516 relations: ABC-CLIO, Abhay Ashtekar, Abundance of the chemical elements, Academic Press, Actinide, Actinium, Age of the universe, Agrochemical, Alessandro Volta, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Aluminium, American Institute for Conservation, American Physical Society, Americium, Ammonium, Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, Anode, Anti-corrosion, Anticancer Research, Antimalarial medication, Antimony, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Archaea, Argon, Arsenic, Artillery, ASM International (society), Astatine, Astronomy, Atomic battery, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Aubrey Trotman-Dickenson, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Axel Springer SE, Ballast, Barium, Bento Rodrigues dam disaster, Berkelium, Beryllium, Beta decay, Bioaccumulation, Biochemistry, Biocide, Birth defect, Bismuth, Block (periodic table), ..., Bohrium, Boron, Boron group, Brass, Brian Clegg (writer), Bright-field microscopy, British Medical Bulletin, British Occupational Hygiene Society, Bromine, Bulletin for the History of Chemistry, Button cell, Cadmium, Cadmium telluride, Caesium, Calcium, Californium, Cambridge University Press, Capacitor, Car, Carbon, Carbon group, Carcinogen, Carlos Prieto (cellist), Catalysis, CBS News, Cell growth, Cengage, Central nervous system, Centrifugal clutch, Ceramic glaze, Cerium, Cerium oxide, Chalcogen, Chapman & Hall, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical element, Chemical hazard, Chemical property, Chemical reaction, Chemical Research in Toxicology, Chemistry Central, Chemistry of Materials, Chemistry World, Chemotherapy, Chlorine, Chromium, Cisplatin, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cobalt, Cofactor (biochemistry), Coinage metals, Colored gold, Composition of the human body, Cooling tower, Coordination complex, Copernicium, Copper, Copper sulfate, Corrosion, Costume jewelry, Covalent bond, Crankshaft, CRC Press, Creep (deformation), Crystallite, CSIRO Publishing, Curium, D. Reidel, Darmstadtium, Density, Diatom, Die Pharmazie, DNA, Domestic roof construction, Dubnium, Ductility, Dysprosium, Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Einsteinium, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical wiring, Electrode, Electron density, Electron transport chain, Electronegativity, Electronic component, Electrowinning, Elsevier, Endocrine system, Environmental chemistry, Environmental impact of paint, Environmental Pollution (journal), Environmental Science & Technology, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Environmentally friendly, Enzyme, Ephraim Chambers, Erbium, Erosion, Europium, Evaporation (deposition), Explosively formed penetrator, Federal government of the United States, Fermium, Fire protection engineering, Flat panel display, Flerovium, Flint water crisis, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorine, Fly fishing, Francium, Fritz Ullmann, Fuel pump, Fungicide, Gadolinium, Gallium, Gallium arsenide, Gasoline, Geomorphology, George K. 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Weart, Springer Publishing, Springer Science+Business Media, Staining, Starter (engine), Steel, Stellar mass loss, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Strontium, Sulfide, Sulfide minerals, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Surface runoff, Switch, Synthetic rubber, Tailings, Tantalum, Tantalum pentoxide, Tattoo, Taylor & Francis, Technetium, Telluric iron, Tellurium, Tennessine, Terbium, Tetraethyllead, Thallium, Thanu Padmanabhan, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Thermal expansion, Thiol, Thomson Corporation, Thorium, Thorium(IV) sulfide, Thulium, Tidal force, Tim McCreight, Tin, Tin can, Tin(IV) Oxide, Tire balance, Titanium, Tonne, Toxic heavy metal, Toxicity, Track (rail transport), Track and field, Transition metal, Transmission electron microscopy, Transportation Research Board, Transuranium element, Tungsten, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Ultimate tensile strength, Underwater diving, United States Department of the Interior, United States Department of the Navy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, United States Pharmacopeia, University of Texas Press, Uranium, Uranium monosulfide, Vanadium, Vanadium(V) oxide, Vincent Di Maio, Vitamin B12, Voltage controller, Voltaic pile, W. H. Freeman and Company, Water, Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley-VCH, William Kenneth Hartmann, Wood preservation, Woodhead Publishing, World Bank Group, World Scientific, X-ray tube, Xenon, Yale University Press, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zinc, Zirconium. Expand index (466 more) » « Shrink index
ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.
Abhay Vasant Ashtekar (born July 5, 1949) is an Indian theoretical physicist.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) is a national membership organization of conservation professionals, headquartered in Washington D.C..
The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of clinical biochemistry.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anti-corrosion refers to the protection of metal surfaces from corroding in high-risk (corrosive) environments.
Anticancer Research is an independent international peer-reviewed medical journal published by the, addressing experimental and clinical topics in oncology.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers.
Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with symbol At and atomic number 85.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
The Atomic Energy Research Establishment, known as AERE or colloquially Harwell Laboratory, near Harwell, Oxfordshire, was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
Sir Aubrey Fiennes Trotman-Dickenson (12 February 1926 – 11 November 2016) was a British chemist and academic administrator.
The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is a statutory body of the Australian government, formed in 1987 to replace the Australian Atomic Energy Commission.
Axel Springer SE is the largest digital publishing house in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, and Fakt and more than 15,000 employees.
Ballast is material that is used to provide stability to a vehicle or structure.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
The Bento Rodrigues dam disaster occurred on 5 November 2015, when an iron ore tailings dam in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil, suffered a catastrophic failure, resulting in flooding that destroyed the village of Bento Rodrigues, killing at least 17 people.
Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biocide is defined in the European legislation as a chemical substance or microorganism intended to destroy, deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Bohrium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Bh and atomic number 107.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brian Clegg (born 1955) is an English science writer.
Bright-field microscopy is the simplest of all the optical microscopy illumination techniques.
British Medical Bulletin is a quarterly peer-reviewed general medical journal that publishes review articles on a wide variety of medical subjects.
The British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS), whose vision is a healthy working environment for everyone, was established as a charity in 1953 to reduce work-related ill-health, and makes a distinct and valuable contribution to preventing ill-health in the workplace.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
The Bulletin for the History of Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles on the history of chemistry.
A watch battery or button cell is a small single cell battery shaped as a squat cylinder typically in diameter and high — like a button on a garment, hence the name.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carlos Prieto (born 1937) is a Mexican cellist and writer.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft.
Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Cerium oxide may refer to either of the following.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
Chapman & Hall was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall.
Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical hazard is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical Research in Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1988 by the American Chemical Society.
Chemistry Central was a scientific publisher specializing in open access publications in chemistry.
Chemistry of Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1989 by the American Chemical Society.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
The coinage metals comprise, at a minimum, those metallic chemical elements which have historically been used as components in alloys used to mint coins.
Pure gold is slightly reddish yellow in color, but colored gold in various other colors can be produced.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copernicium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Cn and atomic number 112.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper sulfate may refer to.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Costume jewelry, trinkets, fashion jewelry, junk jewelry, fake jewelry, or fallalery is jewelry manufactured as ornamentation to complement a particular fashionable costume or garmentBaker, Lillian.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
CSIRO Publishing is an Australian-based science and technology publisher.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ds and atomic number 110.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Die Pharmazie (English: The Pharmacy) is an academic journal published monthly by Govi-Verlag Pharmazautischer Verlag.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Domestic roof construction is the framing and roof covering which is found on most suburban detached houses in cold and temperate climates.
Dubnium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Db and atomic number 105.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
Electron density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at a specific location.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.
The environmental impact of paint is diverse.
Environmental Pollution is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the biological, health, and ecological effects of environmental pollution.
Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society.
Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of environmental science.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ephraim Chambers (c.1680 – 15 May 1740) was an English writer and encyclopaedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
Evaporation is a common method of thin-film deposition.
An explosively formed penetrator (EFP), also known as an explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
Fire engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people, property, and their environments from the harmful and destructive effects of fire and smoke.
Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.
Flerovium is a superheavy artificial chemical element with symbol Fl and atomic number 114.
The Flint water crisis began in 2014 when the drinking water source for the city of Flint, Michigan was changed from Lake Huron and the Detroit River to the cheaper Flint River.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fly fishing is an angling method in which an artificial "fly" is used to catch fish.
Francium is a chemical element with symbol Fr and atomic number 87.
Fritz Ullmann (July 2, 1875 in Fürth – March 17, 1939 in Berlin) was a German chemist.
A fuel pump is a frequently (but not always) essential component on a car or other internal combustion engined device.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
George Keene Schweitzer (born December 5, 1924) is an academic in chemistry and family history and local history.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by converting the gold to a water-soluble coordination complex.
The Goldschmidt classification, developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947), is a geochemical classification which groups the chemical elements within the Earth according to their preferred host phases into lithophile (rock-loving), siderophile (iron-loving), chalcophile (ore-loving or chalcogen-loving), and atmophile (gas-loving) or volatile (the element, or a compound in which it occurs, is liquid or gaseous at ambient surface conditions).
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
A golf club is a club used to hit a golf ball in a game of golf.
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played.
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
Gordon Gordh (born 1945) is an American entomologist.
Grease is a semisolid lubricant.
Green bullet, green ammunition or green ammo are nicknames for a United States Department of Defense program to eliminate the use of hazardous materials from small arms ammunition and from small arms ammunition manufacturing.
Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds).
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Group 12, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table.
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 5 (by IUPAC style) is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 6, numbered by IUPAC style, is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 7, numbered by IUPAC nomenclature, is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 8 is a group of chemical element in the periodic table.
Group 9, numbered by IUPAC nomenclature, is a group of chemical element in the periodic table.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Hafnium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The hammer throw is one of the four throwing events in regular track and field competitions, along with the discus throw, shot put and javelin.
Harcourt was a United States publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for adults and children.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108.
A heat map (or heatmap) is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is any chemical compound that contains the element chromium in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hot-dip galvanization is a form of galvanization.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Humana Inc. is a for-profit American health insurance company based in Louisville, Kentucky.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Ian William Ridpath (born 1 May 1947, Ilford, Essex) is an English science writer and broadcaster best known as a popularizer of astronomy and a biographer of constellation history.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions.
Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
The International Water Association (IWA) is a non-profit organization and knowledge hub for the water sector, with over 60 years experience connecting water professionals worldwide to find solutions to the world's water challenges.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The iron peak is a local maximum in the vicinity of Fe (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) on the graph of the abundances of the chemical elements, as seen below.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
was the name given to the mass cadmium poisoning of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, starting around 1912.
Izaak Maurits (Piet) Kolthoff (February 11, 1894 – March 4, 1993) was a highly influential analytical chemist and chemical educator.
Jan-Olov Liljenzin (born 1936) is a Swedish chemist and professor emeritus in nuclear chemistry.
(Hugh) John Forster Cairns FRS (born 21 November 1922) is a British physician and molecular biologist who made significant contributions to molecular genetics, cancer research, and public health.
Dr John Emsley (born 1938) is a UK popular science writer, broadcaster and academic specialising in chemistry.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
Joseph William Mellor CBE, FRS was a chemist and an authority on ceramics.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A is a scientific journal which reports research on the chemistry of molecules - including their dynamics, spectroscopy, kinetics, structure, bonding, and quantum chemistry.
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of condensed matter physics and material science.
Karl K. Turekian (October 25, 1927 – March 15, 2013) was a geochemist and Sterling Professor at Yale University.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
Leaching is a process where ore is soluble and impurities are insoluble, widely used extractive metallurgy technique which converts metals into soluble salts in aqueous media.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
Lead(II) sulfate (PbSO4) is a white solid, which appears white in microcrystalline form.
The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery.
Leopold Gmelin (2 August 1788 – 13 April 1853) was a German chemist.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
A light metal is any metal of relatively low density.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
Astronomical instruments include.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Livermorium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lv and atomic number 116.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Marcel Dekker was a journal and encyclopedia publishing company with editorial boards found in New York, New York.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Meitnerium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mt and atomic number 109.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mendelevium is a synthetic element with chemical symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
, sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Mosby is an academic publisher of textbooks and academic journals based in the United States.
Moscovium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Mc and atomic number 115.
Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.
In horology, a movement, also known as a caliber, is the mechanism of a clock or watch, as opposed to the case, which encloses and protects the movement, and the face, which displays the time.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.
The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is an American non-profit organization aiming to provide support for individuals with rare diseases by advocating and funding research, education, and networking among service providers.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems).
Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid.
Neil William Ashcroft (born 27 November 1938 in London) is a British solid-state physicist.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Nevil Vincent Sidgwick FRS (8 May 1873 – 15 March 1952) was an English theoretical chemist who made significant contributions to the theory of valency and chemical bonding.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel carbonyl (IUPAC name: tetracarbonylnickel) is the organonickel compound with the formula Ni(CO)4.
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.
Nihonium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Nh and atomic number 113.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol No and atomic number 102.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Oganesson is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Og and atomic number 118.
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
The oligodynamic effect (from Greek oligos "few", and dynamis "force") is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.
Organotin compounds or stannanes are chemical compounds based on tin with hydrocarbon substituents.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
p-nuclei (p stands for proton-rich) are certain proton-rich, naturally occurring isotopes of some elements between selenium and mercury inclusive which cannot be produced in either the s- or the r-process.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, bronze and similar metals (tarnish produced by oxidation or other chemical processes), or certain stones, and wooden furniture (sheen produced by age, wear, and polishing), or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six noble, precious metallic elements clustered together in the periodic table.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Power windows or electric windows are automobile windows which can be raised and lowered by pressing a button or switch, as opposed to using a crank handle.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
This article deals with Radiation damage due to the effects of ionizing radiation on physical objects.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Rand McNally is an American technology and publishing company that provides mapping, software and hardware for the consumer electronics, commercial transportation and education markets.
In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Roald Hoffmann (born Roald Safran; July 18, 1937) is a Polish-American theoretical chemist who won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
Roentgenium is a chemical element with symbol Rg and atomic number 111.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
The rp-process (rapid proton capture process) consists of consecutive proton captures onto seed nuclei to produce heavier elements.
Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.
A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium.
Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.
Ruthenium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula RuO2.
Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.
S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
Seaborgium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Sg and atomic number 106.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A self-cleaning oven is an oven which uses high temperature (approximately 500 degrees Celsius or 900 degrees Fahrenheit) to burn off leftovers from baking, without the use of any chemical agents.
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
The shot put (pronounced) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral ore of zinc.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Spencer R. Weart (born 1942) was the director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) from 1971 until his retirement in 2009.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
A starter (also self-starter, self, cranking motor, or starter motor) is a device used to rotate (crank) an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its own power.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellar mass loss is a phenomenon observed in some massive stars.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tantalum pentoxide, also known as tantalum(V) oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula.
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
Telluric iron, also called native iron, is iron that originated on Earth, and is found in a metallic form rather than as an ore.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Tennessine is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ts and atomic number 117.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thanu Padmanabhan (born 10 March 1957) is an Indian theoretical physicist and cosmologist whose research spans a wide variety of topics in Gravitation, Structure formation in the universe and Quantum Gravity.
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers that encompasses the entire range of materials and engineering, from minerals processing and primary metals production to basic research and the advanced applications of materials.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thorium(IV) sulfide (ThS2) is an inorganic chemical compound composed of one thorium atom ionically bonded to two atoms of sulfur.
Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Tim McCreight (born 1951) is an American artist who specializes in metalsmithing, particularly in jewelry.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tin can, tin (especially in British English, Australian English and Canadian English), steel can, steel packaging or a can, is a container for the distribution or storage of goods, composed of thin metal.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Tire balance, also referred to as tire unbalance or imbalance, describes the distribution of mass within an automobile tire or the entire wheel (including the rim) to which it is attached.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is a division of the National Research Council of the United States which serves as an independent adviser to the President of the United States, the Congress and federal agencies on scientific and technical questions of national importance.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798 (initiated by the recommendation of James McHenry),Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907).
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium monosulfide is an inorganic chemical compound of uranium and sulfur.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
A voltage controller, also called an AC voltage controller or AC regulator is an electronic module based on either thyristors, TRIACs, SCRs or IGBTs, which converts a fixed voltage, fixed frequency alternating current (AC) electrical input supply to obtain variable voltage in output delivered to a resistive load.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
William Kenneth Hartmann (born June 6, 1939) is a noted planetary scientist, artist, author, and writer.
All measures that are taken to ensure a long life of wood fall under the definition wood preservation (timber treatment).
Woodhead Publishing Limited was established in 1989 as an independent international publishing company of science and technical books.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.