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Heat exchanger

Index Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. [1]

144 relations: Abrasive blasting, Air conditioning, Aircraft engine, Aluminium, Ammonia, Anaerobic digestion, Antifreeze, Architectural engineering, Atmosphere of Earth, Baffle (heat transfer), Baleen whale, Biocide, Biofouling, Boiler, Brazing, Brewery, Bubble column reactor, Bulk tank, Carbon steel, Ceramic, Cheetah, Chemical engineering, Chemical plant, Chemical substance, Chiller, Condensation, Condenser (heat transfer), Cooling capacity, Cooling tower, Copper in heat exchangers, Countercurrent exchange, Crystallization, Differential equation, Distillation, Distillation Design, Drag (physics), Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger, Eddy current, Energy, Energy conservation, Engineer, Evaporation, Evaporator, Fish, Fluid, Fouling, Friction, Furnace, Gas turbine, Gasket, ..., Heat capacity, Heat equation, Heat pipe, Heat pump, Heat recovery ventilation, Heat sink, Heater core, Helium, Helix, Humidifier, HVAC, Hydraulic diameter, Impurity, India, Internal combustion engine, Internally grooved copper tube, Jacketed vessel, Laminar flow, Ledinegg instability, Liquid, Liquid metal cooled reactor, List of alloys, Logarithmic mean temperature difference, Marine heat exchangers, Marine mammal, Mechanical engineering, Micro heat exchanger, Moving bed heat exchanger, Natural-gas processing, Newton's law of cooling, NTU method, Nuclear power, Oil refinery, Operating temperature, Oven, Oxygen, Packed bed, Pampiniform venous plexus, Pentafluoropropane, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Petrochemical, Phase (matter), Plate heat exchanger, Polymer, Power station, Pressure, Pressure washing, Pressurized water reactor, Psychrometrics, Pumpable ice technology, Radiator, Rankine cycle, Reboiler, Recuperator, Refrigerant, Refrigeration, Regenerative heat exchanger, Run-around coil, Scott Haraburda, Sewage treatment, Shell and tube heat exchanger, Sodium-cooled fast reactor, Space heater, Spiral, Stainless steel, Steam, Steam generator (nuclear power), Surface condenser, Tangent, Thermal efficiency, Thermal wheel, Thermosiphon, Thomson's gazelle, Titanium, Toluene, Toroidal expansion joint, Tube (fluid conveyance), Tube tool, Tubular NDT, Turbine, Ungulate, United States, Vapor, Vapor-compression refrigeration, Viscosity, Waste heat, Waste heat recovery unit, Wastewater treatment, Water, Water cooling, Water jet cutter, Water treatment, Whale, Wine. Expand index (94 more) »

Abrasive blasting

Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.

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Air conditioning

Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.

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Aircraft engine

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a collection of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

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An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid and increases its boiling point.

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Architectural engineering

Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Baffle (heat transfer)

Baffles are flow-directing or obstructing vanes or panels used in some industrial process vessels (tanks), such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reactors, and static mixers.

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Baleen whale

Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).

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A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.

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Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.

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A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.

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Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.

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A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer.

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Bubble column reactor

A bubble column reactor is an apparatus used to generate and control gas-liquid chemical reactions.

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Bulk tank

In dairy farming a bulk milk cooling tank is a large storage tank for cooling and holding milk at a cold temperature until it can be picked up by a milk hauler.

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Carbon steel

Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

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Chemical engineering

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.

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Chemical plant

A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle.

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Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.

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Condenser (heat transfer)

In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it.

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Cooling capacity

Cooling capacity is the measure of a cooling system's ability to remove heat.

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Cooling tower

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.

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Copper in heat exchangers

Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat in order to achieve desired heating or cooling.

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Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.

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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Distillation Design

Distillation Design is a book which provides complete coverage of the design of industrial distillation columns for the petroleum refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger

The dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger (DSSHE) was designed to face some problems found in other types of heat exchangers.

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Eddy current

Eddy currents (also called Foucault currents) are loops of electrical current induced within conductors by a changing magnetic field in the conductor due to Faraday's law of induction.

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In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.

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Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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An evaporator is a device in a process used to turn the liquid form of a chemical substance such as water into its gaseous-form/vapor.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.

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Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

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A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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Heat equation

The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time.

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Heat pipe

A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that combines the principles of both thermal conductivity and phase transition to effectively transfer heat between two solid interfaces.

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Heat pump

A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to what is called a "heat sink".

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Heat recovery ventilation

Heat recovery ventilation (HRV), also known as mechanical ventilation heat recovery (MVHR), is an energy recovery ventilation system using equipment known as a heat recovery ventilator, heat exchanger, air exchanger, or air-to-air heat exchanger which employs a cross flow or counter-flow heat exchanger (countercurrent heat exchange) between the inbound and outbound air flow.

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Heat sink

A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.

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Heater core

A heater core is a radiator-like device used in heating the cabin of a vehicle.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.

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A humidifier is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire building.

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Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.

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Hydraulic diameter

The hydraulic diameter,, is a commonly used term when handling flow in non-circular tubes and channels.

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Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

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Internally grooved copper tube

Internally grooved copper tubes also known as "microfin tubes" are a small diameter coil technology for modern air conditioning and refrigeration systems.

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Jacketed vessel

In chemical engineering, a jacketed vessel is a container that is designed for controlling temperature of its contents, by using a cooling or heating "jacket" around the vessel through which a cooling or heating fluid is circulated.

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Laminar flow

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.

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Ledinegg instability

In fluid dynamics, the Ledinegg instability occurs in two-phase flow, especially in a boiler tube, when the boiling boundary is within the tube.

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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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Liquid metal cooled reactor

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal.

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List of alloys

This is a list of named alloys grouped alphabetically by base metal.

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Logarithmic mean temperature difference

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature difference or simply by its initialism LMTD) is used to determine the temperature driving force for heat transfer in flow systems, most notably in heat exchangers.

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Marine heat exchangers

Marine heat exchangers are no different than non-marine heat exchangers except for the simple fact that they are found aboard ships.

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Marine mammal

Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.

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Mechanical engineering

Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.

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Micro heat exchanger

Micro heat exchangers, Micro-scale heat exchangers, or microstructured heat exchangers are heat exchangers in which (at least one) fluid flows in lateral confinements with typical dimensions below 1 mm.

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Moving bed heat exchanger

Moving Bed Heat Exchangers (known as MBHEs) are widely used in industry, on applications involving heat recovery (providing a high volumetric transfer area) and filtering (avoiding common operational problems in fixed bed or ceramic filters like the pressure drop increase during operation).

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Natural-gas processing

Natural-gas processing is a complex industrial process designed to clean raw natural gas by separating impurities and various non-methane hydrocarbons and fluids to produce what is known as pipeline quality dry natural gas.

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Newton's law of cooling

Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings provided the temperature difference is small and the nature of radiating surface remains same. As such, it is equivalent to a statement that the heat transfer coefficient, which mediates between heat losses and temperature differences, is a constant.

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NTU method

The Number of Transfer Units (NTU) Method is used to calculate the rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers (especially counter current exchangers) when there is insufficient information to calculate the Log-Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD).

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Packed bed

In chemical processing, a packed bed is a hollow tube, pipe, or other vessel that is filled with a packing material.

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Pampiniform venous plexus

The pampiniform plexus (from Latin pampinus, a tendril, + forma, form) is a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord and to a lesser extent the suspensory ligament of the ovary.

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1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) is a hydrofluorocarbon used primarily for closed-cell spray foam insulation produced by Honeywell and in Asia by Sinochem.

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Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook

Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (also known as Perry's Handbook, Perry's, or The Chemical Engineer's Bible) was first published in 1934 and the most current eighth edition was published in October 2007.

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Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Plate heat exchanger

A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Power station

A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Pressure washing

Pressure washing or power washing is the use of high-pressure water spray to remove loose paint, mold, grime, dust, mud, chewing gum and dirt from surfaces and objects such as buildings, vehicles and concrete surfaces.

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Pressurized water reactor

Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).

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Psychrometrics, psychrometry, and hygrometry are names for the field of engineering concerned with the physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures.

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Pumpable ice technology

Pumpable ice (PI) technology is a technology to produce and use fluids or secondary refrigerants, also called coolants, with the viscosity of water or jelly and the cooling capacity of ice.

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Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating.

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Rankine cycle

The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems.

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Reboilers are heat exchangers typically used to provide heat to the bottom of industrial distillation columns.

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A recuperator is a special purpose counter-flow energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the waste heat.

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A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.

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Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.

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Regenerative heat exchanger

A regenerative heat exchanger, or more commonly a regenerator, is a type of heat exchanger where heat from the hot fluid is intermittently stored in a thermal storage medium before it is transferred to the cold fluid.

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Run-around coil

air handling units on the roof of an office building A run-around coil is a type of energy recovery heat exchanger most often positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, to recover the heat energy.

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Scott Haraburda

Scott Stanley Haraburda is an American soldier, engineer, inventor, and 2nd dan judoka.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shell and tube heat exchanger

A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs.

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Sodium-cooled fast reactor

The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a Generation IV reactor project to design an advanced fast neutron reactor.

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Space heater

A space heater is a device used to heat a single, small area.

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In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a point, moving farther away as it revolves around the point.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.

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Steam generator (nuclear power)

Steam generators are heat exchangers used to convert water into steam from heat produced in a nuclear reactor core.

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Surface condenser

A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power stations.

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In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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Thermal wheel

A thermal wheel, also known as a rotary heat exchanger, or rotary air-to-air enthalpy wheel, or heat recovery wheel, is a type of energy recovery heat exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air-handling system or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to recover the heat energy.

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Thermosiphon (or thermosyphon) is a method of passive heat exchange, based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical pump.

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Thomson's gazelle

Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsonii) is one of the best-known gazelles.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Toroidal expansion joint

A Toroidal expansion joint is a metallic assembly that consists of a series of toroidal convolutions which are circular tubes wrapped around pipe ends or weld ends and have a gap at the inside diameter to allow for axial stroke while absorbing changes in expansion or contraction of the pipe line.

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Tube (fluid conveyance)

A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used for moving fluids (liquids or gases) or to protect electrical or optical cables and wires.

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Tube tool

Tube tools are tools used to service any tubing (material) in industrial applications including, but not limited to: HVAC or industrial heating and air (hospitals and universities, for example), OEM's(Original equipment manufacturer), defense contractors, the automotive industry, process industries, aluminum smelting facilities, food and sugar production plants, oil refineries, and power plants.

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Tubular NDT

Tubular NDT (nondestructive testing) is the application of various technologies to detect anomalies such as corrosion and manufacturing defects in metallic tubes.

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A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.

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Vapor-compression refrigeration

Vapor-compression refrigeration or vapor-compression refrigeration system (VCRS), in which the refrigerant undergoes phase changes, is one of the many refrigeration cycles and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning of buildings and automobiles.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Waste heat

Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.

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Waste heat recovery unit

A waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that transfers heat from process outputs at high temperature to another part of the process for some purpose, usually increased efficiency.

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Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water cooling

Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment.

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Water jet cutter

A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.

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Water treatment

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.

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Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger

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