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# Heat flux

Heat flux or thermal flux, sometimes also referred to as heat flux density or heat flow rate intensity is a flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time. [1]

## Del

Del, or nabla, is an operator used in mathematics, in particular in vector calculus, as a vector differential operator, usually represented by the nabla symbol &nabla;.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

## First law of thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

## Flux

Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

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## Heat flux sensor

A heat flux sensor is a transducer that generates an electrical signal proportional to the total heat rate applied to the surface of the sensor.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Latent heat

Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.

## Monte Carlo integration

In mathematics, Monte Carlo integration is a technique for numerical integration using random numbers.

In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.

## Rate of heat flow

The rate of heat flow between two systems is measured in watts (joules per second).

## Relativistic heat conduction

Relativistic heat conduction refers to the modelling of heat conduction (and similar diffusion processes) in a way not compatible with special relativity.

## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

## Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

## Square metre

The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.

## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

## Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

## Thermoelectric effect

The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple.

## Thermopile

A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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## References

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