87 relations: Adjective, Adjective phrase, Adjunct (grammar), Adpositional phrase, Adverb, Adverbial phrase, Antisymmetry, Asymmetry, Auxiliary verb, Avar language, Bantu languages, Basque grammar, Basque language, Branching (linguistics), Chinese grammar, Clause, Complement (linguistics), Complementizer, Continuum (measurement), Coverb, Covert (linguistics), Dependency grammar, Dependent clause, Determiner, Determiner phrase, English grammar, English language, Future tense, Gbe languages, German grammar, German language, Government (linguistics), Grammatical aspect, Grammatical tense, Head (linguistics), Indonesian language, Inflection, Intensifier, Irish language, Japanese grammar, Japanese language, Joseph Greenberg, Korean language, Latin, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Lucien Tesnière, Malagasy language, Mayan languages, Minimalist grammar, ..., Minimalist program, Noam Chomsky, Nonfinite verb, Noun, Noun phrase, Object (grammar), Parsing, Past tense, Perfect (grammar), Persian language, Phonetic form, Phrase, Predicative expression, Preposition and postposition, Principles and parameters, Relative clause, Richard Kayne, Romance languages, Russian language, Specifier (linguistics), Standard Chinese, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Syntactic category, Syntactic movement, Tamil language, Tongan language, Transformational grammar, Treebank, Tsez language, Underlying representation, Varieties of Chinese, Verb, Verb phrase, Word order, X-bar theory, Yucatec Maya language. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adjective phrase (or adjectival phrase) is a phrase whose head word is an adjective, e.g. fond of steak, very happy, quite upset about it, etc.
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, an adverbial phrase ("AdvP") is a multi-word expression operating adverbially: its syntactic function is to modify other expressions, including verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adverbials, and sentences.
In linguistics, antisymmetry is a theory of syntactic linearization presented in Richard Kayne's 1994 monograph The Antisymmetry of Syntax.
Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection).
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
This article provides a grammar sketch of the Basque language, the language of the Basque people of the Basque Country or Euskal Herria, which borders the Bay of Biscay in Western Europe.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.
The grammar of Standard Chinese shares many features with other varieties of Chinese.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
In grammar, a complement is a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning of a given expression.
In linguistics (especially generative grammar), complementizer or complementiser (glossing abbreviation) is a lexical category (part of speech) that includes those words that can be used to turn a clause into the subject or object of a sentence.
Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt changes or discontinuities.
Coverb is a grammatical term that can have several different meanings but generally denotes a word or prefix that resembles a verb or co-operates with a verb.
In linguistics, a feature of a word or phrase is said to be covert if there is no surface evidence of its existence within that word or phrase.
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A determiner, also called determinative (abbreviated), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
In linguistics, a determiner phrase (DP) is a type of phrase posited by some theories of syntax.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
The Gbe languages (pronounced) form a cluster of about twenty related languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria.
German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
In grammar and theoretical linguistics, government or rection refers to the relationship between a word and its dependents.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Intensifier (abbreviated) is a linguistic term (but not a proper lexical category) for a modifier that makes no contribution to the propositional meaning of a clause but serves to enhance and give additional emotional context to the word it modifies.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Japanese is a synthetic language with a regular agglutinative subject-object-verb (SOV) morphology, with both productive and fixed elements.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lucien Tesnière (May 13, 1893 – December 6, 1954) was a prominent and influential French linguist.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Minimalist grammars are a class of formal grammars that aim to provide a more rigorous, usually proof-theoretic, formalization of Chomskyan Minimalist program than is normally provided in the mainstream Minimalist literature.
In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
In the field of linguistics, specifically in syntax, phonetic form (PF), also known as phonological form or the articulatory-perceptual (A-P) system, is a certain level of mental representation of a linguistic expression, derived from surface structure, and related to Logical Form.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Principles and parameters is a framework within generative linguistics in which the syntax of a natural language is described in accordance with general principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) and specific parameters (i.e. markers, switches) that for particular languages are either turned on or off.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
Richard Stanley Kayne is Professor of Linguistics in the Linguistics Department at New York University.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
In X-bar theory in linguistics, specifiers, head words, complements and adjuncts together form phrases.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tongan (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga.
In linguistics, transformational grammar (TG) or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is part of the theory of generative grammar, especially of natural languages.
In linguistics, a treebank is a parsed text corpus that annotates syntactic or semantic sentence structure.
Tsez, also known as Dido (цезйас мец cezyas mec or цез мец cez mec in Tsez) is a Northeast Caucasian language with about 15,354 speakers (2002) spoken by the Tsez, a Muslim people in the mountainous Tsunta District of southwestern Dagestan in Russia.
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation.
Yucatec Maya (endonym: Maya; Yukatek Maya in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala), called Màaya t'àan (lit. "Maya speech") by its speakers, is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula and northern Belize.