224 relations: Aaron ben Meïr, Academic year, Adam, Adar, Afghanistan, Aha b. Jacob, Al-Biruni, Alaska, Aleph, Aliyah, Almagest, Amoraim, Animal tithe, Anno Domini, Anno Mundi, Antioch, Aquarius (constellation), Aries (constellation), Arutz Sheva, Assyrian calendar, Atomic clock, Av, Aviv, Avodah Zarah, Babylonian calendar, Babylonian mathematics, Baraita, Baraita of Samuel, Barley, Bereavement in Judaism, Bet (letter), Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement, Book of Genesis, Books of the Maccabees, Byzantine calendar, Canaan, Cancer (constellation), Capricornus, Chametz, Cheshvan, Chol HaMoed, Chronology, Chronology of the Bible, Combination, Computus, Constantius Gallus, Constantius II, Counting of the Omer, Dating creation, Daylight saving time, ..., Edward Reingold, Edwin R. Thiele, Egyptian calendar, Elephantine, Elephantine papyri, Elul, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Epoch (reference date), Euphrates, Fertile Crescent, First tithe, Fiscal year, Full moon, Futurist, Gamaliel II, Gemini (constellation), Genesis creation narrative, Geonim, Gerald J. Toomer, Golden number (time), Gregorian calendar, Hai Gaon, Halakha, Hanukkah, Hebrew language, Hebrew numerals, Helek, Hijri year, Hillel II, Hipparchus, Hoshana Rabbah, Intercalation (timekeeping), International Date Line, International date line in Judaism, Iran, Islamic calendar, Israel, Israelites, Iyar, Jacob, Jeconiah, Jerusalem, Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050, Jewish diaspora, Jewish holidays, Jewish prayer, Jewish Publication Society, Jews, Jose ben Halafta, Josephus, Joshua, Jubilee (biblical), Julian calendar, Kandahar, Karaite Judaism, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Judah, Kislev, Lag BaOmer, Land of Israel, Latin, Leap year, Leo (constellation), Libra (constellation), Longitude, Lunar calendar, Lunar conjunction, Lunar month, Lunar phase, Lunisolar calendar, Maimonides, Major scale, Major second, March equinox, Masoretic Text, Mesopotamia, Metonic cycle, Middle Ages, Mishnah, Mishneh Torah, Missing years (Jewish calendar), Mobile phone, Molad, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Muslim, Nachum Dershowitz, NASA, New moon, Nile, Nisan, Noach (parsha), Ordinal number (linguistics), Paremhat, Parmouti, Passover, Pisces (constellation), Poor tithe, Prime meridian, Proleptic Julian calendar, Psalms, Ptolemy, Purim, Rabbinic Judaism, Rav, Rav Nachman, Relative hour (Jewish law), Remainder, Rosh Chodesh, Rosh Hashanah, Saadia Gaon, Sagittarius (constellation), Saint Sylvester's Day, Samaritan High Priest, Samaritans, Samuel Abraham Poznański, Sanhedrin, Sanhedrin (tractate), Sardica paschal table, Scorpius, Scripta Mathematica, Season, Second Temple, Second tithe, Seder Olam Rabbah, Seleucid era, Semitone, Seventeenth of Tammuz, Shabbat, Shabbat (Talmud), Shabbat candles, Shavuot, Shemini Atzeret, Shevat, Shmita, Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Sivan, Six-Day War, Solar calendar, Solomon's Temple, Standard time, Sukkot, Sunrise, Sunset, Talmud, Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina, Tammuz (Hebrew month), Tanakh, Tannaim, Taurus (constellation), Tekufah, Tenth of Tevet, Tevet, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, Tide, Time zone, Tisha B'Av, Tishrei, Torah reading, Tosefta, Tropical year, Tu BiShvat, Twelve Tribes of Israel, Virgo (constellation), Weekly Torah portion, Yom, Yom HaAliyah, Yom Kippur, Zionism, Zodiac, 180th meridian, 19 equal temperament, 613 commandments. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron HaKohen ben Meïr was a rabbi and a Nasi (head of the Sanhedrin) of the Palestinian Gaonate in the first half of the tenth century.
An academic year or school year is a period of time which schools, colleges and universities use to measure a quantity of study.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Adar (אֲדָר; from Akkadian adaru) is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calendar.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
The animal tithe (מַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, "Ma'sar Behemah") is a commandment in the Torah requiring the sanctifying a tithe of kosher grazing animals (cattle, sheep, and goats) to God, to be sacrificed as a Korban at the Temple in Jerusalem.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anno Mundi (Latin for "in the year of the world"; Hebrew:, "to the creation of the world"), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Aquarius is a constellation of the zodiac, situated between Capricornus and Pisces.
Aries is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Arutz Sheva (lit), also known in English as Israel National News, is an Israeli media network identifying with Religious Zionism.
The Assyrian calendar is a lunar calendar which begins in the year 4750 BC, begun by the internal date of the foundation of Assur.
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element.
Av (אָב, Standard Av Tiberian ʾĀḇ Aramaic אבא Abba; from Akkadian abu; "father") is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Aviv (אביב) is a word that has several similar meanings in Hebrew.
Avodah Zarah (Hebrew: "foreign worship", meaning "idolatry" or "strange worship") is the name of a tractate of the Talmud, located in Nezikin, the fourth Order of the Talmud dealing with damages.
The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree.
Babylonian mathematics (also known as Assyro-Babylonian mathematics) was any mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC.
Baraita (Aramaic: ברייתא "external" or "outside"; pl. Barayata or Baraitot; also Baraitha, Beraita; Ashkenazi: Beraisa) designates a tradition in the Jewish oral law not incorporated in the Mishnah.
A Baraita of Samuel (בריתא דרבי שמואל) was known to Jewish scholars from Shabbethai Donolo in the 10th century to Simon Duran in the 15th century, and citations from it were made by them.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement were used primarily by ancient Israelites and appear frequently within the Hebrew Bible as well as in later Judaic scripture, such as the Mishnah and Talmud.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Books of the Maccabees are books concerned with the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty, or related subjects.
The Byzantine calendar, also called "Creation Era of Constantinople" or "Era of the World" (Ἔτη Γενέσεως Κόσμου κατὰ Ῥωμαίους, also Ἔτος Κτίσεως Κόσμου or Ἔτος Κόσμου, abbreviated as ε.Κ.), was the calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Cancer is one of the twelve constellations of the zodiac.
Capricornus is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Chametz (also chometz,, ḥameṣ, ḥameç and other spellings transliterated from חָמֵץ / חמץ) are leavened foods that are forbidden on the Jewish holiday of Passover.
Marcheshvan (מַרְחֶשְׁוָן, Standard Marḥešvan Tiberian Marḥešwān; from Akkadian waraḫsamnu, literally, "eighth month"), sometimes shortened to Cheshvan (Standard Ḥešvan Tiberian Ḥešwān), is the second month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei), and the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Chol HaMoed (חול המועד), a Hebrew phrase meaning "weekdays the festival" (literal translation: "the secular (part of) the occasion" or "application of the occasion"), refers to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot.
Chronology (from Latin chronologia, from Ancient Greek χρόνος, chrónos, "time"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.
The chronology of the Bible is an elaborate system of lifespans, "generations," and other means by which the passage of events is measured, beginning with Creation and extending through other significant events.
In mathematics, a combination is a selection of items from a collection, such that (unlike permutations) the order of selection does not matter.
Computus (Latin for "computation") is a calculation that determines the calendar date of Easter.
Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (ca. 325/326–354), commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire (351–354).
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Counting of the Omer (Sefirat HaOmer, sometimes abbreviated as Sefira or the Omer) is an important verbal counting of each of the forty-nine days between the Jewish holidays of Passover and Shavuot as stated in the Hebrew Bible:.
Dating creation is the attempt to provide an estimate of the age of Earth or the age of the universe as understood through the origin myths of various religious traditions.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
Edward M. Reingold (born 1945) is a computer scientist active in the fields of algorithms, data structures, graph drawing, and calendrical calculations.
Edwin R. Thiele (10 September 1895 – 15 April 1986) was an American Seventh-day Adventist missionary in China, an editor, archaeologist, writer, and Old Testament professor.
The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
The Elephantine Papyri consist of 175 documents from the Egyptian border fortresses of Elephantine and Syene (Aswan), which yielded hundreds of papyri in Hieratic and Demotic Egyptian, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and Coptic, spanning a period of 2000 years.
Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Elul Tiberian ʾĔlûl) is the twelfth month of the Jewish civil year and the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics is a 12-volume work (plus an index volume) edited by James Hastings, written between 1908 and 1927 and composed of entries by many contributors.
In the fields of chronology and periodization, an epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
The first tithe (Hebrew: ma'aser rishon מעשר ראשון) is a positive commandment in the Torah requiring the giving of one tenth of agricultural produce, after the giving of the standard terumah, to the Kohen (Jewish priest) (or Levite).
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Futurists or futurologists are scientists and social scientists whose specialty is futurology or the attempt to systematically explore predictions and possibilities about the future and how they can emerge from the present, whether that of human society in particular or of life on Earth in general.
Rabban Gamaliel II (also spelled Gamliel; רבן גמליאל דיבנה) was the first person to lead the Sanhedrin as Nasi after the fall of the second temple, which occurred in 70 CE.
Gemini is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
Gerald James Toomer (born 23 November 1934) is a historian of astronomy and mathematics who has written numerous books and papers on ancient Greek and medieval Islamic astronomy.
A golden number (sometimes capitalized) is a number assigned to each year in sequence to indicate the year's position in a 19-year Metonic cycle.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Hai ben Sherira (or Hai b. Sherira (Gaon), Hebrew: האי בר שרירא; better known as Hai Gaon, Hebrew: האיי גאון), was a medieval Jewish theologian, rabbi and scholar who served as Gaon of the Talmudic academy of Pumbedita during the early 11th century.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
The helek (Hebrew חלק, meaning "portion", plural halakim חלקים) is a unit of time used in the calculation of the Hebrew calendar.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
Hillel II (Hebrew: הלל נשיאה, Hillel the Nasi), also known simply as Hillel held the office of Nasi of the ancient Jewish Sanhedrin between 320 and 385 CE.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
The seventh day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, 21st day of Tishrei, is known as Hoshana Rabbah (Aramaic: הוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּא, "Great Hoshana/Supplication").
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line of demarcation on the surface of Earth that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole and demarcates the change of one calendar day to the next.
The international date line in Judaism is used to demarcate the change of one calendar day to the next in the Jewish calendar.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Iyar (אִייָר or אִיָּר, Standard Iyyar Tiberian ʾIyyār; from Akkadian ayyaru, meaning "Rosette; blossom") is the eighth month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the second month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jeconiah (יְכָנְיָה Yəḵonyā, meaning "Yah has established"; Ιεχονιας; Iechonias, Jechonias), also known as Coniah and as Jehoiachin (יְהֹויָכִין; Ioachin, Joachin), was a king of Judah who was dethroned by the King of Babylon in the 6th century BC and was taken into captivity.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
This is an almanac-like listing of major Jewish holidays from 2000 to 2050.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.
The Jewish Publication Society (JPS), originally known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jose ben Halafta or Yose ben Halafta (alt. Halpetha) (Hebrew: רבי יוסי בן חלפתא) IPA: /ʁa'bi 'josi ben xa'lafta/, was a Tanna of the fourth generation (2nd century CE).
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Joshua or Jehoshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehōšuʿa) or Isho (Aramaic: ܝܼܫܘܿܥ ܒܲܪ ܢܘܿܢ Eesho Bar Non) is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua.
The Jubilee (יובל yōḇel; Yiddish: yoyvl) is the year at the end of seven cycles of shmita (Sabbatical years), and according to Biblical regulations had a special impact on the ownership and management of land in the Land of Israel; there is some debate whether it was the 49th year (the last year of seven sabbatical cycles, referred to as the Sabbath's Sabbath), or whether it was the following (50th) year.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Kislev (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian Kislēw; also Chislev) is the third month of the civil year and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Lag BaOmer (לַ״ג בָּעוֹמֶר), also Lag B'Omer, is a Jewish holiday celebrated on the 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer, which occurs on the 18th day of the Hebrew month of Iyar.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.
Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer the crab to the west and Virgo the maiden to the east.
Libra is a constellation of the zodiac.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
A lunar conjunction is the event when the earth, moon and sun, in that order, are approximately in a straight line.
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).
The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
In Western music theory, a major second (sometimes also called whole tone) is a second spanning two semitones.
The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
The missing years in the Hebrew calendar refer to a chronological discrepancy between Talmudic chronologists for the destruction of the First Temple in 423 BCE (3338 AM) and the modern secular dating for it in 587 BCE.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Molad (מולד, plural Moladot, מולדות) is a Hebrew word meaning "birth" that also generically refers to the time at which the New Moon is "born".
There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nachum Dershowitz is an Israeli computer scientist, known e.g. for the Dershowitz–Manna ordering used to prove termination of term rewrite systems.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Noach, Noiach, Nauach, Nauah, or Noah (Hebrew for the name "Noah", the third word, and first distinctive word, of the parashah) is the second weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading.
In linguistics, ordinal numbers (or ordinal numerals) are words representing position or rank in a sequential order; the order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on (e.g., "third", "tertiary").
Paremhat (Ⲡⲁⲣⲉⲙϩⲁⲧ), also known as Phamenoth (Φαμενώθ, Phamenṓth) and Baramhat.
Parmouti (Ⲡⲁⲣⲙⲟⲩⲧⲉ, Parmoute), also known as Pharmouthi (Φαρμουθί, Pharmouthí) and Barmudah.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac.
The poor tithe, or poor man's tithe (Hebrew: ma'sar ani), also referred to as the pauper's tithe or the third tithe, reflects an obligation to set aside one tenth of produce grown in the third and sixth years of the seven-year sabbatical cycle for the benefit of the Levites and the poor, in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar backwards to dates preceding AD 4 when the quadrennial leap year stabilized.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rav (Hebrew רב) is the Hebrew generic term for a teacher or a personal spiritual guide.
Rav Nachman bar Yaakov (רב נחמן בר יעקב; died 320) was a Jewish Talmudist who lived in Babylonia, known as an Amora of the third generation, and pupil of Samuel of Nehardea.
Relative hour (Hebrew singular: / שעה זמנית; plural: / שעות זמניות), sometimes called halachic hour, seasonal hour and variable hour, is a term used in rabbinic Jewish law that assigns 12 hours to each day and 12 hours to each night, all throughout the year.
In mathematics, the remainder is the amount "left over" after performing some computation.
Rosh Chodesh or Rosh Hodesh (ראש חודש; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon.
Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sagittarius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Saint Sylvester's Day, also known as Silvester (also spelled Sylvester, Szilveszter, or Sylwester) or the Feast of Saint Sylvester, is the day of the feast of Pope Sylvester I, a saint who served as Pope of the Western Church from 314 to 335 and oversaw both the First Council of Nicaea and Roman Emperor Constantine I's conversion to Christianity.
The Samaritan High Priest is the high priest (kohen gadol) of the remaining Samaritan community in the Levant.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Samuel Abraham Poznański or Shemuel Avraham Poznanski (שמואל אברהם פוזננסקי, Lubraniec, 3 September 1864–1921) was a Polish-Jewish scholar, known for his studies of Karaism and the Hebrew calendar.
The Sanhedrin (Hebrew and Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: סנהדרין; Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty-three or seventy-one rabbis appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.
Sanhedrin (סנהדרין) is one of ten tractates of Seder Nezikin (a section of the Talmud that deals with damages, i.e. civil and criminal proceedings).
The Sardica paschal table or Sardica document is a document from a Latin manuscript of the 7th/8th century AD.
Scorpius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
Scripta Mathematica was a quarterly journal published by Yeshiva University devoted to the philosophy, history, and expository treatment of mathematics.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The second tithe (Hebrew: ma'aser sheni מעשר שני) is a tithe mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and practised within Orthodox Judaism.
Seder Olam Rabbah (סדר עולם רבה, "The Great Order of the World") is a 2nd-century CE Hebrew language chronology detailing the dates of biblical events from the Creation to Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia.
The Seleucid era or Anno Graecorum (literally "year of the Greeks" or "Greek year"), sometimes denoted "AG", was a system of numbering years in use by the Seleucid Empire and other countries among the ancient Hellenistic civilizations.
A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music, and it is considered the most dissonant when sounded harmonically.
The Seventeenth of Tammuz (שבעה עשר בתמוז Shiv'ah Asar b'Tammuz) is a Jewish fast day commemorating the breach of the walls of Jerusalem before the destruction of the Second Temple.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shabbat (שבת) is the first tractate (book) in the Order (Mishnaic section) of Moed, of the Mishnah and Talmud.
Shabbat candles (נרות שבת) are candles lit on Friday evening before sunset to usher in the Jewish Sabbath.
Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.
Shemini Atzeret (– "Eighth Assembly"; Sefardic/Israeli pron. shemini atzèret; Ashkenazic pron. shmini-atsères) is a Jewish holiday.
Shevat (Hebrew: שְׁבָט, Standard Šəvat Tiberian Šəḇāṭ; from Akkadian Šabātu) is the fifth month of the civil year starting in Tishre (or Tishri) and the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar starting in Nisan.
The sabbath year (shmita שמיטה, literally "release") also called the sabbatical year or shǝvi'it (literally "seventh") is the seventh year of the seven-year agricultural cycle mandated by the Torah for the Land of Israel, and still observed in contemporary Judaism.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
Sivan (Hebrew: סִיוָן, Standard Sivan Tiberian Sîwān; from Akkadian simānu, meaning "Season; time") is the ninth month of the civil year and the third month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the position of the apparent position of the sun in relative to the stars.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
Standard time is the synchronization of clocks within a geographical area or region to a single time standard, rather than using solar time or a locally chosen meridian (longitude) to establish a local mean time standard.
Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.
Sunset or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM) in what is called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources, at the time otherwise known as Asōristān (under the Sasanian Empire) or Iraq (under the Muslim caliphate until the 11th century).
The Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina were yeshivot that served as centers for Jewish scholarship and the development of Jewish law in Syria Palaestina (and later Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda) between the destruction of the Second Temple circa 70 CE and the deposition of Raban Gamliel VI circa 425 CE.
Tammuz (תמוז: Standard, Tiberian), or Tamuz, is the tenth month of the civil year and the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, and the Assyrian calendar.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.
Tekufot (Hebrew: תקופות, singular: tekufah, literally, "turn" or "cycle") are the four seasons of the year recognized by Talmud writers.
Tenth of Tevet (עשרה בטבת, Asarah BeTevet), the tenth day of the Hebrew month of Tevet, is a fast day in Judaism.
Tevet (Hebrew: טֵבֵת, Standard Tevet; Sephardim/Yemenite/Mizrachim "Tebeth"; Ashkenazi Teves; Tiberian Ṭēḇēṯ; from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Edwin R. Thiele's The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (1951) is a reconstruction of the chronology of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (کتاب الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية., also known as Chronology of Ancient Nations or Vestiges of the Past, after the translation published by Eduard Sachau in 1879) by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, is a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information, exploring the customs and religions of different peoples.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
Tishrei (or Tishri; תִּשְׁרֵי tishré or tishrí); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar. In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (אֵתָנִים -). Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.
Torah reading is a Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll.
The Tosefta (Talmudic Aramaic: תוספתא, "supplement, addition") is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah.
A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.
Tu BiShvat (ט״ו בשבט) is a Jewish holiday occurring on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Shevat (in 2018, Tu BiShvat begins at sunset on January 30 and ends at nightfall on January 31).
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
The weekly Torah portion (פָּרָשַׁת הַשָּׁבוּעַ Parashat ha-Shavua), popularly just parashah (or parshah or parsha) and also known as a Sidra (or Sedra) is a section of the Torah (Five Books of Moses) used in Jewish liturgy during a single week.
Yom is a Biblical Hebrew word which occurs in the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament).
Yom HaAliyah (Aliyah Day) is an Israeli national holiday celebrated annually on the tenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan and also observed on the seventh of the Hebrew month of Cheshvan, to commemorate the historic events of the Jewish People entering the Land of Israel as written in the Bible, which happened on the tenth of the Hebrew month of Nisan.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
The 180th meridian or antimeridian is the meridian 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian, with which it forms a great circle dividing the earth into the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
In music, 19 equal temperament, called 19 TET, 19 EDO ("Equal Division of the Octave"), or 19 ET, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 19 equal steps (equal frequency ratios).
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
Abundant year, Anno Hebraico, Hebrew Calander, Hebrew Calendar, Hebrew Year, Hebrew calandar, Hebrew calender, Hebrew date, Hebrew month, Hebrew months, Hebrew year, History of the Jewish Calendar, Jew Calendar, Jewish Calendar, Jewish Calender, Jewish calandar, Jewish calendar, Jewish lunar calendar, Molad tohu, Perfect year, Rectified Hebrew calendar, Rectified hebrew calendar, Yom Chamishi, Yom Hamishi, Yom Revi'i, Yom Revii, Yom Rishon, Yom Shabbat, Yom Shabbath, Yom Sheni, Yom Shishi, Yom Shlishi, הלוח העברי.