285 relations: Absolute monarchy, Ad hoc, Adolf Hitler, Advice (constitutional), Air transports of heads of state and government, Albanian language, Andorra, Austria, Autocracy, Awadh, Élysette, Éminence grise, Baghdad, Balearic Islands, Bandar Seri Begawan, Basic Laws of Sweden, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque language, Belgium, Bicameralism, Brasília, Brazil, Brussels, Bulgarian language, Bundeskanzler, Bute House, Cabinet (government), Caliphate, Canada, Canberra, Catalan language, Catalonia, Catshuis, Caucus, Chairman of the Executive Council, Chancellor, Chancellor of Austria, Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Chequers, Chief executive (gubernatorial), Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Chief Executive of Macau, Chief executive officer, Chief magistrate, Chief minister, Chief Ministers in Malaysia, Chief operating officer, Chinese language, Clement Attlee, ..., Coalition government, Cohabitation (government), Commonwealth of Nations, Constitution of Australia, Constitution of Belgium, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional monarchy, Czech language, Danish language, De facto, De jure, Direct rule (Northern Ireland), Directorial system, Dissolution of parliament, Dutch language, Edinburgh, Estonian language, European Council, Ex officio member, Führer, Federal Council (Switzerland), Federated state, Figurehead, Filipino language, Finnish language, First minister, First Minister of Scotland, Flemish Community, France, French Fifth Republic, French language, Galician language, German Emperor, German language, Germany, Gough Whitlam, Government House, Hong Kong, Government of India, Government of Sweden, Governor (United States), Governor-general, Greek language, Harpsund, Harrington Lake, Hôtel Matignon, Head of state, Hebrew language, Helmut Kohl, Hindi, History of India, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hungarian language, India, International Law Commission, Ireland, Irish language, Istana Nurul Iman, Italian language, Italy, Japanese language, John Kerr (governor-general), John Major, Kazan Kremlin, Kesäranta, Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, King of Saudi Arabia, Kirribilli House, Korean language, Latin, Latvia, Latvian language, Lee Kuan Yew, Legislative chamber, Legislature, Lehendakari, List of current heads of state and government, List of heads of government of Andorra, List of monarchs of Prussia, List of Prime Ministers of Albania, List of Sultans of Brunei, Lithuanian language, Loss of supply, Lower house, Macau Government Headquarters, Malacca, Malay language, Malaysia, Malta, Maltese language, Mantri, Maratha Empire, Margaret Thatcher, Mayor of the Palace, Metonymy, Minister President of Prussia, Minister-president, Minister-President of Wallonia, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Motion of no confidence, Myanmar, Namur, National Assembly (France), Navarre, Nawab, Nazi Germany, Netherlands, Norwegian language, Official Portraits, Official residence, Otto von Bismarck, Pakistan, Palace of Moncloa, Palazzo Chigi, Palácio da Alvorada, Parliamentary system, Penang, Peshwa, Philippines, Pierre Trudeau, Poland, Polish language, Politician, Portugal, Portuguese language, Power behind the throne, Pradhan, Premier, Premier House, Premier of the People's Republic of China, President, President of Brazil, President of France, President of the Balearic Islands, President of the Council of Ministers, President of the Council of State, President of the Executive Council, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, President of the Generalitat Valenciana, President of the government, President of the Philippines, President of the Republic of Tatarstan, President of the Xunta of Galicia, Presidential system, Presidium, Primary and secondary legislation, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister of Bahrain, Prime Minister of Belgium, Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister of Denmark, Prime Minister of Estonia, Prime Minister of Finland, Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of Greece, Prime Minister of Hungary, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Israel, Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister of Latvia, Prime Minister of Lithuania, Prime Minister of Malaysia, Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister of Norway, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prime Minister of Poland, Prime Minister of Portugal, Prime Minister of Romania, Prime Minister of Russia, Prime Minister of Singapore, Prime Minister of Slovakia, Prime Minister of Slovenia, Prime Minister of South Korea, Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, Prime Minister of Sweden, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister of Turkey, Prime Minister's Official Residence (Japan), Primus inter pares, Protection of Diplomats Convention, Putrajaya, Romanian language, Russian language, Sabah, Sager House, Sarawak, Secretary of state, Sejong City, Self-governing colony, Seljuq dynasty, Semi-presidential system, Separation of powers, Seri Perdana, Shōgun, Sinhalese language, Slovak language, Slovene language, South Africa, South Korea, Sovereign state, Spain, Spanish language, State Counsellor of Myanmar, State President of South Africa, Sultan, Swahili language, Swedish language, Switzerland, Sydney, Tage Erlander, Taoiseach, Thai language, The Lodge (Australia), Tony Blair, Turkish language, Urdu, Valencia, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Vizier, Wellington, West Germany, White House, William I, German Emperor, Winston Churchill, World Leaders, Zhongnanhai, 10 Downing Street, 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, 24 Sussex Drive, 7, Lok Kalyan Marg. 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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.
Air transports for heads of state and government are, in many countries, provided by the air force in specially equipped airliners or business jets.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Awadh (Hindi: अवध, اوَدھ),, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh) and a small area of Nepal's Province No. 5.
The Élysette is the executive seat of the Walloon Government.
An éminence grise or grey eminence is a powerful decision-maker or adviser who operates "behind the scenes", or in a non-public or unofficial capacity.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Bandar Seri Begawan (Jawi: بندر سري بڬاوان) (formerly known as Brunei Town) is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Basic Laws of Sweden (Sveriges grundlagar) are the four fundamental laws of the Kingdom of Sweden that regulate the Swedish political system, acting in a similar manner to the constitutions of most countries.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bundeskanzler or Bundeskanzlerin (German for "Federal Chancellor") may refer to.
Bute House (Gaelic: Taigh Bhòid) is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland located within Charlotte Square in Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catshuis (English: House of Cats), initially known as Huis Sorgvliet (English: Sorgvliet House), is the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands.
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement.
The Chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man was the executive head of the Isle of Man Government from 1961 to 1986.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
The Chancellor of Austria, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Republic of Austria (Bundeskanzler der Republik Österreich, sometimes shortened to Kanzler) is the head of government of the Austrian Republic.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.
Chequers, or Chequers Court, is the country house of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Chief Executive is a term used for Presidential or Prime Ministerial powers given by a constitution or basic law, which allows its holder to implement policy, supervise executive branch of government, prepare executive budget for submission to the legislature, and appoint and remove executive officials.
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong in China.
The Chief Executive of the Macau Special Administrative Region (Chefe do Executivo da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau) is the head of government of Macau, a special administrative region of China and a former Portuguese overseas province governed by the Governor of Macau.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest in its class.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
In Malaysia, the Menteri Besar (Jawi:منتري بسر; literally "First Minister") is the head of government of each of nine states in Malaysia with hereditary rulers.
The chief operating officer (COO), also called the chief operations officer, is one of the highest-ranking executive positions in an organization, comprising part of the "C-Suite".
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
The Constitution of Belgium dates back to 1831.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Direct rule is the term given to the administration of Northern Ireland directly by the Government of the United Kingdom.
A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government.
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A first minister is one of a variety of terms for the leader of a government cabinet, which is a term currently used to refer to the political leader of a devolved national government, such as the devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, or of a dependent territory.
The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the leader of the Scottish Government.
The term Flemish Community (Vlaamse Gemeenschap; Communauté flamande; Flämische Gemeinschaft) has two distinct, though related, meanings.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
Government House (formerly 督憲府/香港總督府/港督府), located on Government Hill in the Central District of Hong Kong Island, is the official residence of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden (Konungariket Sveriges regering) is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority in Sweden.
In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Harpsund is a manor house located in Flen Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden.
Harrington Lake (La résidence du lac Mousseau) is the name of the summer residence and all-season retreat of the Prime Minister of Canada, and also the name of the land which surrounds it.
The Hôtel de Matignon is the official residence of the Prime Minister of France.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (3 April 1930 – 16 June 2017) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany 1982–1990 and of the reunited Germany 1990–1998) and as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Law Commission was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 for the "promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification." It holds an annual session at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Istana Nurul Iman (Jawi: ايستان نور الإيمان; English: The Light of Faith Palace) is the official residence of the Sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah, and the seat of the Brunei government.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Sir John Robert Kerr, (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991) was the 18th Governor-General of Australia.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
The Kazan Kremlin (Казанский Кремль; Казан кирмәне) is the chief historic citadel of Tatarstan, situated in the city of Kazan.
Kesäranta (lit. "summer beach") is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Finland, located in Helsinki, Finland.
Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa (خليفة بن سلمان آل خليفة.) (born 24 November 1935) has been the Prime Minister of Bahrain from 1970, taking office nearly two years before Bahrain's independence on 15 August 1971.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government.
Kirribilli House is the secondary official residence of the Prime Minister of Australia.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
A legislative chamber or house is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The President of the Basque Government (Eusko Jaurlaritzako lehendakaria, presidente del Gobierno Vasco), usually known in English as the Lehendakari (lehendakari, lendakari), is the head of government of the Basque Autonomous Community.
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.
The Head of Government of the Principality of Andorra, alternatively known as the Prime Minister of Andorra, is the chief executive of the government of Andorra.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Albania who have served since the Declaration of Independence of 1912.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
The Macau Government Headquarters (Sede do Governo da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China), formerly Governor's Palace (Palácio do Governador) is the official office of the Chief Executive of Macau and has been since 1999.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mantri (मन्त्री) is a word of Sanskrit origin (meaning sage, i.e. the "person who thinks and says" in that language, cf. Mantra), and it is used for a variety of public offices, from fairly humble to ministerial in rank.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Under the Merovingian dynasty, the mayor of the palace (maior palatii) or majordomo (maior domus) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers.
The Minister-President of Wallonia is the head of the Walloon government, the executive power of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Official Portraits is a book published by Berlin Press in 2004.
An official residence is the residence at which a nation's head of state, head of government, governor or other senior figure officially resides.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Moncloa or Moncloa Palace (Palacio de La Moncloa), located in the Ciudad Universitaria (University City) ward of Madrid (part of Moncloa-Aravaca district), has been the official residence for the Prime Minister of Spain since 1977, when Adolfo Suárez moved the residence from the Palace of Villamejor on the Paseo de la Castellana (currently the seat of the Ministry of Territorial Policy).
The Palazzo Chigi is a palace or noble residence in Rome and the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic.
The Palácio da Alvorada is the official residence of the President of Brazil.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
A Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The phrase "power behind the throne" refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of a high-ranking office, such as a head of state.
Pradhan (Devanagari: प्रधान) is a ministerial title used in regions of Hindu cultural tradition that equates to the more popular term Vizier in rank and function.
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments.
Premier House is the official residence of the Prime Minister of New Zealand, located at 260 Tinakori Road, Thorndon, Wellington, New Zealand.
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the Balearic Islands is the head of government of the Balearic Islands, one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, while the monarch Felipe VI remains the head of state as King of Spain (and therefore of the Balearic Islands).
The President of the Council of Ministers or sometimes Chairman (in English, sometimes called informally Prime Minister) is the most senior member of the cabinet in the executive branch of government.
The official title President of the Council of State, or Chairman of the Council of State is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba, and formerly communist states in the East Germany, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Cambodia and Vietnam.
President of the Executive Council may refer to.
The President of the Generalitat of Catalonia (President de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is one of the bodies that the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia stipulates as part of the Generalitat de Catalunya, others being the Parliament, the government, the Consell de Garanties Estatutàries and the Síndic de Greuges.
The President of the Generalitat Valenciana (President de la Generalitat Valenciana) is the head of government of the Spanish autonomous community of Valencia.
President of the government, chairman of the government, or head of the government is a term used in official statements to describe several Prime Ministers.
The President of the Philippines (Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as Presidente ng Pilipinas; or in Presidente de Filipinas) is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines.
This is a list of Presidents of the Republic of Tatarstan, a title created in 1991.
The president of the Xunta of Galicia (Presidente da Xunta de Galicia, Presidente de la Xunta de Galicia), usually known in English as the Galician regional president, is the head of government of Galicia.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A presidium or praesidium is a council of executive officers in some political assemblies that collectively administers its business, either alongside an individual president or in place of one.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country.
The Prime Minister of Belgium (Eerste minister van België; Premier ministre de Belgique; Premierminister von Belgien) or the Premier of Belgium is the head of the federal government in the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria (Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel) is the head of government of Bulgaria.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of Denmark (Danmarks statsminister; literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi peaminister, literally translated as Head Minister of Estonia) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia.
The Prime Minister of Finland (Suomen pääministeri) is the head of the Finnish Government.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elládas), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet.
The Prime Minister of Hungary (miniszterelnök) is the head of government in Hungary.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Israel (רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym: רה״מ; رئيس الحكومة, Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma) is the head of government of Israel and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The is the head of government of Japan.
The Prime Minister of Latvia (Ministru prezidents) is the most powerful member of the Government of Latvia, and presides over the Latvian Cabinet of Ministers.
The Prime Minister of Lithuania (Ministras Pirmininkas., literally translated as Minister-Chairman) is the head of the Government of Lithuania.
The Prime Minister of Malaysia (Perdana Menteri Malaysia) is the head of government and the highest political office in Malaysia.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand (Te Pirimia o Aotearoa) is the head of government of New Zealand.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
The President of the Council of Ministers (Polish: Prezes Rady Ministrów), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Poland (Polish: Premier Polski), is the leader of the cabinet and the head of government of Poland.
Prime Minister (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro) is the current title of the head of government of Portugal.
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania.
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore (Perdana Menteri Republik Singapura; 新加坡共和國總理;, pinyin: Xīnjiāpō gònghéguó zǒnglǐ; சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசின் பிரதமர், Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaraciṉ piratamar) is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore, and the most powerful person in Singapore.
The Chairman of the Government of the Slovak Republic (Predseda vlády Slovenskej republiky), also known as the Prime Minister (Premiér), is the head of the Government of Slovakia.
There have been eight Prime Ministers of Slovenia, officially President of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia (Predsednik Vlade Republike Slovenije), since the country gained parliamentary democracy in 1989 and independence in 1991.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea (국무총리 / 國務總理, Gungmuchongni) is appointed by the President of South Korea, with the National Assembly's approval.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා අග්රාමාත්ය; இலங்கை பிரதமர்) is the most senior member of parliament in the cabinet of ministers in Sri Lanka which is collectively accountable for their policies and actions to parliament.
The Prime Minister (statsminister, literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in Sweden.
The Chairman of the Government of the Czech Republic (Czech: Předseda vlády České republiky), normally referred to in English as the Prime Minister, is the head of the Government of the Czech Republic.
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands (Minister-president van Nederland) is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his quality of chair of the Council of Ministers.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Prime Minister of Turkey (Turkish: Başbakan) was the head of government of Turkey.
The or (首相官邸 Shushō Kantei) is the principal workplace and residence of the Prime Minister of Japan.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
The Protection of Diplomats Convention (formally, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents) is a United Nations anti-terrorism treaty that codifies some of the traditional principles on the necessity of protecting diplomats.
Putrajaya, officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned city and the federal administrative centre of Malaysia.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
The Sager House or Sager Palace (Sagerska palatset) is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Sweden, located at Strömgatan 18 in central Stockholm.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
The title secretary of state or state secretary is commonly used for senior or mid-level posts in governments around the world.
Sejong (Hangul: 세종; Hanja: 世宗), officially Sejong Special Self-Governing City (Hangul: 세종특별자치시; Hanja: 世宗特別自治市) and formerly known as Yeongi (연기, 燕岐) County is South Korea's central administrative city.
In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers were able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Seri Perdana is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, located in Putrajaya, Malaysia.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The State Counsellor of Myanmar (နိုင်ငံတော်၏ အတိုင်ပင်ခံပုဂ္ဂိုလ်) is the de facto head of government of Myanmar, equivalent to a prime minister.
The State President of the Republic of South Africa (Staatspresident) was the head of state of South Africa from 1961 to 1994.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
() (13 June 1901 – 21 June 1985) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1946 to 1969.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Lodge is the primary official residence of the Prime Minister of Australia, situated in the national capital Canberra.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) is a treaty concerning the international law on treaties between states.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara) is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with residents.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World Leaders, also known as Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, is a public domain directory published weekly by the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
Zhongnanhai is a former imperial garden in the Imperial City, Beijing, adjacent to the Forbidden City; it serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the State Council (Central government) of China.
10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as Number 10, is the headquarters of the Government of the United Kingdom and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and invariably since 1905, has been held by the Prime Minister.
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.
24 Sussex Drive, originally called Gorffwysfa and usually referred to simply as 24 Sussex, is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Canada, located in the New Edinburgh neighbourhood of Ottawa, Ontario.
7, Lok Kalyan Marg (formerly 7, Race Course Road) is the official residence and principal workplace of the Prime Minister of India.
Chief administrative official, Chief administrator, Chief executive official, Chief of government, Government leader, Head of Government, Head of the Government, Head of the government, Head-of-government, Heads of Government, Heads of State or Government, Heads of government, Leader of government.