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Hebrew alphabet

Index Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic. [1]

211 relations: Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, Abjad, Academy of the Hebrew Language, Acronym, Aggadah, Aleph, Aleph number, Alphabet, Alternation (linguistics), Anthropomorphism, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Aramaic alphabet, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashuri, Assyria, Ayin, Ḏāl, Ḫāʾ, Ṯāʾ, Babylonian captivity, Balsam, Begadkefat, Bet (letter), Beth number, Bible, Biblical Hebrew, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Genesis, Book of Proverbs, Cantillation, Cardinal number, Cardinality of the continuum, Cognate, Collage, Combining character, Consonant, Countable set, Cursive, Cursive Hebrew, Dagesh, Dalet, Diacritic, Dialect, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Ejective consonant, Emphatic consonant, Encyclopædia Britannica, Final form, Font, ..., Fricative consonant, Gematria, Gemination, Geresh, Gershayim, Gezer calendar, Ghayn, Gimel, Gimel function, Glottal stop, Glottalization, Glyph, Greek alphabet, He (letter), Hebraization of English, Hebrew Braille, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew diacritics, Hebrew keyboard, Hebrew language, Hebrew numerals, Hebrew punctuation, Heth, Hiatus (linguistics), Hiriq, Holam, International Phonetic Alphabet, Inverted nun, ISO 259, Israel, Israel Meir Kagan, Jachnun, Jerusalem Talmud, Jewish diaspora, Jewish languages, Jews, Judaeo-Spanish, Judaism, Judeo-Arabic languages, Kabbalah, Kamatz, Kaph, Karaim language, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Judah, Koren Type, Ktiv hasar niqqud, Kubutz and Shuruk, Lamedh, Lateral consonant, Lenition, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Loanword, Loch, Mandaic alphabet, Mappiq, Masoretic Text, Mater lectionis, Mathers table, Mem, Messiah in Judaism, Meteg, Mishnah, Mishnah Berurah, Mishnaic Hebrew, Mizrahi Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, Modern Hebrew phonology, Mysticism, Nabataean alphabet, Nahuatl, Niqqud, Numeric character reference, Nun (letter), Nut (hardware), Orthography, Pahlavi scripts, Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, Palmyrene alphabet, Patach, Pe (letter), Pe (Persian letter), Persian Empire, Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Phoenician alphabet, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Poetry, Power set, Pronunciation, Proto-Semitic language, Proto-Sinaitic script, Punctuation, Purim, Qoph, QWERTY, Rabbinic literature, Rafe, Rashi script, Resh, Romanization of Hebrew, Samaritan alphabet, Samaritans, Samekh, Sans-serif, Sefer HaTemunah, Sefer Yetzirah, Segol, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Sephardi Hebrew, Serif, Set theory, Shin (letter), Shva, Significance of numbers in Judaism, Silent letter, Siloam inscription, Society of Biblical Literature, Sogdian alphabet, Solitreo, Stop consonant, Syriac alphabet, Talmud, Targum Onkelos, Taw, Tefillin, Teth, Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian vocalization, Tikkun olam, Torah, Transliteration, Trope (religion), Tsade, Typewriter, Typographic ligature, Tzere, Unicode, Unicode and HTML for the Hebrew alphabet, Uvular consonant, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless dental fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Waw (letter), Welsh language, Yemenite Hebrew, Yiddish, Yiddish orthography, YIVO, Yodh, Zayin, Zohar. Expand index (161 more) »

Aaron ben Moses ben Asher

Aaron ben Moses ben Asher (Hebrew:; Tiberian Hebrew: ʾAhărôn ben Mōšeh benʾĀšēr; 10th century, died c.960) was a Jewish scribe who lived in Tiberias in northern Israel and refined the Tiberian system of writing vowel sounds in Hebrew, which is still in use today, and serves as the basis for grammatical analysis.

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An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.

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Academy of the Hebrew Language

The Academy of the Hebrew Language (הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית, Ha-Akademya la-Lashon ha-Ivrit) was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the Hebrew language in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of Givat Ram campus." It is an educational institution with the mission of creating new Hebrew words to ensure that the language does not die out.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Aggadah (Aramaic אַגָּדָה: "tales, lore"; pl. aggadot or (Ashkenazi) aggados; also known as aggad or aggadh or agâdâ) refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.

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Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.

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Aleph number

In mathematics, and in particular set theory, the aleph numbers are a sequence of numbers used to represent the cardinality (or size) of infinite sets that can be well-ordered.

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An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.

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Alternation (linguistics)

In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.

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Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Aramaic alphabet

The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.

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Ashkenazi Hebrew

Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.

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Ashuri refers to the Assyrian language and script mentioned in the Tractate Megillah and the Talmud Bavli.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).

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(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.

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(خ, transliterated as (DIN-31635), (Hans Wehr), (ALA-LC) or (ISO 233)), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is based on the ح. It represents the sound or in Modern Standard Arabic.

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() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".

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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.

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Balsam is the resinous exudate (or sap), which forms on certain kinds of trees and shrubs.

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Begadkefat (also begadkephat, begedkefet) is the name given to a phenomenon of lenition affecting the non-emphatic stop consonants of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic when they are preceded by a vowel and not geminated.

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Bet (letter)

Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.

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Beth number

In mathematics, the infinite cardinal numbers are represented by the Hebrew letter \aleph (aleph) indexed with a subscript that runs over the ordinal numbers (see aleph number).

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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Book of Deuteronomy

The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Book of Proverbs

The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.

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Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.

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Cardinal number

In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalization of the natural numbers used to measure the cardinality (size) of sets.

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Cardinality of the continuum

In set theory, the cardinality of the continuum is the cardinality or “size” of the set of real numbers \mathbb R, sometimes called the continuum.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Collage (from the coller., "to glue") is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.

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Combining character

In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

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Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.

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Cursive Hebrew

Cursive Hebrew (כתב עברי רהוט, "Flowing Hebrew Writing", or כתב יד עברי, "Hebrew Handwriting", often called simply כתב, "Writing") is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet.

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The dagesh is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.

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Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

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Ejective consonant

In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.

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Emphatic consonant

In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Final form

In certain languages, the final form is a special character used to represent a letter only when it occurs at the end of a word.

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In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Gematria (גמטריא, plural or, gematriot) originated as an Assyro-Babylonian-Greek system of alphanumeric code or cipher later adopted into Jewish culture that assigns numerical value to a word, name, or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other or bear some relation to the number itself as it may apply to Nature, a person's age, the calendar year, or the like.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Geresh (׳ in גֶּרֶשׁ‎ or ‎, or medieval) is a sign in Hebrew writing.

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Gershayim (גֵּרְשַׁיִם, without niqqud), also occasionally grashayim.

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Gezer calendar

The Gezer calendar is a small inscribed limestone tablet discovered in 1908 by Irish archaeologist R. A. Stewart Macalister in the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem.

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The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.

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Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).

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Gimel function

In axiomatic set theory, the gimel function is the following function mapping cardinal numbers to cardinal numbers: where cf denotes the cofinality function; the gimel function is used for studying the continuum function and the cardinal exponentiation function.

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Glottal stop

The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.

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Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.

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In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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He (letter)

He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.

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Hebraization of English

The Hebraization of English (or Hebraicization) is the use of the Hebrew alphabet to write English.

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Hebrew Braille

Hebrew Braille (ברייל עברי) is the braille alphabet for Hebrew.

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Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.

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Hebrew diacritics

Hebrew orthography includes three types of diacritics.

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Hebrew keyboard

A Hebrew keyboard (Hebrew: מקלדת עברית mikledet ivrit) comes in two different keyboard layouts.

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Hebrew language

No description.

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Hebrew numerals

The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

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Hebrew punctuation

Hebrew punctuation is similar to that of English and other Western languages, Modern Hebrew having imported additional punctuation marks from these languages in order to avoid the ambiguities sometimes occasioned by the relative paucity of such symbols in Biblical Hebrew.

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or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēt, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā'.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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Hiriq (חִירִיק) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a single dot underneath the letter.

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Cholam (חוֹלָם, Modern Hebrew:, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot above the upper left corner of the consonant letter.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Inverted nun

Inverted nun ("isolated nun" or "inverted nun" or "" in Hebrew) is a rare glyph used in classical Hebrew.

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ISO 259

ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew characters into Latin characters, dating to 1984, with updated ISO 259-2 (a simplification, disregarding several vowel signs, 1994) and ISO 259-3 (Phonemic Conversion, 1999).

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Meir Kagan

Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.

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Gachnun or Gahnun (גַחְנוּן) is a Jewish- Israeli pastry, originating from Adeni Jewry, and traditionally served on Shabbat morning.

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Jerusalem Talmud

The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.

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Jewish diaspora

The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

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Jewish languages

Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities in the diaspora.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judeo-Arabic languages

The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.

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Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).

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Karaim language

The Karaim language (Crimean dialect: къарай тили, Trakai dialect: karaj tili, Turkish dialect: karay dili, traditional Hebrew name lashon kedar לשון קדר "language of the nomads") is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Judaeo-Spanish. It is spoken by only a few dozen Crimean Karaites (Qrimqaraylar) in Lithuania, Poland and Crimea and Galicia in Ukraine. The three main dialects are those of Crimea, Trakai-Vilnius and Lutsk-Halych all of which are critically endangered. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century. There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, where Crimean Karaites are presented as the castle's ancient defenders.

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Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

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Kingdom of Judah

The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.

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Koren Type

Koren Type refers to two Hebrew fonts, Koren Bible Type and Hebrew Book Type created by Israeli typographer and graphic designer Elyahu Koren.

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Ktiv hasar niqqud

Ktiv hasar niqqud (כתיב חסר ניקוד, literally "spelling lacking niqqud"), colloquially known as ktiv male (כתיב מלא, literally "full spelling"), are the rules for writing Hebrew without vowel pointers (niqqud), often replacing them with matres lectionis (ו and י).

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Kubutz and Shuruk

Kubutz (קֻבּוּץ) and Shuruk (שׁוּרוּק) are the two Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound.

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Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.

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Letter (alphabet)

A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet.

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Mandaic alphabet

The Mandaic alphabet is thought to have evolved between the 2nd and 7th century CE from either a cursive form of Aramaic (as did Syriac) or from the Parthian chancery script.

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The mappiq (also mapiq, mapik, mappik, lit. "causing to go out") is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.

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Masoretic Text

The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.

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Mater lectionis

In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.

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Mathers table

The Mathers table of Hebrew and "Chaldee" letters is a tabular display of the pronunciation, appearance, numerical values, transliteration, names, and symbolism of the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet appearing in The Kabbalah Unveiled, S.L. MacGregor Mathers' late 19th century English translation of The Kabbalah Denudata, itself a Latin translation by Christian Knorr von Rosenroth of the Zohar, a primary Kabbalistic text.

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Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.

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Messiah in Judaism

The messiah in Judaism is a savior and liberator of the Jewish people.

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Meteg (or metheg, Hebrew מֶתֶג, lit. 'bridle', also ga'ya געיה, lit. 'bellowing', מאריך ma'arikh, or מעמיד ma'amid) is a punctuation mark used in Biblical Hebrew for stress marking.

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The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

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Mishnah Berurah

The Mishnah Berurah (משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (Poland, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life".

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Mishnaic Hebrew

Mishnaic Hebrew is one of the few Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible.

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Mizrahi Hebrew

Mizrahi Hebrew, or Eastern Hebrew, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic, Persian, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia.

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Modern Hebrew

No description.

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Modern Hebrew phonology

Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.

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Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nabataean alphabet

The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.

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Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

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In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

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Numeric character reference

A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.

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Nun (letter)

Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).

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Nut (hardware)

A nut is a type of fastener with a threaded hole.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Pahlavi scripts

Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.

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Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.

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Palmyrene alphabet

Palmyrene was a historical Semitic alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic.

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Pataḥ (פַּתַח,, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line underneath a letter.

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Pe (letter)

Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).

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Pe (Persian letter)

Pe (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet for.

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Persian Empire

The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.

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Pharyngeal consonant

A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.

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Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.

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Phoenician alphabet

The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives

In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).

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Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Power set

In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of any set is the set of all subsets of, including the empty set and itself, variously denoted as, 𝒫(), ℘() (using the "Weierstrass p"),,, or, identifying the powerset of with the set of all functions from to a given set of two elements,.

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Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.

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Proto-Semitic language

Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.

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Proto-Sinaitic script

Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).

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Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

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Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.

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QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.

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Rabbinic literature

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.

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In Hebrew orthography the rafe, or more commonly spelt raphe (רָפֵה), is a diacritic, a subtle horizontal overbar placed above certain letters to indicate that they are to be pronounced as fricatives.

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Rashi script

Rashi script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet.

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Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.

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Romanization of Hebrew

Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics.

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Samaritan alphabet

The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.

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The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.

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Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.

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In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.

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Sefer HaTemunah

Sefer HaTemunah (ספר התמונה) (lit. "Book of the Figure", i.e. shape of the Hebrew letters) is a 13–14th century kabbalistic text.

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Sefer Yetzirah

Sefer Yetzirah (Sēpher Yəṣîrâh, Book of Formation, or Book of Creation) is the title of the earliest extant book on Jewish esotericism, although some early commentators treated it as a treatise on mathematical and linguistic theory as opposed to Kabbalah.

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Segol (סֶגּוֹל) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore sign (a because sign) underneath a letter.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Semitic root

The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).

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Sephardi Hebrew

Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.

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In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.

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Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

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Shin (letter)

Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).

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Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew, shĕwa (שְׁוָא) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign written as two vertical dots (ְ) beneath a letter.

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Significance of numbers in Judaism

Numbers play an important role in Judaic ritual practices and are believed to be a means for understanding the divine.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Siloam inscription

The Siloam inscription or Shiloah inscription (כתובת השילוח) or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text found in the Siloam tunnel which brings water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, located in the City of David in East Jerusalem neighborhood of Shiloah or Silwan.

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Society of Biblical Literature

The Society of Biblical Literature (SBL), founded in 1880 as the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, is an American-based learned society dedicated to the academic study of the Bible and related ancient literature.

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Sogdian alphabet

The Sogdian alphabet was originally used for the Sogdian language, a language in the Iranian family used by the people of Sogdia.

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Solitreo is a cursive form of the Hebrew alphabet.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Syriac alphabet

The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.

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Targum Onkelos

Aramaic Targum Onkelos from the British Library. Targum Onkelos (or Onqelos),, is the official eastern (Babylonian) targum (Aramaic translation) to the Torah.

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Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).

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Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.

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Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.

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Tiberian Hebrew

Tiberian Hebrew is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias in ancient Judea.

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Tiberian vocalization

The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.

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Tikkun olam

Tikkun olam (תיקון עולם (literally, "repair of the world", alternatively, "construction for eternity") is a concept in Judaism, interpreted in Orthodox Judaism as the prospect of overcoming all forms of idolatry, and by other Jewish denominations as an aspiration to behave and act constructively and beneficially. Documented use of the term dates back to the Mishnaic period. Since medieval times, kabbalistic literature has broadened use of the term. In the modern era, among the post Haskalah Ashkenazi movements, tikkun olam is the idea that Jews bear responsibility not only for their own moral, spiritual, and material welfare, but also for the welfare of society at large. To the ears of contemporary pluralistic Rabbis, the term connotes "the establishment of Godly qualities throughout the world".

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Trope (religion)

In Judaism, trope (or Yiddish טראָפּ trop) is the musical pronunciation associated with the cantillation marks (accents) used for the ritual chanting of the Torah.

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Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.

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A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; צֵירֵי, sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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Unicode and HTML for the Hebrew alphabet

The Unicode and HTML for the Hebrew alphabet are found in the following tables.

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate

The voiceless alveolar lateral affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives

The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Waw (letter)

Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Yemenite Hebrew

Yemenite Hebrew (Ivrit Temanit), also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Yiddish orthography

Yiddish orthography is the writing system used for the Yiddish language.

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YIVO (Yiddish: ייִוואָ), established in 1925 in Wilno in the Second Polish Republic (now Vilnius, Lithuania) as the Yidisher Visnshaftlekher Institut (Yiddish: ייִדישער װיסנשאַפֿטלעכער אינסטיטוט,, Yiddish Scientific Institute), is an organization that preserves, studies, and teaches the cultural history of Jewish life throughout Eastern Europe, Germany and Russia, as well as orthography, lexicography, and other studies related to Yiddish.

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Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).

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Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.

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The Zohar (זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.

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Redirects here:

Alef bet, Alefbet, Aleph bet, Aleph-Bet, Alephbet, Basic Hebrew alphabet, Basic hebrew alphabet, Hebr (script), Hebrew (script), Hebrew Abjad, Hebrew Alphabet, Hebrew abjad, Hebrew alefbet, Hebrew alephbeth, Hebrew alphabets, Hebrew fonts, Hebrew letter, Hebrew letters, Hebrew script, Hebrew square character, Hebrew square script, Hebrew writing, ISO 15924:Hebr, Jewish alphabet, Sofit, Square Hebrew, Square Hebrew alphabet, Square hebrew, אבגדהוזחטיכךלמםנןסעפףצץקרשת, אבגדהוזחטיכלמנסעפצקרשת.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet

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