150 relations: Abscess, Amitriptyline, Analgesic, Aneurysm, Aphasia, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Arteriovenous malformation, Arteritis, Aspirin, Aura (symptom), Bleeding, Blood vessel, Brain abscess, Brain tumor, Central nervous system, Cerebral arteriovenous malformation, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral shunt, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervicogenic headache, Chemotherapy, Choosing Wisely, Cleveland Clinic, Cluster headache, Coeliac disease, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Computed tomography angiography, Connective tissue disease, Consumers Union, Cough, Craniotomy, Dialysis, Diltiazem, Dura mater, Dural venous sinuses, Encephalitis, Epidural hematoma, Epileptic seizure, Falx cerebri, Fasting, Gastrointestinal disease, Gastroparesis, Giant-cell arteritis, Glaucoma, Head, Head injury, Headache (journal), Helicobacter pylori, Hemicrania continua, ..., Hierarchy, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Human brain, Hydrocephalus, Hypertension, Hypnic headache, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Ibuprofen, Idiopathic disease, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Indometacin, Infection, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, International Classification of Headache Disorders, International Headache Society, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, Irritable bowel syndrome, Lethality, Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, List of hepato-biliary diseases, List of infections of the central nervous system, Lithium (medication), Lumbar puncture, Lyme disease, Magnetic resonance angiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical diagnosis, Medication overuse headache, Meninges, Meningitis, Metastasis, Middle meningeal artery, Migraine, Muscle weakness, Myogenic mechanism, Naproxen, National Institutes of Health, Neck, Neoplasm, Neuralgia, Neuroimaging, Neurological examination, Neurology, New daily persistent headache, NHS Scotland, Nociceptor, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Occipital neuralgia, Optic chiasm, Oral contraceptive pill, Oxford University Press, Pain, Papilledema, Paracetamol, PHACES Syndrome, Photosensitivity in humans, Pituitary apoplexy, Posterior cranial fossa, Postictal state, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Propranolol, Psychosis, Ptosis (eyelid), Relaxation technique, Rhinorrhea, Sensory nerve, Sexual headache, Skull, Somatization, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subdural hematoma, Symptom, Systemic disease, Tears, Temple (anatomy), Temporomandibular joint, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, Tension headache, Thomas Willis, Thrombus, Thunderclap headache, Tooth, Toxoplasmosis, Transient ischemic attack, Trigeminal nerve, Trigeminal neuralgia, Triptan, Vascular disease, Vascular malformation, Visual impairment, WebMD, Whiplash (medicine), Wiley-Blackwell, World Health Organization. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.
Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or autoimmune response.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local (ear infection, dental abscess, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or remote (lung, heart, kidney etc.) infectious sources, within the brain tissue.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain—specifically, an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebral shunts are commonly used to treat hydrocephalus, the swelling of the brain due to excess buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
Cervicogenic headache is a type of headache characterised by chronic Hemicranial pain referred to the head from either the cervical spine or soft tissues within the neck.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Computed tomography angiography (also called CT angiography or CTA) is a computed tomography technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body.
A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology.
Consumers Union (CU) is a United States-based non-profit organization focusing on product testing, investigative journalism, and consumer advocacy.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Diltiazem (INN) is a nondihydropyridine (non-DHP) calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia.
Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater), and the skull.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The falx cerebri is also known as the cerebral falx, named from its sickle-like form.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.
Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of head and face pain.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hemicrania continua (HC) is a persistent unilateral headache that responds to indomethacin.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypnic headaches are benign primary headaches that affect the elderly, with the average age of onset being 63 ± 11 years.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society.
The International Headache Society (IHS) is a charity membership organisation founded in 1981 for those with a professional commitment to helping people affected by headache.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is one form of intracerebral bleeding in which there is bleeding within brain parenchyma.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Lethality (also called deadliness or perniciousness) is how capable something is of causing death.
In evidence-based medicine, likelihood ratios are used for assessing the value of performing a diagnostic test.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Hepato-biliary diseases include liver diseases and biliary diseases.
There are five main causes of infections of the central nervous system (CNS): bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and prionic.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
Medication overuse headache (MOH), also known as rebound headache usually occurs when analgesics are taken frequently to relieve headaches.
The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
The middle meningeal artery (arteria meningea media) is typically the third branch of the first part (retromandibular part) of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuralgia (Greek neuron, "nerve" + algos, "pain") is pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves, as in intercostal neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
A neurological examination is the assessment of sensory neuron and motor responses, especially reflexes, to determine whether the nervous system is impaired.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a primary headache syndrome which can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache.
NHS Scotland, sometimes styled NHSScotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Occipital neuralgia is a medical condition characterized by chronic pain in the lower neck, back of the head and behind the eyes.
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.
Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Posterior fossa malformations–hemangiomas–arterial anomalies–cardiac defects–eye abnormalities–sternal cleft and supraumbilical raphe syndrome (also known as "PHACES Syndrome") is a cutaneous condition characterized by multiple congenital abnormalities.
Light sensitivity or photosensitivity refers to a notable or increased reactivity to light.
Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
The posterior cranial fossa is part of the cranial cavity, located between the foramen magnum and tentorium cerebelli.
The postictal state is the altered state of consciousness after an epileptic seizure.
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Ptosis (/ˈtoʊsɪs/) is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.
A relaxation technique (also known as relaxation training) is any method, process, procedure, or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of pain, anxiety, stress or anger.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).
Sexual headaches, also known as coital cephalalgia, are a rare type of headache that occur in the skull and neck during sexual activity, including masturbation or orgasm.
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.
Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
Tearing, lacrimation, or lachrymation is the secretion of tears, which often serves to clean and lubricate the eyes in response to an irritation of the eyes.
Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes.
The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull.
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD, TMJD) is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull).
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
A thunderclap headache, also referred to as a lone acute severe headache, is a headache that is severe and sudden-onset.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.
Vascular malformation is a blood vessel abnormality.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
Whiplash is a non-medical term describing a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension, although the exact injury mechanisms remain unknown.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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