153 relations: Adenocarcinoma, Adenoid cystic carcinoma, Adenoviridae, Adverse effect, Alcohol, American Joint Committee on Cancer, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Amifostine, Amphinex, Antibody, Areca nut, Asbestos, Beta-Carotene, Betel, Bevacizumab, Biopsy, Blood test, Bone marrow, Brachytherapy, Breathing, Cancer, Cancer screening, Cannabis (drug), Carboplatin, Carcinogen, Cetuximab, Chemotherapy, Chewing tobacco, Choking, Cigar, Cigarette, Circulatory system, Cisplatin, Clinical Otolaryngology, Developed country, DNA glycosylase, Docetaxel, Ear pain, Epidemiology, Epithelium, Epstein–Barr virus, Erlotinib, Esophagus, Ethanol, Eustachian tube, Evisceration (ophthalmology), Field cancerization, Fine-needle aspiration, Five-year survival rate, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), ..., Gastric acid, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gendicine, Gene therapy, Gland, Glossectomy, Graft-versus-host disease, Gums, Gutka, Hard palate, Head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Histology, Histopathology, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer, Human digestive system, Human mouth, Human nose, Human papillomavirus infection, Immune system, International Journal of Cancer, Intravenous therapy, Laryngectomy, Larynx, Leukoplakia, Lichen planus, Lung, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Lymphoepithelioma, Lymphoma, Medical imaging, MedlinePlus, Melanoma, Metastasis, Mohs surgery, Mouth, Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, Mucositis, Mucous membrane, Nasal cavity, Nasopharynx cancer, National Cancer Institute, Nausea, Neck dissection, NEIL1, Neoplasm, Nephrotoxicity, Nervous system, Nitrite, Oncogene, Oncology, Oral cancer, Oral Oncology, Organ (anatomy), Osteonecrosis of the jaw, Ototoxicity, P53, Paan, Paclitaxel, Paralysis, Paranasal sinuses, PET-CT, Petroleum, Pharynx, Photodynamic therapy, Pituitary gland, Primary tumor, Prognosis, Prosthesis, Proton therapy, Radiation exposure, Radiation oncologist, Radiation therapy, Radiological Society of North America, Red blood cell, Salivary gland, Skin, Soft palate, Squamous cell carcinoma, Surgery, Surgical oncology, Symptom, Targeted therapy, Taxane, Teratoma, Thyroid, TNM staging system, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Tongue, Tonsil, Trachea, Transoral laser microsurgery, Tumor suppressor, Union for International Cancer Control, Vitamin, Vitamin E, Vocal folds, Vomiting, White blood cell, Xerostomia, 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (sometimes referred to as adenocyst, malignant cylindroma, adenocystic, adenoidcystic, ACC or AdCC.) is a rare type of cancer that can exist in many different body sites.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is an organization best known for defining and popularizing cancer staging standards, officially the AJCC staging system.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.
Amifostine (Ethiofos) is a cytoprotective adjuvant used in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy involving DNA-binding chemotherapeutic agents.
Amphinex is a photosensitising agent used in photodynamic therapy for treating superficial cancers.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
The betel (Piper betle) is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava.
Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Choking (also known as foreign body airway obstruction) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by the blockage of air passage into the lungs secondary to the inhalation or ingestion of food or another object.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
Clinical Otolaryngology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of otorhinolaryngology.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
DNA glycosylases are a family of enzymes involved in base excision repair, classified under EC number EC 3.2.2.
Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Ear pain, also known as earache or otalgia, is pain in the ear.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
An evisceration is the removal of the eye's contents, leaving the scleral shell and extraocular muscles intact.
Field cancerization (also termed field change, field change cancerization, field carcinogenesis, cancer field effect or premalignant field defect) is a biological process in which large areas of cells at a tissue surface or within an organ are affected by a carcinogenic alteration(s).
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gendicine is a recombinant adenovirus engineered to express wildtype-p53 (rAd-p53).
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
A glossectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person.
The gums or gingiva (plural: gingivae), consist of the mucosal tissue that lies over the mandible and maxilla inside the mouth.
Gutka or guṭkha is a preparation of crushed areca nut, tobacco, catechu, paraffin wax, slaked lime and sweet or savory flavorings.
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
Head and neck cancers are malignant neoplasms that arise in the head and region which comprises nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, and larynx.
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is a subtype of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), associated with the human papillomavirus type 16 virus (HPV16).
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The International Journal of Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering experimental and clinical cancer research.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Laryngectomy is the removal of the larynx and separation of the airway from the mouth, nose and esophagus.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Lichen planus (LP) is a disease characterized by itchy reddish-purple polygon-shaped skin lesions on the lower back, wrists, and ankles.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphoepithelioma is a type of poorly differentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma characterized by prominent infiltration of lymphocytes in the area involved by tumor.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
Mohs surgery, developed in 1938 by a general surgeon, Frederic E. Mohs, is microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common type of minor salivary gland malignancy in adults.
Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis.
Endonuclease VIII-like 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEIL1 gene.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephrotoxicity is toxicity in the kidneys.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
Oral Oncology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Elsevier covering research about head and neck cancer.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a severe bone disease (osteonecrosis) that affects the jaws (the maxilla and the mandible).
Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Paan (from Sanskrit parṇa meaning "leaf") is a preparation combining betel leaf with areca nut widely consumed throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia and Taiwan.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (better known as PET-CT or PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine technique which combines, in a single gantry, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner, to acquire sequential images from both devices in the same session, which are combined into a single superposed (co-registered) image.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), sometimes called photochemotherapy, is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity).
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
A primary tumor is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mass.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer.
Radiation exposure is a measure of the ionization of air due to ionizing radiation from photons; that is, gamma rays and X-rays.
A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) is an international society of radiologists, medical physicists and other medical professionals with more than 54,000 members across the globe.Based in Oak Brook, Illinois, RSNA was established in 1915.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The soft palate (also known as the velum or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth.
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Surgical oncology is the branch of surgery applied to oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Taxanes are a class of diterpenes.
A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
Tonsils are collections of lymphoid tissue facing into the aerodigestive tract.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Transoral laser microsurgery is another form of minimally invasive surgery used by several medical centers, including the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine and Mayo Clinic to remove small and medium tumors through the mouth.
A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
The Union for International Cancer Control (previously named International Union Against Cancer) or UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) is a membership based, non-governmental organization that exists to help the global health community accelerate the fight against cancer.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is an oxidized derivative of deoxyguanosine.
Cancer of the head and neck, Cancer of the neck, Causes of head and neck cancer, HNSCC, Head & neck cancers, Head and Neck Cancer, Head and neck cancer HPV-positive, Head and neck cancer VPH-positive, Head and neck cancers, Head and neck neoplasms, Neck cancer, Pharyngeal Cancer, Pharyngeal cancer, Pharyngeal neoplasms, Pharynx Cancer, Pharynx cancer, SCCHN, Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, Throat Cancer, Throat cancer, Tracheal neoplasms.