145 relations: Abusive head trauma, Acceleration, Acquired brain injury, Agnosia, Agrammatism, Alcohol, Alzheimer's disease, Amnesia, Amorphosynthesis, Amygdala, Analgesic, Aneurysm, Anomic aphasia, Anterior ethmoidal artery, Arachnoid mater, Arteriovenous malformation, Assault, Axon, Basilar skull fracture, Battle of Antietam, Battle's sign, Birth, Birth defect, Bleeding, Blindsight, Blood vessel, Blurred vision, Brain, Brain damage, Brain damage (disambiguation), Brain tumor, Broca's area, Calcarine sulcus, Carl Wernicke, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cerebral contusion, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervical collar, Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Circle of Willis, Color blindness, Coma, Concussion, Concussion grading systems, Confusion, Coup contrecoup injury, Craniotomy, Crescent, CT scan, Death, ..., Delusion, Diffuse axonal injury, Diffusion MRI, Disability, Dura mater, Dysgraphia, Dyslexia, Ear, Edema, Epidural hematoma, Epileptic seizure, Fatigue, Fissure, Focal and diffuse brain injury, Frontal lobe, Functional neurological symptom disorder, Fusiform gyrus, Genetic disorder, Glasgow Coma Scale, Headache, Hematoma, Hemotympanum, Human nose, Hypoxia (medical), Infection, Intellectual disability, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, Intraventricular hemorrhage, Lens (optics), Lucid interval, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mastoid part of the temporal bone, Maxilla, Meninges, Middle meningeal artery, Monothematic delusion, Mouth, Nausea, Neologism, Nerve, Nerve injury, Neurocognitive, Neurodegeneration, Neurological disorder, Neurological examination, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Otitis media, Oxygen, Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, Parietal lobe, Paul Broca, Penetrating head injury, Persistent vegetative state, Phineas Gage, Pia mater, Poison, Positron emission tomography, Post-concussion syndrome, Preterm birth, Primary and secondary brain injury, Prosopagnosia, Pure alexia, Rhinorrhea, Scalp, Sequela, Sigmoid sinus, Skull, Skull fracture, Subarachnoid cisterns, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subcutaneous tissue, Subdural hematoma, Subdural hygroma, Subdural space, Sulcus (neuroanatomy), Superior sagittal sinus, Superior temporal gyrus, Temporal lobe, Teratology, Thunderclap headache, Traffic collision, Transverse sinuses, Traumatic brain injury, Unconsciousness, Ventricular system, Visual cortex, Vomiting, Wernicke's area, Wound. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
Abusive head trauma (AHT), commonly known as shaken baby syndrome (SBS), is an injury to a child's head caused by someone else.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.
Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information.
Agrammatism is a characteristic of non-fluent aphasia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amorphosynthesis is a medical condition where the patient is unaware of somatic sensations from one side of the body; the left side is most commonly affected.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).
The anterior ethmoidal artery, also anterior ethmoid artery is an artery of the head.
The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
A basilar skull fracture is a break of a bone in the base of the skull.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.
In medical terminology, Battle's sign, also mastoid ecchymosis, is an indication of fracture of middle cranial fossa of the skull and may suggest underlying brain trauma.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blindsight is the ability of people who are cortically blind due to lesions in their striate cortex, also known as primary visual cortex or V1, to respond to visual stimuli that they do not consciously see.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brain damage is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
The calcarine sulcus (or calcarine fissure) is an anatomical landmark located at the caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. Its name comes from the Latin "calcar" meaning "spur". It is a complete sulcus.
Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
A cervical collar, also known as a neck brace, is a medical device used to support a person's neck.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease found in people who have had multiple head injuries.
The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Concussion grading systems are sets of criteria used in sports medicine to determine the severity, or grade, of a concussion, the mildest form of traumatic brain injury.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
In head injury, a coup injury occurs under the site of impact with an object, and a contrecoup injury occurs on the side opposite the area that was hit.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a brain injury in which extensive lesions in white matter tracts occur over a widespread area.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write, primarily handwriting, but also coherence.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater), and the skull.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
In anatomy, a fissure (Latin fissura, plural fissurae) is a groove, natural division, deep furrow, elongated cleft, or tear in various parts of the body also generally called a sulcus, or in the brain a sulcus.
Focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify brain injury: focal injury occurs in a specific location, while diffuse injury occurs over a more widespread area.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
A functional neurological disorder (FND) is a condition in which patients experience neurological symptoms such as weakness, movement disorders, sensory symptoms and blackouts.
The fusiform gyrus, also known as the (discontinuous) occipitotemporal gyrus, is part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe in Brodmann area 37.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.
Hemotympanum or hematotympanum, refers to the presence of blood in the tympanic cavity of the middle ear.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is one form of intracerebral bleeding in which there is bleeding within brain parenchyma.
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), also known as intraventricular bleeding, is a bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
In emergency medicine, a lucid interval is a temporary improvement in a patient's condition after a traumatic brain injury, after which the condition deteriorates.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone.
The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
The middle meningeal artery (arteria meningea media) is typically the third branch of the first part (retromandibular part) of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
A monothematic delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Nerve injury is injury to nervous tissue.
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Paediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (BrE) (also known as Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (AmE) or simply PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) used to assess the level of consciousness of child patients.
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
A penetrating head injury, or open head injury, is a head injury in which the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges, is breached.
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".
Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Post-concussion syndrome, also known as postconcussive syndrome or PCS, is a set of symptoms that may continue for weeks, months, or a year or more after a concussion – a mild form of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury.
Prosopagnosia, also called face blindness, (" Choisser had even begun to a name for the condition: face blindness.") is a cognitive disorder of face perception in which the ability to recognize familiar faces, including one's own face (self-recognition), is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decisionmaking) remain intact.
Pure alexia, also known as agnosic alexia or alexia without agraphia or pure word blindness, is one form of alexia which makes up "the peripheral dyslexia" group.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
The sigmoid sinuses (sigma- or s-shaped hollow curve), also known as the pars sigmoid, are venous sinuses within the skull that receive blood from posterior dural venous sinus veins.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma.
The subarachnoid cisterns are spaces formed by openings in the subarachnoid space, an anatomic space in the meninges of the brain.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
A subdural hygroma is a collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), without blood, located under the dural membrane.
The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is a potential space that can be opened by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver.
In neuroanatomy, a sulcus (Latin: "furrow", pl. sulci) is a depression or groove in the cerebral cortex.
The superior sagittal sinus (also known as the superior longitudinal sinus), within the human head, is an unpaired area along the attached margin of the falx cerebri.
The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
A thunderclap headache, also referred to as a lone acute severe headache, is a headache that is severe and sudden-onset.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
The transverse sinuses (left and right lateral sinuses), within the human head, are two areas beneath the brain which allow blood to drain from the back of the head. They run laterally in a groove along the interior surface of the occipital bone. They drain from the confluence of sinuses (by the internal occipital protuberance) to the sigmoid sinuses, which ultimately connect to the internal jugular vein. See diagram (at right): labeled under the brain as "" (for Latin: sinus transversus). The transverse sinuses are of large size and begin at the internal occipital protuberance; one, generally the right, being the direct continuation of the superior sagittal sinus, the other of the straight sinus. Each transverse sinus passes lateralward and forward, describing a slight curve with its convexity upward, to the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and lies, in this part of its course, in the attached margin of the tentorium cerebelli; it then leaves the tentorium and curves downward and medialward (an area sometimes referred to as the sigmoid sinus) to reach the jugular foramen, where it ends in the internal jugular vein. In its course it rests upon the squama of the occipital, the mastoid angle of the parietal, the mastoid part of the temporal, and, just before its termination, the jugular process of the occipital; the portion which occupies the groove on the mastoid part of the temporal is sometimes termed the sigmoid sinus. The transverse sinuses are frequently of unequal size, with the one formed by the superior sagittal sinus being the larger; they increase in size as they proceed, from back to center. On transverse section, the horizontal portion exhibits a prismatic form, the curved portion has a semicylindrical form. They receive the blood from the superior petrosal sinuses at the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone; they communicate with the veins of the pericranium by means of the mastoid and condyloid emissary veins; and they receive some of the inferior cerebral and inferior cerebellar veins, and some veins from the diploë. The petrosquamous sinus, when present, runs backward along the junction of the squama and petrous portion of the temporal, and opens into the transverse sinus.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
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