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Index Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. [1]

482 relations: Accelerans nerve, ACE inhibitor, Acta Physiologica, ACTC1, Actin, Actinopterygii, Action potential, Adrenaline, Adrian Kantrowitz, Afterload, Allied health professions, American Journal of Physiology, Amiodarone, Ammit, Amniote, Amphibian, Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul, Ancient Egyptian deities, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Andrea Alpago, Andreas Vesalius, Anemia, Angina, Angiography, Animal, Annual Reviews (publisher), Anterior cardiac veins, Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, Anterior interventricular sulcus, Anticoagulant, Anticucho, Antimineralocorticoid, Antiplatelet drug, Anubis, Aorta, Aortic sinus, Aortic stenosis, Aortic valve, Archosaur, Aristotle, Arteriole, Artery, Arthropod, Arthur Keith, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Artificial heart valve, Ascending aorta, Aspirin, Atherosclerosis, ..., Athlete, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial septal defect, Atrial tachycardia, Atrioventricular node, Atrioventricular septum, Atrium (heart), Atropine, Auscultation, Australian cuisine, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, Aztecs, Ātman (Hinduism), Bachmann's bundle, Bainbridge reflex, Balinese cuisine, Baroreceptor, Basal metabolic rate, Basic metabolic panel, Beef, Beta blocker, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Biomarker, Bird, Blood, Blood pressure, Blood sausage, Blood test, Blood vessel, Body surface area, Bradycardia, Brain natriuretic peptide, Brainstem, Branchial heart, Brazilian cuisine, Breathing, Broken heart, Bundle branches, Bundle of His, Calcium, Calcium channel blocker, Cape Town, Capillary, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac catheterization, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac examination, Cardiac imaging, Cardiac index, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac muscle cell, Cardiac output, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiac plexus, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Cardiac skeleton, Cardiac stress test, Cardiac surgery, Cardiac tamponade, Cardinal vein, Cardiology, Cardiomyopathy, Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiovascular centre, Cardiovascular disease, Cardioversion, Carotid body, Catheter ablation, Catholic Church, Catholic devotions, CDH2, Cephalopod, Chemoreceptor, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Chicken as food, Chinese cuisine, Chinese language, Cholesterol, Chondrichthyes, Chordae tendineae, Christiaan Barnard, Christianismi Restitutio, Churrasco, Circulation (journal), Circulation Research, Circulatory system, Circumflex branch of left coronary artery, Classical antiquity, Coagulation screen, Coarctation of the aorta, Cod, Collagen, Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, Complete blood count, Congenital heart defect, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary circulation, Coronary sinus, Coronary sulcus, Costal cartilage, Coxsackievirus, CPK-MB test, Crocodile, Crocodilia, Cryoablation, CT scan, Cupid, Cyanotic heart defect, Cytomegalovirus, Das Reizleitungssystem des Säugetierherzens, De humani corporis fabrica, Defibrillation, Dehydration, Dense connective tissue, Depolarization, Descending aorta, Dextrocardia, Diabetes mellitus, Diana Kennedy, Diastole, Dietitian, Diffusion, Digoxin, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Diuretic, Dobutamine, Dopamine, E. A. Wallis Budge, Earthworm, Echocardiography, Egyptian cuisine, Egyptian language, Ejection fraction, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Embryo, Emotion, Endocardial tubes, Endocarditis, Endocardium, Endothelin, Endothelium, Erasistratus, Ernest Starling, Esophagus, Exercise, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, Fetus, Foramen of Panizza, Foramen ovale (heart), Fossa ovalis (heart), Fourth heart sound, Framingham Heart Study, Frank–Starling law, French cuisine, Galen, Gallop rhythm, Gas exchange, Gautama Buddha, General practitioner, Genetic disorder, Georgian scripts, Giblets, Gill, Glucose test, Glycated hemoglobin, Great arteries, Great cardiac vein, Great saphenous vein, Grief, Groote Schuur Hospital, Ground (electricity), Group A streptococcal infection, Heart, Heart (Chinese medicine), Heart (symbol), Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart failure, Heart murmur, Heart rate, Heart sounds, Heart transplantation, Heart valve, Hemocyanin, Hemodynamics, Hemolymph, Hepatic veins, Hinduism, Hippocrates, Holter monitor, Homology (biology), Human embryogenesis, Hummingbird, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Hypoxemia, Ibn al-Nafis, Immaculate Heart of Mary, Indonesian cuisine, Infant, Infectious mononucleosis, Inferior vena cava, Infundibulum (heart), Inotrope, Intensive care unit, Intensivist, Intention, Intercalated disc, Internal thoracic artery, Interventricular septum, Ion, Ion channel, Irma S. Rombauer, Japanese cuisine, Jerusalem mixed grill, Jesus, John Eudes, Joint, Journal of Applied Physiology, Judeo-Christian, Jugular vein, Jugular venous pressure, Julienning, Kokoretsi, Latin, LDB3, Left coronary artery, Life support, Lipid profile, Liver, Louis Washkansky, Lung, Lungfish, Lymphatic vessel, Maat, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mammal, Marination, Martin Flack, Masterpiece, Mediastinum, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical sign, Medicine, Medulla oblongata, Metabolic waste, Metabolism, Mexican cuisine, Michael Servetus, Middle cardiac vein, Middle Chinese, Midsternal line, Mitral valve, Mitral valve repair, Moderator band (heart), Mollusca, Muscle, Muscle contraction, MYH6, MYH7, Myocardial contractility, Myocardial infarction, Myofibril, Myosin, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Nitroglycerin (drug), Norepinephrine, Norman Shumway, Nutrient, Obesity, Offal, Ogg, Organ (anatomy), Otto Frank (physiologist), Ottoman cuisine, Overweight, Ovid, Oxygen, Palpation, Papillary muscle, Parts of Animals, Pectinate muscles, Percutaneous aortic valve replacement, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Pericardial effusion, Pericardial fluid, Pericardial friction rub, Pericardiocentesis, Pericarditis, Pericardium, Peripheral edema, Peritoneum, Peruvian cuisine, Phylum, Physical therapy, Physician, Plakophilin-2, Plato, Plexus, Point-of-care testing, Pork, Positron emission tomography, Posterior interventricular sulcus, Potassium, Potassium channel, Preload (cardiology), Prenatal development, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary valve, Pulmonary vein, Purkinje fibers, Radial artery, Radiofrequency ablation, Reason, Refractory period (physiology), Regurgitation (circulation), Renaissance, Repolarization, Reptile, Respiratory pigment, Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Rheumatic fever, Richard Lower (surgeon), Right coronary artery, Rigveda, Roman Empire, Romance (love), Ruby-throated hummingbird, Russian cuisine, Sacred Heart, Satay, Seal script, Septum primum, Sex, Shen (Chinese religion), Shortness of breath, Sick sinus syndrome, Simple squamous epithelium, Sinoatrial node, Sinus rhythm, Sinus venosus, Small cardiac vein, Small intestine, Smoking, Sodium, Sodium channel blocker, Sphygmomanometer, Splanchnopleuric mesenchyme, Splinter hemorrhage, Split S2, Statin, Stenosis, Sternum, Stethoscope, Striated muscle tissue, Stroke, Stuffing, Sunao Tawara, Superior vena cava, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathetic trunk, Syncytium, Systole, Tachycardia, Tanakh, Taoism, Teleost, Tempo, Tetralogy of Fallot, Tetrapod, The Joy of Cooking, The New England Journal of Medicine, Third eye, Third heart sound, Thoracic diaphragm, Thoracic ganglia, Thoracic vertebrae, Thoracoscopy, Thorax, Thought, Thyroid hormones, TNNI3, Tongue, Trabeculae carneae, Tracheobronchial lymph nodes, Transposition of the great vessels, Tricuspid valve, Tropomyosin, Troponin, Troponin C, Tubular heart, Ultrasound, Unstable angina, Vagus nerve, Valentine's Day, Valvular heart disease, Vascular resistance, Vein, Venae cavae, Ventricle (heart), Ventricular assist device, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular septal defect, Ventricular tachycardia, Venule, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vladimir Demikhov, Voltage-gated calcium channel, Warfarin, Willem Einthoven, William Harvey, Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, World Bank high-income economy, Yakitori, Zang-fu. Expand index (432 more) »

Accelerans nerve

The accelerans nerves are the nerves responsible for speed up heart rate, resulting in an increased bloodflow.

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ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acta Physiologica

Acta Physiologica is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Scandinavian Physiological Society.

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ACTC1 encodes cardiac muscle alpha actin.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Adrian Kantrowitz

Adrian Kantrowitz (October 4, 1918 – November 14, 2008) was an American cardiac surgeon whose team performed the world's first pediatric heart transplant attempt at Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York on December 6, 1967.

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Afterload is the pressure against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole.

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Allied health professions

Allied health professions are health care professions distinct from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy.

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American Journal of Physiology

The American Journal of Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal on physiology published by the American Physiological Society.

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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul

The ancient Egyptians believed that a soul was made up of many parts.

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Ancient Egyptian deities

Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.

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Ancient Egyptian religion

Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Andrea Alpago

Andrea Alpago (c. 1450 – late 1521Biografia di, in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Volume 2 - 1960), by Giorgio Levi Della Vida or January 1522) was an Italian physician and arabist.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.

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Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins (or anterior veins of right ventricle) comprise three or four small vessels which collect blood from the front of the right ventricle and open into the right atrium; the right marginal vein frequently opens into the right atrium, and is therefore sometimes regarded as belonging to this group.

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Anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery

The anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, (also left anterior descending artery (LAD), or anterior descending branch) is a branch of the left coronary artery.

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Anterior interventricular sulcus

The anterior interventricular sulcus (or anterior longitudinal sulcus) is one of two grooves that separates the ventricles of the heart, the other being the posterior interventricular sulcus.

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Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.

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Anticuchos (singular anticucho, Quechua for cut stew meat) are popular and inexpensive meat dishes that originated in the Andes during the pre-Columbian era.

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An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.

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Antiplatelet drug

An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.

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Anubis (Ἄνουβις, Egyptian: jnpw, Coptic: Anoup) is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head.

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The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

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Aortic sinus

An aortic sinus is one of the anatomic dilations of the ascending aorta, which occurs just above the aortic valve.

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Aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Arthur Keith

Sir Arthur Keith FRS (5 February 1866 – 7 January 1955) was a Scottish anatomist and anthropologist, and a proponent of scientific racism.

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Artificial heart valve

An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.

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Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AFL) is a common abnormal heart rhythm that starts in the atrial chambers of the heart.

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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

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Atrial tachycardia

Atrial tachycardia is a type of heart rhythm problem in which the heart's electrical impulse comes from an ectopic pacemaker (that is, an abnormally located cardiac pacemaker) in the upper chambers (atria) of the heart, rather than from the sinoatrial node, the normal origin of the heart's electrical activity.

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Atrioventricular node

The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.

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Atrioventricular septum

The atrioventricular septum is a septum of the heart between the right atrium (RA) and the left ventricle (LV).

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

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Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.

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Australian cuisine

Australian cuisine refers to the cuisine of Australia and its indigenous and colonial societies.

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AV nodal reentrant tachycardia

AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), or atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, is a type of abnormal fast heart rhythm.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Ātman (Hinduism)

Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.

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Bachmann's bundle

In the heart's conduction system, Bachmann's bundle (also called the Bachmann bundle or the interatrial tract) is a branch of the anterior internodal tract that resides on the inner wall of the left atrium.

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Bainbridge reflex

The Bainbridge reflex, also called the atrial reflex, is an increase in heart rate due to an increase in central venous pressure.

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Balinese cuisine

Balinese cuisine is a cuisine tradition of Balinese people from the volcanic island of Bali.

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Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Basic metabolic panel

A basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a blood test consisting of a set of seven or eight biochemical tests and is one of the most common lab tests ordered by health care providers.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood sausage

Blood sausages are sausages filled with blood that are cooked or dried and mixed with a filler until they are thick enough to solidify when cooled.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Body surface area

In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body.

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Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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Brain natriuretic peptide

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ventricles in response to stretching caused by increased ventricular blood volume.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Branchial heart

Branchial hearts are myogenic accessory pumps found in coleoid cephalopods that supplement the action of the main, systemic heart.

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Brazilian cuisine

Brazilian cuisine is the set of cooking practices and traditions of Brazil, and is characterized by African, European, and Amerindian influences.

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Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.

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Broken heart

Broken heart (also known as a heartbreak or heartache) is a metaphor for the intense emotional—and sometimes physical—stress or pain one feels at experiencing great longing.

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Bundle branches

The bundle branches, or Tawara branches, are offshoots of the bundle of His in the heart's ventricle.

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Bundle of His

The bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cardiac action potential

The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.

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Cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Cardiac examination

In medicine, the cardiac examination, also precordial exam, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with chest pain suggestive of a cardiovascular pathology.

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Cardiac imaging

Cardiac imaging techniques include coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, Intravascular ultrasound, Cardiac PET scan, Cardiac CT scan and Cardiac MRI.

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Cardiac index

Cardiac index (CI) is a haemodynamic parameter that relates the cardiac output (CO) from left ventricle in one minute to body surface area (BSA), thus relating heart performance to the size of the individual.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac muscle cell

Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Cardiac pacemaker

Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.

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Cardiac plexus

The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart.

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Cardiac resynchronization therapy

An implanted cardiac resynchronization device is a medical device used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

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Cardiac skeleton

The cardiac skeleton, also known as the fibrous skeleton of the heart, is a high density single structure of connective tissue that forms and anchors the valves and influences the forces exerted through them.

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Cardiac stress test

A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.

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Cardiac surgery

Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.

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Cardiac tamponade

Cardiac tamponade, also known as pericardial tamponade, is when fluid in the pericardium (the sac around the heart) builds up, resulting in compression of the heart.

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Cardinal vein

Cardinal vein may refer to.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Cardiothoracic surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).

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Cardiovascular centre

The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cardioversion is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate (tachycardia) or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm using electricity or drugs.

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Carotid body

The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).

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Catheter ablation

Catheter ablation is a procedure used to remove or terminate a faulty electrical pathway from sections of the hearts of those who are prone to developing cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome).

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic devotions

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops defines Catholic devotions as "...expressions of love and fidelity that arise from the intersection of one's own faith, culture and the Gospel of Jesus Christ." Catholic devotions are not part of liturgical worship, even if they are performed in a Catholic church, in a group, or in the presence of (or even led by) a priest.

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N-cadherin, also known as Cadherin-2 (CDH2) or neural cadherin (NCAD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH2 gene.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Chest pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Chicken as food

Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.

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Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Chordae tendineae

The chordae tendineae (tendinous chords), colloquially known as the heart strings, are tendon-resembling fibrous cord connective tissue that connect the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve and the bicuspid valve in the heart.

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Christiaan Barnard

Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first human-to-human heart transplant on 3 December 1967 at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

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Christianismi Restitutio

Christianismi Restitutio (English: The Restoration of Christianity) was a book published in 1553 by Michael Servetus.

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Churrasco is a Spanish and Portuguese term referring to beef or grilled meat more generally, differing across Latin America and Europe, but a prominent feature in the cuisine of Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru and other Latin American countries.

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Circulation (journal)

Circulation is a scientific journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins for the American Heart Association.

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Circulation Research

Circulation Research is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and edited by Roberto Bolli.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Circumflex branch of left coronary artery

The "LCX", or left circumflex artery (or circumflex artery, or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery) is an artery of the heart.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Coagulation screen

A coagulation screen is a combination of screening laboratory tests, designed to provide rapid non-specific information, which allows an initial broad categorization of haemostatic problems.

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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.

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Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon is a manuscript written in the 13th century by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Coronary circulation

Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).

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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).

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Coronary sulcus

The atria of the heart are separated from the ventricles by the coronary sulcus (also called coronary groove, auriculoventricular groove, atrioventricular groove, AV groove); this contains the trunks of the nutrient vessels of the heart, and is deficient in front, where it is crossed by the root of the pulmonary trunk.

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Costal cartilage

The costal cartilages are bars of hyaline cartilage that serve to prolong the ribs forward and contribute to the elasticity of the walls of the thorax.

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Coxsackievirus is a virus that belongs to a family of nonenveloped, linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus, which also includes poliovirus and echovirus.

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CPK-MB test

The CPK-MB test is a cardiac marker used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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Cryoablation is a process that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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In classical mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupīdō, meaning "desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection.

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Cyanotic heart defect

Cyanotic heart defect is a group-type of congenital heart defect (CHD) that occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation or a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.

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Das Reizleitungssystem des Säugetierherzens

Das Reizleitungssystem des Säugetierherzens (English: "The Conduction System of the Mammalian Heart") is a scientific monograph published in 1906 by Sunao Tawara.

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De humani corporis fabrica

De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.

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Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Dense connective tissue

Dense connective tissue, also called dense fibrous tissue, is a type of connective tissue with fibers as its main matrix element.

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In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.

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Descending aorta

The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

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Dextrocardia (from Latin dexter, meaning "right," and Greek kardia, meaning "heart") is a rare congenital condition in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the body.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diana Kennedy

Diana Kennedy (born 3 March 1923) is a Mexican cooking authority known for her nine books on the subject, including The Cuisines of Mexico, which started changing how Americans view Mexican cooking.

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Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).

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A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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E. A. Wallis Budge

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Egyptian cuisine

Egyptian cuisine is characterized by dishes such as ful medames, mashed fava beans; kushari, with lentils and pasta, a national dish; and molokhiya, bush okra stew.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Ejection fraction

An ejection fraction (EF) is the volumetric fraction of fluid (usually blood) ejected from a chamber (usually the heart) with each contraction (or heartbeat).

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Electrical conduction system of the heart

The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Endocardial tubes

The endocardial tubes are paired regions in the embryo that appear in its ventral pole by the middle of the third week of gestation and consist of precursor cells for the development of the embryonic heart.

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Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

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The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.

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Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.

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Ernest Starling

Ernest Henry Starling (17 April 1866 – 2 May 1927) was a British physiologist who contributed many fundamental ideas to this subject.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (Latin for "An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings"), commonly called De Motu Cordis, is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey.

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Femoral artery

The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.

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Femoral vein

In the human body, the femoral vein is a blood vessel that accompanies the femoral artery in the femoral sheath.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Foramen of Panizza

The foramen of Panizza (named for anatomist Bartolomeo Panizza) is a hole that connects the left and right aorta as they leave the heart of all animals of the order Crocodilia.

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Foramen ovale (heart)

In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale, also foramen Botalli, ostium secundum of Born or falx septi, allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium.

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Fossa ovalis (heart)

The fossa ovalis is a depression in the right atrium of the heart, at the level of the interatrial septum, the wall between right and left atrium.

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Fourth heart sound

The fourth heart sound or S4 is an extra heart sound that occurs during late diastole, immediately before the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).

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Framingham Heart Study

The Framingham Heart Study is a long-term, ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of the city of Framingham, Massachusetts.

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Frank–Starling law

The Frank–Starling law of the heart (also known as Starling's law and the Frank–Starling mechanism) represents the relationship between stroke volume and end diastolic volume.

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French cuisine

French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gallop rhythm

A gallop rhythm refers to a (usually abnormal) rhythm of the heart on auscultation.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Georgian scripts

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.

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Giblets is a culinary term for the edible offal of a fowl, typically including the heart, gizzard, liver, and other visceral organs.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Glucose test

A glucose test may be recommended for a variety of reasons.

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Glycated hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.

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Great arteries

The great arteries are the primary arteries that carry blood away from the heart, which include.

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Great cardiac vein

The great cardiac vein (left coronary vein) begins at the apex of the heart and ascends along the anterior longitudinal sulcus to the base of the ventricles.

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Great saphenous vein

The great saphenous vein (GSV, alternately "long saphenous vein") is a large, subcutaneous, superficial vein of the leg.

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Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.

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Groote Schuur Hospital

Groote Schuur Hospital is a large, government-funded, teaching hospital situated on the slopes of Devil's Peak in the city of Cape Town, South Africa.

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Ground (electricity)

In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.

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Group A streptococcal infection

A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS).

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart (Chinese medicine)

The Heart (心) is one of the zàng organs stipulated by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

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Heart (symbol)

The heart shape is an ideograph used to express the idea of the "heart" in its metaphorical or symbolic sense as the center of emotion, including affection and love, especially romantic love.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart block

Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heart murmur

Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heart sounds

Heart sounds are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it.

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Heart transplantation

A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.

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Heart valve

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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Hepatic veins

In human anatomy, the hepatic veins are the veins that drain de-oxygenated blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Holter monitor

In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply Holter) is a type of ambulatory electrocardiography device, a portable device for cardiac monitoring (the monitoring of the electrical activity of the cardiovascular system) for at least 24 to 48 hours (often for two weeks at a time).

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Human embryogenesis

Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.

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Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

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Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is severely underdeveloped.

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Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Immaculate Heart of Mary

The Immaculate Heart of Mary is a devotional name used to refer to the interior life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, her joys and sorrows, her virtues and hidden perfections, and, above all, her virginal love for God the Father, her maternal love for her son Jesus, and her compassionate love for all people.

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Indonesian cuisine

Indonesian cuisine is one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).

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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.

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Infundibulum (heart)

The infundibulum (also known as conus arteriosus) is a conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary trunk arises.

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An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

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Intensive care unit

Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.

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An intensivist is a physician who specializes in the care of critically ill patients, most often in the intensive care unit (ICU).

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Intention is a mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future.

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Intercalated disc

Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle.

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Internal thoracic artery

In human anatomy, the internal thoracic artery (ITA), previously known as the internal mammary artery (a name still common among surgeons), is an artery that supplies the anterior chest wall and the breasts.

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Interventricular septum

The interventricular septum (IVS, or ventricular septum, or during development septum inferius), is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Irma S. Rombauer

Irma Starkloff Rombauer (October 30, 1877 – October 14, 1962) was an American cookbook author, best known for The Joy of Cooking (1931), one of the world's most widely read cookbooks.

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes.

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Jerusalem mixed grill

Jerusalem mixed grill (מעורב ירושלמי) (me'orav Yerushalmi) is a grilled meat dish considered a specialty of Jerusalem.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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John Eudes

Saint John Eudes (Jean Eudes) (14 November 1601 – 19 August 1680) was a French Roman Catholic priest and the founder of both the Eudists and the Order of Our Lady of Charity.

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A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.

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Journal of Applied Physiology

The Journal of Applied Physiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of physiology published by the American Physiological Society.

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Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.

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Jugular vein

The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.

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Jugular venous pressure

The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.

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Julienne, allumette, or french cut, is a culinary knife cut in which the food item is cut into long thin strips, similar to matchsticks.

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Kokoretsi (Greek: κοκορέτσι), kokoreç (Turkish) is a dish of the Balkans, Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan and Turkey consisting of lamb or goat intestines wrapped around seasoned offal, including sweetbreads, hearts, lungs, or kidneys, and typically grilled; a variant consists of chopped innards cooked on a griddle.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3), also known as Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif (ZASP), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LDB3 gene.

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Left coronary artery

The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.

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Life support

Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.

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Lipid profile

Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Louis Washkansky

Louis Washkansky (1913 – 21 December 1967) was a South African man who was the recipient of the world's first human-to-human heart transplant, and the first patient to regain consciousness following the operation.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.

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Lymphatic vessel

The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.

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Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, liquid before cooking.

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Martin Flack

Martin William Flack (20 March 1882 – 16 August 1931) was a British physiologist who co-discovered the sinoatrial node with Sir Arthur Keith in 1907.

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical sign

A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Metabolic waste

Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Mexican cuisine

Mexican cuisine began about 9,000 years ago, when agricultural communities such as the Maya formed, domesticating maize, creating the standard process of corn nixtamalization, and establishing their foodways.

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Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.

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Middle cardiac vein

The middle cardiac vein commences at the apex of the heart; ascends in the posterior longitudinal sulcus, and ends in the coronary sinus near its right extremity.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Midsternal line

On the front of the thorax, one of the most important vertical lines is the midsternal line, the middle line of the sternum.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve, is a valve with two flaps in the heart, that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

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Mitral valve repair

Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure performed by cardiac surgeons to treat stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage) of the mitral valve.

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Moderator band (heart)

The moderator band (also known as septomarginal trabecula) is a muscular band of heart tissue found in the right ventricle of the heart.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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Myosin heavy chain, α isoform (MHC-α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYH6 gene.

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MYH7 is a gene encoding a myosin heavy chain beta (MHC-β) isoform (slow twitch) expressed primarily in the heart, but also in skeletal muscles (type I fibers).

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Myocardial contractility

Myocardial contractility represents the innate ability of the heart muscle (cardiac muscle or myocardium) to contract.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Nitroglycerin (drug)

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Norman Shumway

Norman Edward Shumway (February 9, 1923 – February 10, 2006) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Otto Frank (physiologist)

Otto Frank (21 June 1865 – 12 November 1944) was a German born doctor and physiologist who made several important contributions to cardiac physiology and cardiology.

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Ottoman cuisine

Ottoman cuisine is the cuisine of the Ottoman Empire and its continuation in the cuisines of Turkey, Greece, the Balkans, and parts of the Caucasus and the Middle East.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Palpation is the process of using one's hands to check the body, especially while perceiving/diagnosing a disease or illness.

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Papillary muscle

The papillary muscles are muscles located in the ventricles of the heart.

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Parts of Animals

Parts of Animals (or On the Parts of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων μορίων; Latin De Partibus Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.

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Pectinate muscles

The pectinate muscles (musculi pectinati) are parallel ridges in the walls of the atria of the heart.

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Percutaneous aortic valve replacement

Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (PAVR), also known as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels (as opposed to valve replacement by open heart surgery).

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Percutaneous coronary intervention

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

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Pericardial effusion

Pericardial effusion ("fluid around the heart") is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

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Pericardial fluid

Pericardial fluid is the serous fluid secreted by the serous layer of the pericardium into the pericardial cavity.

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Pericardial friction rub

A pericardial friction rub, also pericardial rub, is an audible medical sign used in the diagnosis of pericarditis.

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In medicine, pericardiocentesis is a procedure where fluid is aspirated from the pericardium (the sac enveloping the heart).

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Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart).

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The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

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Peripheral edema

Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Peruvian cuisine

Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese cuisine and Japanese cuisine) and West Africa.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Plakophilin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP2 gene.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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A plexus (from the Latin for "braid") is a branching network of vessels or nerves.

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Point-of-care testing

Point-of-care testing (POCT), or bedside testing is defined as medical diagnostic testing at or near the point of care—that is, at the time and place of patient care.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Posterior interventricular sulcus

The posterior interventricular sulcus or posterior longitudinal sulcus is one of the two grooves that separates the ventricles of the heart and is on the diaphragmatic surface of the heart near the right margin.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium channel

Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.

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Preload (cardiology)

In cardiac physiology, preload is the end diastolic volume that stretches the right or left ventricle of the heart to its greatest dimensions under variable physiologic demand.

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Prenatal development

Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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Pulmonary artery

A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve (sometimes referred to as the pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.

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Pulmonary vein

The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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Purkinje fibers

The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.

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Radial artery

In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm.

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Radiofrequency ablation

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Refractory period (physiology)

Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.

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Regurgitation (circulation)

Regurgitation is blood flow in the opposite direction from normal, as the backward flowing of blood into the heart or between heart chambers.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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In neuroscience, repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Respiratory pigment

A respiratory pigment is a molecule, such as hemoglobin in humans and other vertebrates, that increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

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Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a form of cardiomyopathy in which the walls of the heart are rigid (but not thickened).

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever (RF) is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Richard Lower (surgeon)

Richard Rowland Lower (August 15, 1929 – May 17, 2008) was an American pioneer of cardiac surgery, particularly in the field of heart transplantation.

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Right coronary artery

In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romance (love)

Romance is the expressive and generally pleasurable feeling from an emotional attraction towards another person.

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Ruby-throated hummingbird

The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species of hummingbird that generally spends the winter in Central America, Mexico, and Florida, and migrates to Eastern North America for the summer to breed.

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Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.

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Sacred Heart

The devotion to the Sacred Heart (also known as the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, Sacratissimum Cor Iesu in Latin) is one of the most widely practiced and well-known Roman Catholic devotions, taking Jesus Christ′s physical heart as the representation of his divine love for humanity.

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Satay, or sate in Indonesian spelling, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce.

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Seal script

Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.

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Septum primum

During heart development of a human embryo, the single primitive atrium becomes divided into right and left by a, the septum primum.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Shen (Chinese religion)

Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Sick sinus syndrome

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus dysfunction, or sinoatrial node disease ("SND"), is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.

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Simple squamous epithelium

A simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of flat cells in contact with the basal lamina (one of the two layers of the basement membrane) of the epithelium.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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Sinus rhythm

A sinus rhythm is any cardiac rhythm where depolarization of the cardiac muscle begins at the sinus node.

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Sinus venosus

The sinus venosus is a large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.

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Small cardiac vein

The small cardiac vein runs in the coronary sulcus between the right atrium and ventricle and opens into the right extremity of the coronary sinus.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium channel blocker

Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.

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A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

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Splanchnopleuric mesenchyme

In the anatomy of an embryo, the splanchnopleuric mesenchyme is a structure created during embryogenesis when the lateral mesodermal germ layer splits into two layers.

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Splinter hemorrhage

Splinter hemorrhages (or haemorrhages) are tiny blood clots that tend to run vertically under the nails.

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Split S2

A split S2 is a finding upon auscultation of the S2 heart sound.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.

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The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.

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The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.

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Striated muscle tissue

Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Stuffing, filling, or dressing, is an edible substance or mixture, often a starch, used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking.

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Sunao Tawara

was a Japanese pathologist known for the discovery of the atrioventricular node.

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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Sympathetic trunk

The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.

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A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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The teleosts or Teleostei (Greek: teleios, "complete" + osteon, "bone") are by far the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, and make up 96% of all extant species of fish.

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In musical terminology, tempo ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi) is the speed or pace of a given piece.

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a type of heart defect present at birth.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Joy of Cooking

Joy of Cooking, often known as "The Joy of Cooking", is one of the United States' most-published cookbooks.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Third eye

The third eye (also called the mind's eye, or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.

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Third heart sound

The third heart sound or S3 is a rare extra heart sound that occurs soon after the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).

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Thoracic diaphragm

For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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Thoracic ganglia

The thoracic ganglia are paravertebral ganglia.

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Thoracic vertebrae

In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

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Thoracoscopy is a medical procedure involving internal examination, biopsy, and/or resection of disease or masses within the pleural cavity and thoracic cavity.

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The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.

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Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Troponin I, cardiac muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI3 gene.

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The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Trabeculae carneae

The trabeculae carneae (columnae carneae, or meaty ridges), are rounded or irregular muscular columns which project from the inner surface of the right ventricle of the heart.

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Tracheobronchial lymph nodes

The tracheobronchial lymph nodes form four main groups.

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Transposition of the great vessels

Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is a group of congenital heart defects involving an abnormal spatial arrangement of any of the great vessels: superior and/or inferior venae cavae, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, and aorta.

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Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

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Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons.

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Troponin C

Troponin C is a part of the troponin complex.

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Tubular heart

The tubular heart or primitive heart tube is the earliest stage of heart development.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Unstable angina

Unstable angina (UA) is a type of angina pectoris that is irregular.

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Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

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Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14.

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Venae cavae

The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Ventricular assist device

A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.

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Ventricular fibrillation

Ventricular fibrillation (V-fib or VF) is when the heart quivers instead of pumping due to disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles.

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Ventricular septal defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.

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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.

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A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vladimir Demikhov

Vladimir Petrovich Demikhov (Влади́мир Петро́вич Де́михов; Khutor Kulikovsky, July 18, 1916 – Moscow, November 22, 1998) was a Soviet scientist and organ transplant pioneer, who performed several transplantations in the 1930s and 1950s, such as the transplantation of a heart into an animal and a lung-heart replacement in an animal.

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Voltage-gated calcium channel

Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.

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Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Willem Einthoven

Willem Einthoven (21 May 1860 – 29 September 1927) was a Dutch doctor and physiologist.

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPWS) is a disorder due to a specific type of problem with the electrical system of the heart which has resulted in symptoms.

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World Bank high-income economy

A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.

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is a Japanese type of skewered chicken.

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The zàng-fǔ organs are functional entities stipulated by Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart

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