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Heart failure

Index Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. [1]

233 relations: ABC (medicine), Abdominojugular test, ACE inhibitor, Actin, Acute decompensated heart failure, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Afterload, Alcohol, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic drink, Algorithm, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Hospital Association, Amyloidosis, Anasarca, Anemia, Angina, Angiography, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antimineralocorticoid, Aortic stenosis, Apex beat, Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous malformation, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Ascites, Asian people, Asystole, Atrial fibrillation, Auscultation, Behaviour therapy, Beta blocker, Blood pressure, Blood test, Blood urea nitrogen, Blood vessel, Brain natriuretic peptide, Bronchus, C-reactive protein, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac asthma, Cardiac contractility modulation, Cardiac marker, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Cardiology, Cardiomegaly, Cardiomyopathy, ..., Cardiovascular disease, Case fatality rate, Catheter, Central venous pressure, Cerebral edema, Chest pain, Chest radiograph, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Circulatory system, Cirrhosis, Clinical prediction rule, Coagulopathy, Cobalt, Cocaine, Complete blood count, Confusion, Congestive hepatopathy, Conivaptan, Connective tissue disease, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Coronary catheterization, Cough, Crackles, Cyanosis, Cyclophosphamide, Daunorubicin, Decompensation, Diabetes mellitus, Diet (nutrition), Digoxin, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Diuretic, Dizziness, Drinking water, Ebers Papyrus, Echocardiography, Edema, Ejection fraction, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, End-diastolic volume, European Society of Cardiology, Exercise, Exercise intolerance, Fatigue, Fluid balance, Food and Drug Administration, Framingham Heart Study, Frank–Starling law, Gallop rhythm, Gold standard (test), Heart, Heart (journal), Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, Heart murmur, Heart transplantation, Heart valve, Hemodynamics, Hepatomegaly, High-output heart failure, HIV/AIDS, Hospital, Human body weight, Hydralazine, Hydrops fetalis, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Hypoxemia, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Infection, Intracranial hemorrhage, Iron supplement, Ischemia, Isosorbide dinitrate, Jugular venous pressure, Kerley lines, Ketamine, Kidney failure, Lead, Left bundle branch block, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Life expectancy, List of chemotherapeutic agents, Liver function tests, Mechanical ventilation, Medical device, Medical history, Menopause, Meta-analysis, Metabolic equivalent, Methamphetamine, Mitral insufficiency, Multiple myeloma, Muscle contraction, Myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, Myosin, National Health Service, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nephrotic syndrome, New York Heart Association Functional Classification, Nitrovasodilator, Nocturia, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Obesity, Obstructive sleep apnea, Odds ratio, Orthopnea, Paget's disease of bone, Palliative care, Parasternal heave, Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, Percussion (medicine), Percutaneous coronary intervention, Peribronchial cuffing, Pericardium, Peripheral edema, Physical examination, Pleural cavity, Pleural effusion, Pneumonia, Potassium, Potassium-sparing diuretic, Power of attorney, Preload (cardiology), Presenting, Preventive healthcare, Pulmonary alveolus, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary heart disease, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonic stenosis, QRS complex, Quality of life, Renal function, Right ventricular hypertrophy, Sacrum, Salbutamol, Sequela, Shortness of breath, Smoking cessation, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Spironolactone, Stem-cell therapy, Stroke volume, Substance abuse, Swelling (medical), Systemic lupus erythematosus, Systole, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tamsulosin, Therapy, Thiamine, Thiamine deficiency, Thiazide-like diuretic, Thiazolidinedione, Third heart sound, Thyroid disease, Thyroid function tests, Trastuzumab, Ultrasound, Valvular heart disease, Vascular resistance, Vasopressin, Vasopressin receptor antagonist, Ventricle (heart), Ventricular assist device, Ventricular tachycardia, Vital capacity, Water retention (medicine), Weight loss, Wheeze, X-ray. Expand index (183 more) »

ABC (medicine)

ABC and its variations are initialism mnemonics for essential steps used by both medical professionals and lay persons (such as first aiders) when dealing with a patient.

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Abdominojugular test

The abdominojugular test or abdominojugular reflux (AJR) (historically known by the term hepatojugular reflux) is a physical examination test useful in diagnosing right ventricle dysfunction, particularly right ventricular failure.

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ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Acute decompensated heart failure

Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a sudden worsening of the signs and symptoms of heart failure, which typically includes difficulty breathing (dyspnea), leg or feet swelling, and fatigue.

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Acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.

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Afterload is the pressure against which the heart must work to eject blood during systole.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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American College of Cardiology

The American College of Cardiology (ACC), based in Washington, D.C., is a nonprofit medical association established in 1949.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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American Hospital Association

The American Hospital Association (AHA) is a professional association that seeks to promote quality health care provision by hospitals and health care networks through public policy and providing information about health care and health administration to health care providers and the public.

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Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.

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Anasarca, edema, is a medical condition characterized by widespread swelling of the skin due to effusion of fluid into the extracellular space.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.

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Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.

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An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.

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Aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.

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Apex beat

The apex beat (lat. ictus cordis), also called the apical impulse, is the pulse felt at the point of maximum impulse (PMI), which is the point on the precordium farthest outwards (laterally) and downwards (inferiorly) from the sternum at which the cardiac impulse can be felt.

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Arteriovenous fistula

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.

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Arteriovenous malformation

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Asystole (1860, from Modern Latin, from Greek privative a "not, without" + systolē "contraction") is the absence of ventricular contractions.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.

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Behaviour therapy

Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood urea nitrogen

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Brain natriuretic peptide

Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide, is a hormone secreted by cardiomyocytes in the heart ventricles in response to stretching caused by increased ventricular blood volume.

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A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.

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Cardiac asthma

Cardiac asthma is a medical diagnosis of wheezing, coughing or shortness of breath due to congestive heart failure.

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Cardiac contractility modulation

Cardiac contractility modulation is a name of a therapy developed by Impulse Dynamics NV, who implements the therapy within its implantable devices, under the brand name CCM™. This therapy is intended for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe heart failure (NYHA class II–IV) with symptoms despite optimal medical therapy who can benefit from an improvement in cardiac output.

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Cardiac marker

Cardiac markers are biomarkers measured to evaluate heart function.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Cardiac resynchronization therapy

An implanted cardiac resynchronization device is a medical device used in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Case fatality rate

In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.

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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.

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Central venous pressure

Central venous pressure (CVP) is the blood pressure in the venae cavae, near the right atrium of the heart.

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Chest pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Clinical prediction rule

A clinical prediction rule is a type of medical research study in which researchers try to identify the best combination of medical sign, symptoms, and other findings in predicting the probability of a specific disease or outcome.

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A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy, also known as nutmeg liver and chronic passive congestion of the liver, is liver dysfunction due to venous congestion, usually due to congestive heart failure.

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Conivaptan (YM 087, brand name Vaprisol) is a non-peptide inhibitor of arginine vasopressin (AVP)receptor.

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Connective tissue disease

A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Coronary catheterization

A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.

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A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

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Crackles, crepitations, or rales are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory disease during inhalation.

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Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.

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Daunorubicin, also known as daunomycin, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

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In medicine, decompensation is the functional deterioration of a structure or system that had been previously working with the help of allostatic compensation.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood effectively.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Ejection fraction

An ejection fraction (EF) is the volumetric fraction of fluid (usually blood) ejected from a chamber (usually the heart) with each contraction (or heartbeat).

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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End-diastolic volume

In cardiovascular physiology, end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the right and/or left ventricle at end load or filling in (diastole) or the amount of blood in the ventricles just before systole.

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European Society of Cardiology

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is a non-profit knowledge-based professional association that facilitates the improvement and harmonization of standards of diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exercise intolerance

Exercise intolerance is a condition of inability or decreased ability to perform physical exercise at what would be considered to be the normally expected level or duration.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fluid balance

Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Framingham Heart Study

The Framingham Heart Study is a long-term, ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of the city of Framingham, Massachusetts.

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Frank–Starling law

The Frank–Starling law of the heart (also known as Starling's law and the Frank–Starling mechanism) represents the relationship between stroke volume and end diastolic volume.

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Gallop rhythm

A gallop rhythm refers to a (usually abnormal) rhythm of the heart on auscultation.

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Gold standard (test)

In medicine and statistics, gold standard test is usually diagnostic test or benchmark that is the best available under reasonable conditions.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart (journal)

Heart is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all areas of cardiovascular medicine and surgery.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a form of congestive heart failure where in the amount of blood pumped from the heart's left ventricle with each beat (ejection fraction) is greater than 50%.

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Heart murmur

Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.

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Heart transplantation

A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.

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Heart valve

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.

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Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.

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Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.

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High-output heart failure

High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Hydralazine, sold under the brand name Apresoline among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.

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Hydrops fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is a condition in the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at least two fetal compartments.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a condition in which a portion of the heart becomes thickened without an obvious cause.

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Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.

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Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) is a device implantable inside the body, able to perform cardioversion, defibrillation, and (in modern versions) pacing of the heart.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Intracranial hemorrhage

Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.

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Iron supplement

Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Isosorbide dinitrate

Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is a medication used for heart failure, esophageal spasms, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart.

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Jugular venous pressure

The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.

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Kerley lines

Kerley lines are a sign seen on chest radiographs with interstitial pulmonary edema.

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Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Left bundle branch block

Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a cardiac conduction abnormality seen on the electrocardiogram (ECG).

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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of chemotherapeutic agents

This is a list of chemotherapeutic agents (also known as cytotoxic agents) that are known to be of use in chemotherapy for cancer.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Mechanical ventilation

Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.

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Medical device

A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Metabolic equivalent

The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1 or approximately: \text\.

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Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Mitral insufficiency

Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.

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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.

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New York Heart Association Functional Classification

The New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification provides a simple way of classifying the extent of heart failure.

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A nitrovasodilator is a pharmaceutical agent that causes vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) by donation of nitric oxide (NO), and is mostly used for the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris.

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Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as “the complaint that the individual has to wake at night one or more times for voiding (i.e. to urinate).” Its causes are varied and, in many patients, difficult to discern.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.

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Odds ratio

In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.

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Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.

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Paget's disease of bone

Paget's disease of bone (commonly known as Paget's disease or historically, osteitis deformans) is a condition involving cellular remodeling and deformity of one or more bones.

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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Parasternal heave

A parasternal heave is a precordial impulse that may be felt (palpated) in patients with cardiac or respiratory disease.

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Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night.

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Percussion (medicine)

Percussion is a method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure, and is used in clinical examinations to assess the condition of the thorax or abdomen.

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Percutaneous coronary intervention

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

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Peribronchial cuffing

Peribronchial cuffing, also referred to as peribronchial thickening or bronchial wall thickening, is a radiologic sign which occurs when excess fluid or mucus buildup in the small airway passages of the lung causes localized patches of atelectasis (lung collapse).

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The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

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Peripheral edema

Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Pleural cavity

The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.

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Pleural effusion

A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium-sparing diuretic

Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine.

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Power of attorney

A power of attorney (POA) or letter of attorney is a written authorization to represent or act on another's behalf in private affairs, business, or some other legal matter.

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Preload (cardiology)

In cardiac physiology, preload is the end diastolic volume that stretches the right or left ventricle of the heart to its greatest dimensions under variable physiologic demand.

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In medicine, the term presenting means not only present, but seen.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Pulmonary alveolus

A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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Pulmonary heart disease

Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale, is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs.

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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.

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Pulmonic stenosis

Pulmonic stenosis, also known as pulmonary stenosis, is a dynamic or fixed obstruction of flow from the right ventricle of the heart to the pulmonary artery.

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QRS complex

The QRS complex is a name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Right ventricular hypertrophy

Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle.

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The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.

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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Smoking cessation

Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Stem-cell therapy

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

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Stroke volume

In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Swelling (medical)

In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area not caused by proliferation of cells.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.

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Tamsulosin, sold under the trade name Alna ® / Flomax ®, is a medication used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis, help with the passage of kidney stones, and for urinary retention along with other measures.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Thiamine deficiency

Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).

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Thiazide-like diuretic

A thiazide-like diuretic is a sulfonamide diuretic that has similar physiological properties to a thiazide diuretic, but does not have the chemical properties of a thiazide, lacking the benzothiadiazine molecular structure.

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The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.

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Third heart sound

The third heart sound or S3 is a rare extra heart sound that occurs soon after the normal two "lub-dub" heart sounds (S1 and S2).

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Thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).

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Thyroid function tests

Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.

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Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.

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Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

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Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.

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Vasopressin receptor antagonist

A vasopressin receptor antagonist (VRA) is an agent that interferes with action at the vasopressin receptors.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Ventricular assist device

A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.

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Ventricular tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach or VT) is a type of regular and fast heart rate that arises from improper electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart.

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Vital capacity

Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.

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Water retention (medicine)

The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_failure

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