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Index Headlamp

A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead. [1]

204 relations: Acetylene, Aerodynamics, Alternating current, Alvis Car and Engineering Company, American Motors Corporation, Argon, Audi, Audi R8, Austin Maestro, Automotive lighting, Automotive night vision, Škoda Auto, Bentley S3, Bicycle lighting, BMW, BMW 7 Series (E32), BMW i8, Buick, Buick Riviera, Cadillac, Cadillac Escalade, Candela, Carbide lamp, Chevrolet Corvette (C3), Chrysler, Circle, Citroën 2CV, Citroën Ami, Citroën DS, Citroën SM, Citroën XM, CMOS, Coating, Color rendering index, Columbia (automobile brand), Commonwealth of Nations, Compression molding, Computer-aided design, Cord 810/812, Daytime running lamp, Decorative vehicle lighting, Delco Electronics, Dichroism, Direct current, Dodge, Dodge Charger (B-body), Drop (liquid), Eagle Premier, Efficacy, Electric arc, ..., Electric battery, Electric light, Electric motor, Electrical ballast, Ellipse, Eureka (organisation), European Union, Facel Vega, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108, Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer, Ferrari Daytona, Focus (optics), Fog, Ford F-Series, Ford Motor Company, Ford Taunus, Ford Thunderbird, French Academy of Sciences, Fresnel lens, Gear, General Motors, Glare (vision), Global Positioning System, Gordon-Keeble, H1 lamp, Halogen, Halogen lamp, Headlamp, Headlamp (outdoor), Headlight flashing, Heavy metals, Hella (company), Hertz, Hidden headlamp, High voltage, High-intensity discharge lamp, Honda Accord, Horseless carriage, Iceland, Imperial (automobile), Incandescent light bulb, Infrared, Injection moulding, ISIRI 6672, Jacob Rabinow, Jaguar Cars, Jaguar E-Type, Jaguar XJ220, Japanese domestic market, Jeep Grand Cherokee, Jensen C-V8, Joule heating, KI Holdings, Lamborghini Countach, Laser lamp, Left- and right-hand traffic, Lens (optics), Lexus, Lexus LS (XF40), Light beam, Light-emitting diode, Lighting-up time, Lincoln Continental Mark VII, Lincoln Mark VIII, Lincoln Motor Company, List of automotive light bulb types, Lumen (unit), Luminous efficacy, Magneti Marelli, Manifold vacuum, Mazda MX-5, Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-Benz 600, Mercedes-Benz C-Class, Mercedes-Benz CL-Class (C215), Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class, Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W211), Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W212), Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221), Mercedes-Benz W108, Mercedes-Benz W111, Mercedes-Benz W112, Mercury (automobile), Mercury (element), Mercury Cougar, Metal-halide lamp, Monaco, Multi Media Interface, Nash Motors, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Nissan, Nissan Cima, Nissan Fuga, Oldsmobile, Opel, Osram, Osram Sylvania, Panhard Dyna Z, Parabola, Parabolic reflector, Peerless Motor Company, Photoresistor, Plastic headlight restoration, Polycarbonate, Pontiac, Porsche 356, Prism, Rectangle, Refraction, Retroreflector, Robert Bosch GmbH, Rolls-Royce Phantom VIII, Rotation around a fixed axis, Saab Sonett, SAE International, Sealed beam, Selective yellow, Servomechanism, Solenoid, Spark plug, Spectral power distribution, Specular reflection, Sphere, Squeegee, Steering, Stepper motor, Sylvania Electric Products, Tatra (company), Tatra 77, Toyota, Toyota Crown, Toyota Crown Majesta, Toyota Prius, Trade restriction, Transducer, Triumph Vitesse, Tucker 48, Tungsten, Twilight Sentinel, Ultraviolet, Vacuum, Valeo, Vauxhall Motors, Virgil Exner, Visible spectrum, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Phaeton, Volkswagen Touareg, Volt, Windscreen wiper, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations, World War II, Xenon. Expand index (154 more) »


Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.

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Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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Alvis Car and Engineering Company

Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd was a British manufacturing company in Coventry from 1919 to 1967.

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American Motors Corporation

American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company.

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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.

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Audi R8

The Audi R8 is a mid-engine, 2-seater sports car, which uses Audi's trademark quattro permanent all-wheel drive system.

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Austin Maestro

The Austin Maestro is a five-door hatchback small family car (and two-door van derivative) that was produced from 1982 to 1987 by British Leyland, and from 1988 until 1994 by Rover Group.

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Automotive lighting

The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle.

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Automotive night vision

An automotive night vision system uses a thermographic camera to increase a driver's perception and seeing distance in darkness or poor weather beyond the reach of the vehicle's headlights.

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Škoda Auto

Škoda Auto, more commonly known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement.

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Bentley S3

The Bentley S3 is a four-door luxury car produced by Bentley from late 1962 until 1965.

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Bicycle lighting

Bicycle lighting is illumination attached to bicycles whose purpose above all is, along with reflectors, to improve the visibility of the bicycle and its rider to other road users under circumstances of poor ambient illumination.

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BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

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BMW 7 Series (E32)

The BMW E32 is the second generation of the BMW 7 Series luxury cars and was produced from 1986 to 1994.

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BMW i8

The BMW i8 is a plug-in hybrid sports car developed by BMW.

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Buick, formally the Buick Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM).

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Buick Riviera

The Buick Riviera is a personal luxury car produced by Buick from 1963 to 1999.

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Cadillac, formally the Cadillac Motor Car Division, is a division of the U.S.-based General Motors (GM) that markets luxury vehicles worldwide.

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Cadillac Escalade

The Cadillac Escalade is a full-size luxury SUV engineered and manufactured by Cadillac.

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The candela (or; symbol: cd) is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System of Units (SI); that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction.

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Carbide lamp

Carbide lamps, or acetylene gas lamps, are simple lamps that produce and burn acetylene (C2H2) which is created by the reaction of calcium carbide (CaC2) with water (H2O).

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Chevrolet Corvette (C3)

The Chevrolet Corvette (C3) was a sports car that was produced by Chevrolet for the 1968 through 1982 model years.

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Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.

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A circle is a simple closed shape.

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Citroën 2CV

The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".

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Citroën Ami

The Citroën Ami is a four-door, front-wheel drive supermini (B-segment), manufactured and marketed by Citroën from 1961 to 1978.

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Citroën DS

The Citroën DS is a front-engine, front-wheel-drive executive car that was manufactured and marketed by the French company Citroën from 1955 to 1975 in sedan, wagon/estate and convertible body configurations.

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Citroën SM

The Citroën SM is a high-performance coupé produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1970 to 1975.

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Citroën XM

The Citroën XM is an executive car that was produced by the French automaker Citroën between 1989 and 2000.

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Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.

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A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.

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Color rendering index

A color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.

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Columbia (automobile brand)

Columbia was an American brand of automobiles produced by a group of companies in the United States.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Compression molding

Compression Molding is a method of molding in which the moulding material, generally preheated, is first placed in an open, heated mould cavity.

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Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

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Cord 810/812

The Cord 810, and later Cord 812, was an luxury automobile produced by the Cord Automobile division of the Auburn Automobile Company in 1936 and 1937.

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Daytime running lamp

A daytime running lamp (DRL, also daytime running light) is an automotive lighting and bicycle lighting device on the front of a roadgoing motor vehicle or bicycle, automatically switched on when the vehicle is in drive, emitting white, yellow, or amber light to increase the conspicuity of the vehicle during daylight conditions.

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Decorative vehicle lighting

Decorative vehicle lighting is lighting which is intended entirely as an decorative or ornamental addition to a vehicle, rather than lighting which is required for safety (i.e. automotive lighting, bicycle lighting, emergency vehicle lighting).

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Delco Electronics

Delco Electronics Corporation was the automotive electronics design and manufacturing subsidiary of General Motors based in Kokomo, Indiana, that manufactured Delco radios and other electric products found in GM cars.

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In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by Fiat Chrysler (formerly known as Chrysler Group LLC), based in Auburn Hills, Michigan.

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Dodge Charger (B-body)

The Dodge Charger (B-body) is a mid-size automobile that was produced by Dodge from 1966 to 1978, and was based on the Chrysler B platform.

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Drop (liquid)

A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.

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Eagle Premier

The Eagle Premier is a full-size Executive car that was developed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) during the 1980s through its partnership with Renault.

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Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electrical ballast

An electrical ballast is a device placed in line with the load to limit the amount of current in an electrical circuit.

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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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Eureka (organisation)

EUREKA, often abbreviated as E!, or Σ! (from the ancient Greek way to write "E" and unrelated to modern "Sigma") is an intergovernmental organisation for pan-European research and development funding and coordination.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Facel Vega

Facel S.A. was a French manufacturer of steel furniture and pressed steel components, later complete automobiles to their own design, founded in 1939 to make components for Bronzavia's military aircraft.

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Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108 (FMVSS 108) regulates all automotive lighting, signalling and reflective devices in the United States.

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Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer

The Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer (BB) is an automobile which was produced by Ferrari in Italy between 1973 and 1984.

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Ferrari Daytona

The Ferrari Daytona, officially designated the Ferrari 365 GTB/4, is a two-seat grand tourer produced by Ferrari from 1968 to 1973.

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Focus (optics)

In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.

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Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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Ford F-Series

The Ford F-Series is a series of light-duty trucks and medium-duty trucks (Class 2-7) that have been marketed and manufactured by Ford Motor Company since 1948.

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Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.

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Ford Taunus

The Ford Taunus is a family car that was sold by Ford Germany throughout Europe.

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Ford Thunderbird

The Ford Thunderbird is a rear wheel drive automobile which was manufactured by Ford in the United States over eleven model generations from 1955 through 2005.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Fresnel lens

A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.

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A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.

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Glare (vision)

Glare is difficulty seeing in the presence of bright light such as direct or reflected sunlight or artificial light such as car headlamps at night.

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Global Positioning System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.

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Gordon-Keeble was a British car marque, made first in Slough, then Eastleigh, and finally in Southampton (all in England), between 1964 and 1967.

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H1 lamp

The H1 is a halogen lamp designed for use in automotive headlamps and fog and driving lamps.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogen lamp

A halogen lamp, also known as a tungsten halogen, quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp, is an incandescent lamp consisting of a tungsten filament sealed into a compact transparent envelope that is filled with a mixture of an inert gas and a small amount of a halogen such as iodine or bromine.

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A headlamp is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.

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Headlamp (outdoor)

A headlamp or headlight (known as a head torch in the UK) is a light source affixed to the head for outdoor activities at night or in dark conditions such as caving, orienteering, hiking, skiing, backpacking, camping, mountaineering or mountain biking.

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Headlight flashing

Headlight flashing is the act of either briefly switching on the headlights of a car, or of momentarily switching between a headlight's high beams and low beams, in an effort to communicate with another driver or drivers.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hella (company)

Hella KGaA Hueck & Co. (stylized as HELLA) is an internationally operating German automotive part supplier with headquarters in Lippstadt, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Hidden headlamp

Hidden headlamps, also commonly known as pop-up headlamps, hideaway headlights, are a form of automotive lighting and an automotive styling feature that conceals an automobile's headlamps when they are not in use.

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High voltage

The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.

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High-intensity discharge lamp

High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.

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Honda Accord

The is a series of automobiles manufactured by Honda since 1976, best known for its four-door sedan variant, which has been one of the best-selling cars in the United States since 1989.

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Horseless carriage

Horseless carriage is a term for early automobiles; at the time it was common that carriages were pulled by animals, typically horses, but the automobiles were not.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Imperial (automobile)

Imperial was the Chrysler Corporation's luxury automobile brand between 1955 and 1975, with a brief reappearance from 1981 to 1983.

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Incandescent light bulb

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Injection moulding

Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.

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ISIRI 6672

ISIRI 6672 is a standard published by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) in 2009 based on Directive 76/761/EEC.

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Jacob Rabinow

Jacob Rabinow (January 8, 1910 – September 11, 1999) was an engineer and inventor.

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Jaguar Cars

Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.

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Jaguar E-Type

The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car that was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975.

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Jaguar XJ220

The Jaguar XJ220 is a two-seat sports car produced by British luxury car manufacturer Jaguar from 1992 until 1994, in collaboration with the specialist automotive and race engineering company Tom Walkinshaw Racing.

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Japanese domestic market

The term "Japanese domestic market" refers to Japan's home market for vehicles.

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Jeep Grand Cherokee

The Jeep Grand Cherokee is a range of Mid-size SUVs produced by the American manufacturer Jeep.

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Jensen C-V8

The Jensen C-V8 is a four-seater GT car produced by Jensen Motors between 1962 and 1966.

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Joule heating

Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.

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KI Holdings

, formerly known as until the renaming in 2011, is a manufacturer of mechanical components such as railway equipment, headlamps, and airline seats. It is a subsidiary of Koito Manufacturing.

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Lamborghini Countach

The Lamborghini Countach is a rear mid-engined, V12 sports car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990.

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Laser lamp

A laser lamp is a light bulb that uses mirrors to direct a laser on to a phosphor that then emits a light.

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Left- and right-hand traffic

The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese car maker Toyota.

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Lexus LS (XF40)

The Lexus LS (XF40) is the fourth generation of the Lexus LS line of flagship sedans.

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Light beam

A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Lighting-up time

In the United Kingdom, there is a legally enforced lighting-up time, defined as from half an hour after sunset to half an hour before sunrise, during which all motor vehicles on unlit public roads (except if parked) must use their headlights.

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Lincoln Continental Mark VII

The Continental Mark VII, later changed to Lincoln Mark VII, is a rear wheel drive luxury coupe that was produced by Lincoln.

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Lincoln Mark VIII

The Lincoln Mark VIII is a grand touring luxury coupe that was marketed and sold by Lincoln from 1993 to 1998.

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Lincoln Motor Company

Lincoln, formally the Lincoln Motor Company, is a luxury vehicle brand of the American manufacturer Ford Motor Company.

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List of automotive light bulb types

Light bulbs for automobiles are made in several standardized series.

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Lumen (unit)

The lumen (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit of luminous flux, a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source.

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Luminous efficacy

Luminous efficacy is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light.

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Magneti Marelli

Magneti Marelli S.p.A. develops and manufactures high-tech components for the automotive industry.

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Manifold vacuum

Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engine's intake manifold and Earth's atmosphere.

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Mazda MX-5

The Mazda MX-5, released as the Mazda MX-5 Miata in North America and as the Eunos Roadster or Mazda Roadster in Japan, is a lightweight two-seater roadster with a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.

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Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.

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Mercedes-Benz 600

The Mercedes-Benz 600 is a high-end large luxury sedan and limousine produced by Mercedes-Benz from 1963 to 1981.

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Mercedes-Benz C-Class

The Mercedes-Benz C-Class is a line of compact executive cars produced by Daimler AG.

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Mercedes-Benz CL-Class (C215)

The second generation of the Mercedes-Benz CL-Class is the C215-chassis coupé of 2000–2006.

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Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class

The Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class is a series of mid-size luxury cars produced by Mercedes-Benz since 2004.

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Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W211)

The Mercedes-Benz W211 is a chassis designation for the Mercedes-Benz E-Class, produced from 2002 through 2009.

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Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W212)

The Mercedes-Benz E-Class (W212 and S212) series represent the fourth-generation of the Mercedes-Benz E-Class range of executive cars, including sedan (W212) and station wagon (S212) configurations.

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Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221)

The Mercedes-Benz W221 is a chassis code of S-Class, the successor of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220) and the predecessor of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W222).

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Mercedes-Benz W108

The Mercedes-Benz W108 and W109 are luxury cars produced by Mercedes-Benz from 1965 through to 1972 and 1973 in North America only.

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Mercedes-Benz W111

The Mercedes-Benz W111 was a chassis code given to a range of Mercedes' vehicles produced between 1959 and 1971, including four-door sedans (1959-1968) and two-door coupés and cabriolets (1961 to 1971).

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Mercedes-Benz W112

The Mercedes-Benz W112, marketed as the Mercedes-Benz 300SE, is an automobile produced by Mercedes-Benz from 1962 to 1967.

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Mercury (automobile)

Mercury is a defunct division of the American automobile manufacturer Ford Motor Company.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury Cougar

The Mercury Cougar is a nameplate applied to a diverse series of automobiles sold by Mercury from 1967 to 1997, and again from 1999 to 2002.

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Metal-halide lamp

A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).

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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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Multi Media Interface

The Multi Media Interface (MMI) system is an in-car user interface media system developed by Audi, and was launched at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show on the Audi Avantissimo concept car.

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Nash Motors

Nash Motors Company was an American automobile manufacturer based in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in the United States from 1916 to 1937.

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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, pronounced "NITS-uh") is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U.S. government, part of the Department of Transportation.

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, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.

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Nissan Cima

The Nissan Cima (Japanese: 日産・シーマ Nissan Shīma) is a large full-size luxury sedan produced by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

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Nissan Fuga

The Nissan Fuga (Japanese: 日産・フーガ Nissan Fūga) is a Mid-size luxury sedan produced by Japanese automaker Nissan since October 2004.

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Oldsmobile was a brand of American automobiles produced for most of its existence by General Motors.

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Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.

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OSRAM Licht AG is a multinational lighting manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Germany.

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Osram Sylvania

OSRAM Sylvania Inc. is the North American operation of lighting manufacturer OSRAM.

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Panhard Dyna Z

The Panhard Dyna Z is a lightweight motor car produced by Panhard of France from 1954 to 1959.

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In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Parabolic reflector

A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.

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Peerless Motor Company

Peerless Motor Company was an American automobile manufacturer that produced the Peerless brand of motorcars in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1900 to 1931.

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A photoresistor (or light-dependent resistor, LDR, or photo-conductive cell) is a light-controlled variable resistor.

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Plastic headlight restoration

Headlight restoration or plastic headlight restoration is the act of refinishing aged headlight lenses that have become discolored or dull due to oxidation primarily due to UV light and other environmental factors such as road debris impact (stones, sand, etc.) rain, and exposure to caustic chemicals.

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Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.

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Pontiac is a now-defunct car brand that was owned, made, and sold by General Motors.

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Porsche 356

The Porsche 356 is a sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948–1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950–1965).

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In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.

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In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector or cataphote) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum of scattering.

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Robert Bosch GmbH

Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.

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Rolls-Royce Phantom VIII

The Rolls-Royce Phantom VIII is a luxury saloon car manufactured by Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.

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Rotation around a fixed axis

Rotation around a fixed axis or about a fixed axis of revolution or motion with respect to a fixed axis of rotation is a special case of rotational motion.

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Saab Sonett

The Saab Sonett is an automobile manufactured between 1955 and 1957 and again between 1966 and 1974 by Saab of Sweden.

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SAE International

SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries.

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Sealed beam

A sealed beam is a type of lamp with a parabolic reflector, one or more filaments, and a glass lens sealed permanently together as a unit.

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Selective yellow

Selective yellow is a colour for automotive lamps, particularly headlamps and other road-illumination lamps such as fog lamps.

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In control engineering a servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism.

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A solenoid (/ˈsolə.nɔɪd/) (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen ("pipe, channel") and eidos ("form, shape")) is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.

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Spark plug

A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.

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Spectral power distribution

In radiometry, photometry and color science, a spectral power distribution (SPD) measurement describes the power per unit area per unit wavelength of an illumination (radiant exitance).

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Specular reflection

Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.

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A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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A squeegee or squilgee is a tool with a flat, smooth rubber blade, used to remove or control the flow of liquid on a flat surface.

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Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.

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Stepper motor

A stepper motor or step motor or stepping motor is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps.

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Sylvania Electric Products

Sylvania Electric Products was a U.S. manufacturer of diverse electrical equipment, including at various times radio transceivers, vacuum tubes, semiconductors, and mainframe computers such as MOBIDIC.

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Tatra (company)

Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.

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Tatra 77

The Czechoslovakian Tatra 77 (T77) is the first serial-produced, truly aerodynamically-designed automobile.

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, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.

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Toyota Crown

The Toyota Crown (Japanese: トヨタクラウン Toyota Kuraun) is an automobile which has been produced by Toyota in Japan since 1955.

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Toyota Crown Majesta

The is a full-size flagship premium luxury automobile from Toyota.

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Toyota Prius

The Toyota Prius (Japanese:トヨタプリウス)() is a full hybrid electric automobile developed by Toyota and manufactured by the company since 1997.

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Trade restriction

A trade restriction is an artificial restriction on the trade of goods and/or services between two countries.

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A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.

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Triumph Vitesse

The Triumph Vitesse is a compact six-cylinder car built by Standard-Triumph from May 1962 to July 1971.

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Tucker 48

The Tucker 48 (named after its model year) is an automobile conceived by Preston Tucker and briefly produced in Chicago in 1948.

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Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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Twilight Sentinel

On an automobile, Twilight Sentinel is a device on General Motors' cars that senses outside light and turns the exterior lights on and off depending on lighting conditions.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Valeo is a multinational automotive supplier based in France, providing a wide range of products to auto manufacturers and after-markets.

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Vauxhall Motors

Vauxhall Motors LimitedCompany No.

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Virgil Exner

Virgil Max "Ex" Exner Sr. (September 24, 1909 – December 22, 1973) was an automobile designer for numerous American companies, notably Chrysler and Studebaker.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Volkswagen Beetle

The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.

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Volkswagen Passat

The Volkswagen Passat is a large family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1973, and now in its eighth generation.

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Volkswagen Phaeton

The Volkswagen Phaeton (Typ 3D) is a full-size (F-segment in Europe) luxury sedan/saloon manufactured by German automaker Volkswagen, described by Volkswagen as their "premium class" vehicle.

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Volkswagen Touareg

The Volkswagen Touareg (German pronunciation) is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002 at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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Windscreen wiper

A windscreen wiper or windshield wiper (American English) is a device used to remove rain, snow, ice and debris from a windscreen or windshield.

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World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations

The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations is a working party (WP.29) of the Sustainable Transport Division of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headlamp

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