121 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal aorta, Accelerans nerve, Acetylcholine, Acidosis, Adrenal medulla, Adrenergic receptor, Aerobic exercise, Alkalosis, American Heart Association, Anatomical terms of location, Anxiety, Artery, Athlete, Atrial fibrillation, Atrioventricular node, Auscultation, Autonomic nervous system, Bainbridge reflex, Baroreceptor, Basal metabolic rate, Brachial artery, Bradycardia, Bundle of His, Caffeine, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiac plexus, Cardiac stress test, Cardiovascular centre, Carotid artery, Catecholamine, Central nervous system, Chemoreceptor, Depolarization, Depressant, Diagnosis, Disease, Dorsalis pedis artery, Drug, Elbow, Electrocardiography, Electrode, Elsevier, Embryo, Endorphins, Exercise, Facial artery, Femoral artery, ..., Groin, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart development, Heart rate monitor, Homeothermy, Hormone, Human body, Hypercalcaemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypernatremia, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypothermia, Hypothyroidism, Hypoxia (medical), Indiana University Bloomington, Intensive care medicine, Ketamine, Limbic system, Lung, Malleolus, Medulla oblongata, Menstrual cycle, Miguel Induráin, Myocyte, Neck, Neuromuscular junction, Nicotine, Norepinephrine, Ogg, Oxygen, Palpitations, Panic attack, Parasympathetic nervous system, Polar Electro, Popliteal artery, Posterior auricular artery, Posterior tibial artery, Prognosis, Proprioception, Psychological stress, Pulse, Pulse oximetry, Radial artery, Sedative, Sinoatrial node, Sinus rhythm, Sleep, Standard deviation, Stethoscope, Stimulant, Stroke volume, Substituted amphetamine, Superficial temporal artery, Sympathetic nervous system, Tachycardia, Temperate climate, Temple (anatomy), Thyroid hormones, Tour de France, Treadmill, Triiodothyronine, Ulnar artery, University of Missouri, Vagus nerve, VO2 max, Wrist. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.
The accelerans nerves are the nerves responsible for speed up heart rate, resulting in an increased bloodflow.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.
Auscultation (based on the Latin verb auscultare "to listen") is listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The Bainbridge reflex, also called the atrial reflex, is an increase in heart rate due to an increase in central venous pressure.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
The bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.
Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.
The cardiac plexus is a plexus of nerves situated at the base of the heart that innervates the heart.
A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment.
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.
Carotid artery may refer to.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
In human anatomy, the dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endorphins (contracted from "endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides and peptide hormones in humans and other animals.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face.
The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.
In human anatomy, the groin (the adjective is inguinal, as in inguinal canal) is the junctional area (also known as the inguinal region) between the abdomen and the thigh on either side of the pubic bone.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Heart development refers to the prenatal development of the human heart.
A heart rate monitor is a personal monitoring device that allows one to measure one's heart rate in real time or record the heart rate for later study.
Homeothermy or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Indiana University Bloomington (abbreviated "IU Bloomington" and colloquially referred to as "IU" or simply "Indiana") is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
Miguel Induráin Larraya (born 16 July 1964) is a retired Spanish road racing cyclist.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Polar Electro Oy (globally known as Polar) is a manufacturer of sports training computers, particularly known for developing the world's first wireless heart rate monitor.
The popliteal artery is a deeply placed continuation of the femoral artery after it passes through the adductor hiatus, or opening in the distal portion of the adductor magnus muscle.
The posterior auricular artery is a small artery that arises from the external carotid artery, above the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle, opposite the apex of the styloid process.
The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery via the tibial-fibular trunk.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.
A sinus rhythm is any cardiac rhythm where depolarization of the cardiac muscle begins at the sinus node.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
In human anatomy, the superficial temporal artery is a major artery of the head.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running or climbing while staying in the same place.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
The ulnar artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the medial aspect of the forearm.
The University of Missouri (also, Mizzou, or MU) is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
VO2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise (exercise of increasing intensity).
In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;Behnke 2006, p. 76. "The wrist contains eight bones, roughly aligned in two rows, known as the carpal bones."Moore 2006, p. 485. "The wrist (carpus), the proximal segment of the hand, is a complex of eight carpal bones. The carpus articulates proximally with the forearm at the wrist joint and distally with the five metacarpals. The joints formed by the carpus include the wrist (radiocarpal joint), intercarpal, carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints. Augmenting movement at the wrist joint, the rows of carpals glide on each other " (2) the wrist joint or radiocarpal joint, the joint between the radius and the carpus and (3) the anatomical region surrounding the carpus including the distal parts of the bones of the forearm and the proximal parts of the metacarpus or five metacarpal bones and the series of joints between these bones, thus referred to as wrist joints.Behnke 2006, p. 77. "With the large number of bones composing the wrist (ulna, radius, eight carpas, and five metacarpals), it makes sense that there are many, many joints that make up the structure known as the wrist."Baratz 1999, p. 391. "The wrist joint is composed of not only the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints but also the intercarpal articulations." This region also includes the carpal tunnel, the anatomical snuff box, bracelet lines, the flexor retinaculum, and the extensor retinaculum. As a consequence of these various definitions, fractures to the carpal bones are referred to as carpal fractures, while fractures such as distal radius fracture are often considered fractures to the wrist.
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