118 relations: Adiabatic process, Advection, An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction, Annalen der Physik, Benjamin Thompson, Brian Pippard, British thermal unit, Caloric theory, Calorie, Calorimetry, Center of mass, Chemical engineering, Chemical substance, Clifford Truesdell, Closed system, Constantin Carathéodory, Convective heat transfer, Degrees of freedom, Edward A. Guggenheim, Effect of Sun angle on climate, Elsevier, Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, Entropy production, Equipartition theorem, Ernst Mach, Evgeny Lifshitz, Exact differential, Fire (classical element), First law of thermodynamics, Francis Bacon, Fundamental thermodynamic relation, George H. Bryan, Glass, Heat death of the universe, Heat engine, Heat equation, Heat exchanger, Heat flux, Heat flux sensor, Heat pump, Heat transfer, Heat transfer coefficient, Heat wave, Herbert Callen, History of heat, Ilya Prigogine, Inexact differential, Internal energy, ..., International System of Units, J. R. Partington, Jaakko Hintikka, James Clerk Maxwell, James Prescott Joule, James Serrin, John Tyndall, Joseph Black, Josiah Wedgwood, Joule, Kinetic energy, Kinetic theory of gases, Latent heat, Legendre transformation, Leonard Benedict Loeb, Lev Landau, Liquid crystal, Longman, Mass transfer, Max Born, Max Planck, Measurement, Mechanical engineering, Mechanical equivalent of heat, Mole (unit), Nicolas Clément, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Orders of magnitude (temperature), Peter Atkins, Peter Mazur, Phase (matter), Phase rule, Phase transition, Phlogiston theory, Physical quantity, Plasma (physics), Potential energy, Primitive notion, Process function, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, Relativistic heat conduction, Rudolf Clausius, Second law of thermodynamics, Sensible heat, Shock wave, Sigma heat, State function, State of matter, Statistical mechanics, Stochastic, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Temperature, Theory of heat, Thermal conduction, Thermal energy, Thermal management (electronics), Thermal radiation, Thermoception, Thermodynamic operation, Thermodynamic potential, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamics, Thermometer, Waste heat, Watt, Work (physics), Work (thermodynamics), Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
In the field of physics, engineering, and earth sciences, advection is the transport of a substance by bulk motion.
"An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Source of the Heat which is Excited by Friction" (1798), which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, is a scientific paper by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford that provided a substantial challenge to established theories of heat and began the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, FRS (Reichsgraf von Rumford; March 26, 1753August 21, 1814) was an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution in thermodynamics.
Sir Alfred Brian Pippard, FRS (7 September 1920 – 21 September 2008), was a British physicist.
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a self-repellent fluid called caloric that flows from hotter bodies to colder bodies.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Clifford Ambrose Truesdell III (February 18, 1919 – January 14, 2000) was an American mathematician, natural philosopher, and historian of science.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
Constantin Carathéodory (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή Konstantinos Karatheodori; 13 September 1873 – 2 February 1950) was a Greek mathematician who spent most of his professional career in Germany.
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.
In many scientific fields, the degrees of freedom of a system is the number of parameters of the system that may vary independently.
Edward Armand Guggenheim FRS (11 August 1901 in Manchester – 9 August 1970) was an English physical chemist, noted for his contributions to thermodynamics.
The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of Sun angle on climate, as the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth varies by location, time of day, and season due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Earth's rotation around its tilted axis.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Entropy production determines the performance of thermal machines such as power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, heat pumps, and air conditioners.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Евге́ний Миха́йлович Ли́фшиц; February 21, 1915, Kharkov, Russian Empire – October 29, 1985, Moscow, Russian SFSR) was a leading Soviet physicist and the brother of physicist Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz.
In multivariate calculus, a differential is said to be exact or perfect, as contrasted with an inexact differential, if it is of the form dQ, for some differentiable function Q.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
In thermodynamics, the fundamental thermodynamic relation is generally expressed as a microscopic change in internal energy in terms of microscopic changes in entropy, and volume for a closed system in thermal equilibrium in the following way.
George Hartley Bryan FRS (1 March 1864, Cambridge – 13 October 1928, Bordighera) was an English applied mathematician who was an authority on thermodynamics and aeronautics.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The heat death of the universe is a plausible ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time.
A heat flux sensor is a transducer that generates an electrical signal proportional to the total heat rate applied to the surface of the sensor.
A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a "heat sink".
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
The heat transfer coefficient or film coefficient, or film effectiveness, in thermodynamics and in mechanics is the proportionality constant between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, ΔT): The overall heat transfer rate for combined modes is usually expressed in terms of an overall conductance or heat transfer coefficient, U. In that case, the heat transfer rate is: where: The general definition of the heat transfer coefficient is: where: It is used in calculating the heat transfer, typically by convection or phase transition between a fluid and a solid.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Herbert Bernard Callen (1919 – May 22, 1993) was an American physicist best known as the author of the textbook Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics, the most frequently cited thermodynamic reference in physics research literature.
The history of heat has a prominent place in the history of science.
Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.
An inexact differential or imperfect differential is a specific type of differential used in thermodynamics to express the path dependence of a particular differential.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
James Riddick Partington (30 June 1886 – 9 October 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry who published multiple books and articles in scientific magazines.
Kaarlo Jaakko Juhani Hintikka (12 January 1929 – 12 August 2015) was a Finnish philosopher and logician.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
James Burton Serrin (1 November 1926, Chicago, Illinois – 23 August 2012, Minneapolis, Minnesota) was an American mathematician, and a professor at University of Minnesota.
John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th-century physicist.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
In mathematics and physics, the Legendre transformation, named after Adrien-Marie Legendre, is an involutive transformation on the real-valued convex functions of one real variable.
Leonard Benedict Loeb (September 16, 1891 – June 17, 1978) was a Swiss-born American physicist.
Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.
Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
In the history of science, the mechanical equivalent of heat states that motion and heat are mutually interchangeable and that in every case, a given amount of work would generate the same amount of heat, provided the work done is totally converted to heat energy.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Nicolas Clément (12 January 1779 – 21 November 1841), also known as Mr.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.
Peter William Atkins (born 10 August 1940) is an English chemist and former Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Lincoln College.
Peter Mazur (b. Vienna, Austria, December 11, 1922 – d. Lausanne, Switzerland, August 15, 2001) was an Austrian-born, Dutch physicist and one of the founders of the field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Gibbs' phase rule Chapter 6 was proposed by Josiah Willard Gibbs in his landmark paper titled On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, published from 1875 to 1878.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
In mathematics, logic, and formal systems, a primitive notion is an undefined concept.
In thermodynamics, a quantity that is well defined so as to describe the path of a process through the equilibrium state space of a thermodynamic system is termed a process function, or, alternatively, a process quantity, or a path function.
Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire and on Machines Fitted to Develop that Power is a book published in 1824 by French physicist Sadi Carnot.
Relativistic heat conduction refers to the modelling of heat conduction (and similar diffusion processes) in a way not compatible with special relativity.
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Sigma heat, denoted S, is a measure of the specific energy of humid air.
In thermodynamics, a state function or function of state is a function defined for a system relating several state variables or state quantities that depends only on the current equilibrium state of the system, for example a gas, a liquid, a solid, crystal, or emulsion.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In the problem of science, the theory of heat or mechanical theory of heat was a theory, introduced in 1798 by Sir Benjamin Thompson (better known as 'Count Rumford'), and developed more thoroughly in 1824 by the French physicist Sadi Carnot, that heat and mechanical work are equivalent.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thermoception or thermoreception is the sense by which an organism perceives temperature, or more accurately, temperature differences inferred from heat flux.
A thermodynamic operation is an externally imposed manipulation or change of connection or wall between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
A thermodynamic potential (in fact, rather energyISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.4 Helmholtz energy, Helmholtz function, ISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.5, Gibbs energy, Gibbs function than potential) is a scalar quantity used to represent the thermodynamic state of a system.
A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.
The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.