni) is a city and comune in Calabria.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Diano Marina (A Maina de Dian, or simply Dian) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Imperia in the Italian region Liguria, located about southwest of Genoa and about 5 km northeast of Imperia.
Djerba (جربة), also transliterated as Jerba or Jarbah, is, at, the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès, off the coast of Tunisia.
Dragut (Turgut Reis; 1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a famed, respected, and feared Muslim Ottoman Naval Commander of Greek descent.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul in Turkey, currently a quarter of Fatih, the province's capital district.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Europa Universalis IV is a grand strategy video game in the Europa Universalis series, developed by Paradox Development Studio and published by Paradox Interactive.
The Fall of Tlemcen occurred in 1518, when the Ottoman admiral Oruç Barbarossa captured the city of Tlemcen from its sultan, Abu Zayan, the last member of the Banu Zayan lineage.
Favignana (Faugnana in Sicilian) is a comune including three islands (Favignana, Marettimo and Levanzo) of the Aegadian Islands, southern Italy.
Fiumara (Reggino: Sciumara 'i Muru) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about northeast of Reggio Calabria.
Fondi (Fundi) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, Lazio, central Italy, halfway between Rome and Naples.
Forio (known also as Forio of Ischia) is a town and comune of c. 17,000 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Naples, southern Italy, situated on the island of Ischia.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
The fusta or fuste (also called foist or) was a narrow, light and fast ship with shallow draft, powered by both oars and sail—in essence a small galley.
Gaeta (Caiēta, Ancient Greek: Καιέτα) is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
The Gattilusi (singular Gattilusio) were a powerful Genoese family who controlled a number of possessions in the northern Aegean from 1355 until the mid 15th century.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Gera or Yera (Γέρα) is a town on the Aegean island of Lesbos in Greece.
Giannitsa (Γιαννιτσά, in English also Yannitsa, Yenitsa) is the largest city in the regional unit of Pella and the capital of the Pella municipality, in the region of Central Macedonia in northern Greece.
Giovanni Doria (24 March 1573, Genoa – Palermo, Sicily, 19 October 1642), called Giannettino, the son of Giovanni Andrea Doria, 6th Prince of Melfi, and Princess Zenobia Doria del Carretto, 5th Princess of Melfi.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Grosseto is a city and comune in the central Italian region of Tuscany, the capital of the Province of Grosseto.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
The Hafsids (الحفصيون al-Ḥafṣiyūn) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya (western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria) from 1229 to 1574.
Hasan Pasha (c. 1517-1572) was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers.
Herceg Novi (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Херцег Нови) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
Ios (Ίος,, locally Nios Νιός) is a Greek island in the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea.
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The Isfendiyarids or Isfendiyarid dynasty (Modern Turkish: İsfendiyaroğulları, İsfendiyaroğulları Beyliği), also known as the Beylik of Sinop, the Principality of Isfendiyar and Beylik of Isfendiyar (İsfendiyar Beyliği), its former name was Jandarids or Principality of Jandar (Candaroğulları, Candaroğulları Beyliği), was an Anatolian Turkoman beylik that ruled principally in the regions corresponding to present-day Kastamonu and Sinop provinces of Turkey, also covering parts of Zonguldak, Bartın, Karabük, Samsun, Bolu, Ankara and Çankırı provinces, between 1292–1461, in the Black Sea region of modern-day Turkey.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Isola del Giglio (Giglio Island) is an Italian island and comune situated in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Tuscany, and is part of the Province of Grosseto.
Isola di Capo Rizzuto is a comune (municipality) in the province of Crotone, Calabria, Italy.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Istanbul Naval Museum (Turkish: İstanbul Deniz Müzesi) is a national naval museum, located at Beşiktaş district of Istanbul in Turkey.
Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi) is a prominent Turkish university located in Istanbul.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jean de La Forêt, also Jean de La Forest or Jehan de la Forest (died 1537) was the first official French Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, serving from 1534 to 1537.
Jijel (جيجل, or Djidjelli) is the capital of Jijel Province in north-eastern Algeria.
Kadıköy (in Byzantine Chalcedon, in Χαλκηδών), is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul, Turkey on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara, facing the historic city centre on the European side of the Bosporus.
The Kapudan Pasha (قپودان پاشا, modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), was the Grand Admiral of the navy of the Ottoman Empire.
The Karamanids or Karamanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Karamanoğulları, Karamanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Karaman and Beylik of Karaman (Karaman Beyliği), was one of the Islamic Anatolian beyliks, centered in south-central Anatolia around the present-day Karaman Province.
Karpathos (Κάρπαθος) is the second largest of the Greek Dodecanese islands, in the southeastern Aegean Sea.
Kασος (also Kassos, Kασος) is a Greek island municipality in the Dodecanese.
Kemal Reis (c. 1451 – 1511) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis was an Ottoman admiral who is best known for commanding the Ottoman naval expedition to Sumatra in Indonesia (1568–1569).
Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487 – c. 1535) was a privateer and admiral of the Ottoman Empire, as well as the Sanjak Bey (Provincial Governor) of Rhodes.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
La Goulette (حلق الوادي, La Goletta) is the port of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia.
La Turbie (in Italian "Turbia" from tropea, Latin for trophy) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
Lampedusa (Lampidusa; Λοπαδούσσα Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Lütfi Pasha (لطفى پاشا, Luṭfī Paşa; Modern Turkish: Lütfi Paşa, more fully Damat Çelebi Lütfi Paşa; 1488 – 27 March 1564, Didymoteicho) was an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent from 1539 to 1541.
Leone Strozzi (15 October 1515 – 28 June 1554) was an Italian condottiero belonging to the famous Strozzi family of Florence.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levent is a neighbourhood and one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Maslak is one of the main business districts of Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city.
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Médéa (Lemdiyyet, المدية al-Madiya), population 123,535 (1998 census) is the capital city of Médéa Province, Algeria.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Mika Toimi Waltari (19 September 1908 – 26 August 1979) was a Finnish writer, best known for his best-selling novel The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen).
Miliana (مليانة) is a town in Aïn Defla Province, northwestern Algeria.
Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.
Montecristo (also Monte Cristo), formerly Oglasa (in Ancient Greek: Ὠγλάσσα Ōglassa), is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea and part of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Montiano (Muncin) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Forlì-Cesena in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about southeast of Bologna and about southeast of Forlì.
The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
Mudéjar (Mudèjar, مدجن trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated") is also the name given to Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not initially forcibly converted to Christianity.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhteşem Yüzyıl (The Magnificent Century) is a Turkish historical fiction television series.
Murat Reis the Elder (Koca Murat Reis; 1534–1609) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral, who served in the Ottoman Navy.
Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.
Nafpaktos (Ναύπακτος) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, west of the mouth of the river Mornos.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo.
Occhiali (Giovanni Dionigi Galeni or Giovan Dionigi Galeni, also Uluj Ali, Uluç Ali Reis, later Uluç Ali Paşa and finally Kılıç Ali Paşa; 1519 – 21 June 1587) was an Italian farmer, then Ottoman privateer and admiral, who later became beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers, and finally Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha) of the Ottoman fleet in the 16th century.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Orbetello is a town and comune in the province of Grosseto (Tuscany), Italy.
Oruç Reis (Oruç Reis; عروج ريس; Arrudye; 1474–1518) was an Ottoman bey (governor) of Algiers and beylerbey (chief governor) of the West Mediterranean, and the elder brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa.
Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome.
Otranto (Salentino: Uṭṛàntu; Griko: Δερεντό, translit. Derentò; translit; Hydruntum) is a town and comune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses.
An Ottoman embassy to France was sent in 1533 by Hayreddin Barbarossa, the Ottoman Governor of Algiers, vassal of the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent.
An Ottoman embassy to France occurred in 1534, with the objective to prepare and coordinate Franco-Ottoman offensives for the next year, 1535.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Navy (Osmanlı Donanması or Donanma-yı Humâyûn), also known as the Ottoman Fleet, was established in the early 14th century after the Ottoman Empire first expanded to reach the sea in 1323 by capturing Karamürsel, the site of the first Ottoman naval shipyard and the nucleus of the future Navy.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Paros (Πάρος; Venetian: Paro) is a Greek island in the central Aegean Sea.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (Berber language: Badis; Arabic: جزيرة غمارة jazīrat ghumara), in ancient times Badis or Bades, is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) in the west of the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the Moroccan shore by a sandy isthmus.
Pesaro is a town and comune in the Italian region of the Marche, capital of the Pesaro e Urbino province, on the Adriatic.
Piali Pasha, (Piyale Paşa) (c. 1515–1578) was an Ottoman Grand Admiral (Kapudan Pasha) between 1553 and 1567, and a Vizier after 1568.
Piombino is an Italian town and comune of about 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno (Tuscany).
Ahmed Muhiddin Piri (1465/70–1553), better known as Piri Reis (Reis or Hacı Ahmet Muhittin Pîrî Bey), was an Ottoman admiral, navigator, geographer and cartographer.
Ponza (Italian: isola di Ponza) is the largest island of the Italian Pontine Islands archipelago, located south of Cape Circeo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Porto Ercole is an Italian town located in the municipality of Monte Argentario, in the Province of Grosseto, Tuscany.
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
Preveza (Πρέβεζα) is a town in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Procida (Proceta) is one of the Flegrean Islands off the coast of Naples in southern Italy.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Reborrowing is the process where a word travels from one language to another and then back to the originating language in a different form or with a different meaning.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Risan (Рисан, Rizoni) is a town in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro.
Salah Rais (Salih Reis) (c. 1488 – 1568) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
San Lucido (Calabrian: Sàntu Lùcitu) is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
Sanjaks (سنجاق, modern: Sancak) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire.
Sanremo or San Remo (Sanrému, locally date The name of the city is a phonetic contraction of Sant'Eremo di San Romolo, which refers to Romulus of Genoa, the successor to Syrus of Genoa. It is often stated in modern folk stories that Sanremo is a translation of "Saint Remus", a deceased Saint. In Ligurian, his name is San Rœmu. The spelling San Remo is on all ancient maps of Liguria, the ancient Republic of Genoa, Italy in the Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Kingdom of Italy. It was used in 1924 in official documents under Mussolini. This form of the name appears still on some road signs and, more rarely, in unofficial tourist information. It has been the most widely used form of the name in English at least since the 19th century.
Sarıyer is the northernmost district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European side of the city.
A scimitar is a backsword or sabre with a curved blade, originating in the Middle East.
The Seal of Solomon (or Ring of Solomon; خاتم سليمان) is the signet ring attributed to King Solomon in medieval Jewish tradition, and in Islamic and Western occultism.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
Serifos (Σέριφος, Seriphus, also Seriphos; formerly Serpho or Serphanto) is a Greek island municipality in the Aegean Sea, located in the western Cyclades, south of Kythnos and northwest of Sifnos.
Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563), formerly also written Sidi Ali Reis and Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, was an Ottoman admiral and navigator.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Corfu in 1537 was led by the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent, against the Republic of Venice-held island of Corfu.
The Siege of Nice occurred in 1543 and was part of the Italian War of 1542–46 in which Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent collaborated in a Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and Henry VIII of England.
The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately successful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to expel the Knights of Rhodes from their island stronghold and thereby secure Ottoman control of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Sinan Reis, also Ciphut Sinan, (סנאן ראיס, Sinan Rais; سنان ريس, Sinan Rayyis) "Sinan the Chief", and Sinao o Judeo, "Sinan the Jew", was a Barbary corsair and Jewish pirate who sailed under the famed Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa.
Sipahi (translit) were two types of Ottoman cavalry corps, including the fief-holding provincial timarli sipahi, which constituted most of the army, and the regular kapikulu sipahi, palace troops.
Skiathos (Σκιάθος, Skiáthos,; Ancient Greek: Σκίαθος, Skíathos; Latin forms: Sciathos and Sciathus) is a small Greek island in the northwest Aegean Sea.
Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is an island in Greece, the southernmost of the Sporades, an archipelago in the Aegean Sea.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sperlonga (locally Spelonghe) is a coastal town in the province of Latina, Italy, about halfway between Rome and Naples.
The Star of David (✡), known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David (Hebrew rtl; Biblical Hebrew Māḡēn Dāwīḏ, Tiberian, Modern Hebrew, Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish Mogein Dovid or Mogen Dovid), is a generally recognized symbol of modern Jewish identity and Judaism.
Star polygons and polygonal compounds are the basis for numerous figures of significance in arts and culture.
The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.
Syros (Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea.
Tabarca (also known in Valencian as Nova Tabarca and Illa Plana, and in Spanish as Nueva Tabarca and Isla Plana), is an islet located in the Mediterranean Sea, close to the town of Santa Pola, in the province of Alicante, Valencian community, Spain.
Talamone is a town in Tuscany, on the west coast of central Italy, administratively a frazione of the comune of Orbetello, province of Grosseto, in the Tuscan Maremma.
Ténès (Tinas; تنس) is a town in Algeria located around 200 kilometers west of the capital Algiers.
Türbe is the Turkish word for "tomb", and for the characteristic mausoleums, often relatively small, of Ottoman royalty and notables.
Terracina is a city and comune of the province of Latina - (until 1934 of the province of Rome), Italy, southeast of Rome by rail and by the Via Appia by car.
The Wanderer (in the USA) or The Sultan's Renegade (in the UK) is a 1949 historical novel by Mika Waltari.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
Tinos (Τήνος) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Toulon Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-la-Seds de Toulon; Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède de Toulon), also known as Sainte-Marie-Majeure, is a Roman Catholic church located in Toulon, in the Var department of France.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish Naval Forces (Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri), or Turkish Navy (Türk Donanması) is the naval warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
Ugento (Salentino: Ušèntu) is a town and comune in Italy.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Vado Ligure, in antiquity Vada Sabatia, is a town and comune in the province of Savona, Liguria, in northern Italy.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Viareggio is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Villa Santa Lucia is a comune (municipality) in the province of Frosinone in the Italian region Lazio, located about southeast of Rome and about southeast of Frosinone.
Yahya Kemal Beyatlı, born Ahmet Âgâh (December 2, 1884 – November 1, 1958), was a leading Turkish poet and author, as well as a politician and diplomat.
Yakup Ağa (یاکوب آقا) or Ebu Yusuf Nurullah Yakub (ابو یوسف نورالله یاکوب), was the father of the Barbarossa Brothers, Oruç and Hızır.
Zulfiqar (ذو الفقار Ḏū-l-Faqār or Ḏū-l-Fiqār) is the name of the sword of Ali ibn Abi Talib which is said to have been given to him by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, according to Shi'ite tradition.
Barbaros, Barbaros Hayreddin Pasa, Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa, Barbaros Hayrettin Pasa, Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa, Barbarossa (Ottoman admiral), Barbarossa (ottoman admiral), Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Barbarossa II, Barbarossa Khair ad Din Pasha, Barbarossa Ottoman admiral, Hızır Reis, Kaireddin Barbarousse, Khair al-Din Barbarossa, Khair-Eddin Barbarossa, Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa, Khaired-Din-Barbarossa, Khaireddin Barbarossa, Khayr ad-Din Pasha, Khayr al-Din Barbarossa Pasha, Khayr al-Dīn, Kheireddin Barbarossa, Khidr Khair ad-Din Barbarossa, Yakupoglu Hizir, Yakupoğlu Hızır.