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Hector Berlioz

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Louis-Hector Berlioz; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique, Harold en Italie, Roméo et Juliette, Grande messe des morts (Requiem), L'Enfance du Christ, Benvenuto Cellini, La Damnation de Faust, and Les Troyens. Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works, and conducted several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 compositions for voice, accompanied by piano or orchestra. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, and Gustav Mahler. [1]

277 relations: Abruzzo, Acupuncture, Aeneid, Affair, Agnosticism, Alexandre Dumas, Alfred de Musset, Alfred de Vigny, André Cluytens, Anton Reicha, Anton Rubinstein, Autobiography, Autograph, Émile Signol, Étienne Méhul, Baden-Baden, Baton (conducting), Béatrice et Bénédict, Beethoven Monument, Bonn, Benvenuto Cellini, Benvenuto Cellini (opera), Berlioz Point, Blas Matamoro, Bonn, Book burning, Braunschweig, Brussels, Bureaucracy, Burial, Camille Pleyel, Cantata, Carbonari, Carl Maria von Weber, Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, Catholic Church, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chamber music, Charles Dutoit, Charles Hallé, Charles Munch (conductor), Child prodigy, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Choir, Choral symphony, Christian liturgy, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Clarinet, Classical guitar, Classical music, Colin Davis, ..., Comédie en vaudevilles, Comic opera, Communes of France, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, Conservatoire de Paris, Corum (Montpellier), Covent Garden, Cylinder Audio Archive, D. Kern Holoman, Darmstadt, David Cairns (writer), Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht, Debt, Departments of France, Der Freischütz, Dido, Dresden, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ernest Legouvé, Everyman's Library, Felix Mendelssohn, Flageolet, Florence, Flute, François Habeneck, François-Joseph Fétis, François-René de Chateaubriand, Frankfurt, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, French Academy in Rome, French Revolution of 1848, Gaspare Spontini, Gastrointestinal disease, Gérard de Nerval, Genoa, George Sand, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Gioachino Rossini, Giuseppe Verdi, Goethe's Faust, Grand opera, Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale, Grenoble, Gustav Mahler, Gustave Flaubert, Hamlet, Hanover, Hans von Bülow, Harold en Italie, Harriet Smithson, Havana, Hechingen, Heinrich Heine, Heinrich Marschner, Henri Herz, Honoré de Balzac, Ignaz Pleyel, Invitation to the Dance (Weber), Iphigénie en Tauride (Gluck), Isère, Jacques Chirac, James Fenimore Cooper, Jean-François Le Sueur, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Eliot Gardiner, Joseph Haydn, Journal des débats, Jules Janin, Jules Massenet, Juliet, July Revolution, King Lear, Kingdom of Sardinia, L'enfance du Christ, La Côte-Saint-André, La damnation de Faust, La Marseillaise, La vestale, Latin, Laudanum, Lélio, Legion of Honour, Leitmotif, Les francs-juges, Les Invalides, Les nuits d'été, Les Troyens, Letter (message), Libretto, List of concert halls, List of minor planets: 69001–70000, Literature, Lord Byron, Lost work, Louis-Antoine Jullien, Ludwig van Beethoven, Luigi Cherubini, Macbeth, Mannheim, Manuscript, Masterpiece, Mémoires (Berlioz), Mediterranean Sea, Messe solennelle (Berlioz), Mikhail Glinka, Milan, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky, Montmartre Cemetery, Moog synthesizer, Much Ado About Nothing, Musical instrument, Musopen, Naples, Napoleon, National anthem, Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, Niccolò Paganini, Nice, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, Opéra Bastille, Opéra-Comique, Ophelia, Opus number, Oratorio, Orchestra pit, Orchestration, Outlaw, Overture, Overtures by Hector Berlioz, Panthéon, Paris Opera, Patient, Paul Paray, Penguin Books, Peter Cornelius, Piano Concerto No. 3 (Beethoven), Piano sonata, Pierre Boulez, Pierre Monteux, Place de la Bastille, Pompeii, President of France, Privateer, Prix de Rome, Prix de Rome cantatas (Berlioz), Program music, Promenade concert, Province, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Rafael Kubelík, Random House, Recitative, Requiem (Berlioz), Richard Pohl, Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner, Rob Roy (novel), Robert Schumann, Romantic music, Romantic poetry, Romanticism, Roméo et Juliette (Berlioz), Romeo and Juliet, Royal Opera House, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Conservatory, Sainte-Trinité, Paris, Sarcasm, Sheet music, Sinfonia concertante, Song cycle, Spasm, St Paul's Cathedral, Stanley Kubrick, Steinway & Sons, Stephen King, String quartet, Strychnine, Stuttgart, Symphonic poem, Symphonie fantastique, Symphony, Symphony No. 3 (Beethoven), Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven), Tannhäuser (opera), Te Deum (Berlioz), Teacher, Théâtre du Châtelet, Théâtre Lyrique, Théophile Gautier, The Five (composers), The Shining (film), The Tempest, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, Thomas De Quincey, Thomas Moore, Three Bs, Timpani, Tivoli, Lazio, Treatise on Instrumentation, Tristia (Berlioz), Turin, Tutti, University of California, Davis, University of California, Santa Barbara, Vial, Victor Hugo, Villa Medici, Viola, Viola concerto, Violin Concerto (Beethoven), Virgil, Virtuoso, Vladimir Stasov, W. H. Auden, Walter Scott, Waverley Novels, Weimar, Wendy Carlos, Will and testament, William Shakespeare, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Work of art, Yellow fever. Expand index (227 more) »


Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.

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Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.

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The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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An affair is a sexual relationship, romantic friendship, or passionate attachment between two people without the attached person's significant other knowing.

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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Alexandre Dumas

Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.

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Alfred de Musset

Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay (11 December 1810 – 2 May 1857) was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist.

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Alfred de Vigny

Alfred Victor, Comte de Vigny (27 March 1797 – 17 September 1863) was a French poet and early leader of French Romanticism.

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André Cluytens

André Cluytens (born Augustin Zulma Alphonse Cluytens; 26 March 19053 June 1967)Baeck E. André Cluytens: Itinéraire d’un chef d’orchestre. Editions Mardaga, Wavre, 2009.

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Anton Reicha

Anton (Antonín, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (26 February 1770 – 28 May 1836) was a Czech-born, later naturalized French composer.

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Anton Rubinstein

Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

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An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.

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Autograph is a famous person's artistic signature.

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Émile Signol

Émile Signol (March 11, 1804 – October 4, 1892) was a French artist who painted history paintings, portraits, and genre works.

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Étienne Méhul

Étienne Nicolas Méhul (22 June 1763 – 18 October 1817) was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution".

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Baden-Baden is a spa town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.

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Baton (conducting)

A baton is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to enlarge and enhance the manual and bodily movements associated with directing an ensemble of musicians.

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Béatrice et Bénédict

Béatrice et Bénédict (Beatrice and Benedick) is an opéra comique in two acts by Hector Berlioz.

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Beethoven Monument, Bonn

The Beethoven Monument is a large bronze statue of Ludwig van Beethoven that stands on the Münsterplatz in Bonn, Beethoven's birthplace.

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Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini (3 November 150013 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry.

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Benvenuto Cellini (opera)

Benvenuto Cellini is an opera semiseria in two acts with music by Hector Berlioz and libretto by Léon de Wailly and Henri Auguste Barbier.

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Berlioz Point

Berlioz Point is a snow-covered headland on the south side of Beethoven Peninsula, Alexander Island, marking the northwest entrance point to the embayment occupied by Bach Ice Shelf.

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Blas Matamoro

Blas Matamoro (born January 11, 1942 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is an Argentine writer, lawyer, journalist and translator.

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The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.

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Book burning

Book burning is the ritual destruction by fire of books or other written materials, usually carried out in a public context.

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Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.

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Camille Pleyel

Joseph Étienne Camille Pleyel (December 18, 1788 – May 4, 1855) was a French virtuoso pianist, publisher, and owner of Pleyel et Cie.

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A cantata (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.

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The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

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Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein

Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (February 8, 1819March 9, 1887) was a Polish noblewoman who pursued a 40-year liaison/relationship with Franz Liszt.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.

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Chamber music

Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.

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Charles Dutoit

Charles Édouard Dutoit (born 7 October 1936) is a Swiss conductor.

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Charles Hallé

Sir Charles Hallé (11 April 181925 October 1895) was an Anglo-German pianist and conductor, and founder of The Hallé orchestra in 1858.

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Charles Munch (conductor)

Charles Munch (born Charles Münch; 26 September 1891 – 6 November 1968) was an Alsacian, German-born symphonic conductor and violinist.

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Child prodigy

In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.

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Childe Harold's Pilgrimage

Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is a lengthy narrative poem in four parts written by Lord Byron.

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A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Choral symphony

A choral symphony is a musical composition for orchestra, choir, and sometimes solo vocalists that, in its internal workings and overall musical architecture, adheres broadly to symphonic musical form.

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Christian liturgy

Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis.

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Christoph Willibald Gluck

Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

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The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.

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Classical guitar

The classical guitar (also known as concert guitar, classical acoustic, nylon-string guitar, or Spanish guitar) is the member of the guitar family used in classical music.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Colin Davis

Sir Colin Rex Davis (25 September 1927 – 14 April 2013) was an English conductor, known for his association with the London Symphony Orchestra, having first conducted it in 1959.

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Comédie en vaudevilles

The comédie en vaudevilles was a theatrical entertainment which began in Paris towards the end of the 17th century, in which comedy was enlivened through lyrics using the melody of popular vaudeville songs.

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Comic opera

Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.

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Communes of France

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

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Confessions of an English Opium-Eater

Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821) is an autobiographical account written by Thomas De Quincey, about his laudanum addiction and its effect on his life.

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Conservatoire de Paris

The Conservatoire de Paris (English: Paris Conservatory) is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University.

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Corum (Montpellier)

Montpellier's Corum is a building that houses both a conference centre and an opera house (Opéra Berlioz), and is located in the centre of the city in southern France.

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Covent Garden

Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.

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Cylinder Audio Archive

The Cylinder Audio Archive is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Library with streaming and downloadable versions of over 10,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1893 and the mid-1920s.

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D. Kern Holoman

Dallas Kern Holoman (born September 8, 1947) is an American musicologist and conductor, particularly known for his scholarship on the life and works of Hector Berlioz.

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Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).

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David Cairns (writer)

David Adam Cairns CBE (born 8 June 1926, Loughton, Essex) is a British journalist, non-fiction writer and musician.

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Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht

Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht (17 September 188014 February 1965) was a French composer, conductor and writer.

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Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Der Freischütz

, Op. 77, J. 277, (usually translated as The Marksman or The Freeshooter) is a German opera with spoken dialogue in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber with a libretto by Friedrich Kind.

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Dido was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first queen of Carthage.

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Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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E. T. A. Hoffmann

Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.

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Ernest Legouvé

Gabriel Jean Baptiste Ernest Wilfrid Legouvé (14 February 1807 – 14 March 1903) was a French dramatist.

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Everyman's Library

Everyman's Library is a series of reprinted classic literature currently published in hardback by Random House.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.

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The flageolet is a woodwind instrument and a member of the fipple flute family.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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François Habeneck

François Antoine Habeneck (22 January 1781 – 8 February 1849) was a French classical violinist and conductor.

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François-Joseph Fétis

François-Joseph Fétis (25 March 1784 – 26 March 1871) was a Belgian musicologist, composer, teacher, and one of the most influential music critics of the 19th century.

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François-René de Chateaubriand

François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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French Academy in Rome

The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.

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French Revolution of 1848

The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.

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Gaspare Spontini

Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini (14 November 177424 January 1851) was an Italian opera composer and conductor.

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Gastrointestinal disease

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Gérard de Nerval

Gérard de Nerval (22 May 1808 – 26 January 1855) was the nom-de-plume of the French writer, poet, essayist and translator Gérard Labrunie.

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Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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George Sand

Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her nom de plume George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist.

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Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.

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Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Goethe's Faust

Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, usually known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two.

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Grand opera

Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.

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Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (English: Grand Funeral and Triumphal Symphony), Op.

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Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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Gustave Flaubert

Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.

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The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.

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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hans von Bülow

Baron Hans Guido von Bülow (January 8, 1830February 12, 1894) was a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era.

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Harold en Italie

Harold en Italie, Symphonie en quatre parties avec un alto principal (English: Harold in Italy, Symphony in Four Parts with Viola Obbligato), Op.

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Harriet Smithson

Harriet Constance (1800–1854), most commonly known as Harriet Smithson, who also went by Henrietta Constance Smithson,, Murphy, Groghegan, 2015 p.196.

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Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.

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Hechingen is a town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

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Heinrich Heine

Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, journalist, essayist, and literary critic.

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Heinrich Marschner

Heinrich August Marschner (16 August 1795 – 14 December 1861) was the most important composer of German opera between Weber and Wagner.

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Henri Herz

Henri Herz (6 January 1803 – 5 January 1888) was a pianist and composer, Austrian by birth and French by domicile.

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Honoré de Balzac

Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.

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Ignaz Pleyel

Ignace Joseph Pleyel (18 June 1757 – 14 November 1831) was an Austrian-born French composer and piano builder of the Classical period.

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Invitation to the Dance (Weber)

Invitation to the Dance (Aufforderung zum Tanz), Op.

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Iphigénie en Tauride (Gluck)

Iphigénie en Tauride (Iphigenia in Tauris) is a 1779 opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts.

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Isère (Arpitan: Isera, Occitan: Isèra) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère.

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Jacques Chirac

Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.

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James Fenimore Cooper

James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.

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Jean-François Le Sueur

Jean-François Le Sueur (more commonly Lesueur) (15 February 17606 October 1837) was a French composer, best known for his oratorios and operas.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Eliot Gardiner

Sir John Eliot Gardiner, CBE HonFBA (born 20 April 1943) is an English conductor, particularly known for his performances of the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and of other baroque music.

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Joseph Haydn

(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.

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Journal des débats

The Journal des débats (French for: Journal of Debates) was a French newspaper, published between 1789 and 1944 that changed title several times.

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Jules Janin

Jules Gabriel Janin (16 February 1804 – 19 June 1874) was a French writer and critic.

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Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.

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Juliet Capulet is the female protagonist in William Shakespeare's romantic tragedy Romeo and Juliet.

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July Revolution

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.

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King Lear

King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.

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Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.

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L'enfance du Christ

L'enfance du Christ (The Childhood of Christ), Opus 25, is an oratorio by the French composer Hector Berlioz, based on the Holy Family's flight into Egypt (see Gospel of Matthew 2:13).

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La Côte-Saint-André

La Côte-Saint-André is a commune in the Isère department in southeastern France.

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La damnation de Faust

La damnation de Faust (English: The Damnation of Faust), Op.

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La Marseillaise

"La Marseillaise" is the national anthem of France.

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La vestale

La vestale (The Vestal Virgin) is an opera composed by Gaspare Spontini to a French libretto by Étienne de Jouy.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).

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Lélio, ou Le retour à la vie (English: Lélio, or the Return to Life) Op.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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A leitmotif or leitmotiv is a "short, constantly recurring musical phrase"Kennedy (1987), Leitmotiv associated with a particular person, place, or idea.

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Les francs-juges

Les francs-juges (translated as "The Free Judges" or "The Judges of the Secret Court") is the title of an unfinished opera by the French composer Hector Berlioz written to a libretto by his friend Humbert Ferrand in 1826.

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Les Invalides

Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.

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Les nuits d'été

Les nuits d'été (Summer Nights), Op.

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Les Troyens

Les Troyens (in English: The Trojans) is a French grand opera in five acts by Hector Berlioz.

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Letter (message)

A letter is one person's written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern.

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A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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List of concert halls

A concert hall is a cultural building with a stage that serves as a performance venue and an auditorium filled with seats.

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List of minor planets: 69001–70000

No description.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Lost work

A lost work is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist.

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Louis-Antoine Jullien

Louis-Antoine Jullien (23 April 181214 March 1860) was a French conductor and composer of light music.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Luigi Cherubini

Luigi Cherubini (8 or 14 SeptemberWillis, in Sadie (Ed.), p. 833 1760 – 15 March 1842) was a Classical and pre-Romantic composer from Italy who spent most of his working life in France.

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Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.

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Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.

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A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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Mémoires (Berlioz)

The Mémoires de Hector Berlioz are an autobiography by French composer Hector Berlioz.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Messe solennelle (Berlioz)

Messe solennelle is a setting of the Catholic Solemn Mass by the French composer Hector Berlioz.

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Mikhail Glinka

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Mikhaíl Ivánovich Glínka) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Mily Balakirev

Mily Alexeyevich Balakirev (Ми́лий Алексе́евич Бала́кирев,; 2 January 1837 –)Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style.

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Modest Mussorgsky

Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (mɐˈdɛst pʲɪˈtrovʲɪtɕ ˈmusərkskʲɪj; –) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five".

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Montmartre Cemetery

Montmartre Cemetery (Cimetière de Montmartre) is a cemetery in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, France, that dates to the early 19th century.

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Moog synthesizer

Moog synthesizer (pronounced; often anglicized to, though Robert Moog preferred the former) may refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for older-generation analog music synthesizers.

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Much Ado About Nothing

Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare thought to have been written in 1598 and 1599, as Shakespeare was approaching the middle of his career.

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Musical instrument

A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.

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Musopen Inc.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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Neue Zeitschrift für Musik

Die Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (New Journal of Music) is a music magazine, co-founded in Leipzig by Robert Schumann, his teacher and future father-in law Friedrich Wieck, and his close friend Ludwig Schuncke.

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Niccolò Paganini

Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer.

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Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

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Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov

Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.

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Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe

The Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe (formerly the Théâtre de l'Odéon) is one of France's six national theatres.

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Opéra Bastille

The Opéra Bastille (French) (Bastille Opera House) is a modern opera house in Paris, France.

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The Opéra-Comique is a Parisian opera company, which was founded around 1714 by some of the popular theatres of the Parisian fairs.

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Ophelia is a character in William Shakespeare's drama Hamlet.

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Opus number

In musical composition, the opus number is the "work number" that is assigned to a composition, or to a set of compositions, to indicate the chronological order of the composer's production.

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An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.

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Orchestra pit

An orchestra pit is the area in a theater (usually located in a lowered area in front of the stage) in which musicians perform.

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Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.

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In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.

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Overture (from French ouverture, "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.

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Overtures by Hector Berlioz

The French composer Hector Berlioz wrote a number of overtures, many of which have become popular concert items.

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The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.

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Paris Opera

The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.

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A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Paul Paray

Paul M. A. Charles Paray (24 May 1886 – 10 October 1979) was a French conductor, organist and composer.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Peter Cornelius

Carl August Peter Cornelius (24 December 1824 – 26 October 1874) was a German composer, writer about music, poet and translator.

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Piano Concerto No. 3 (Beethoven)

The Piano Concerto No.

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Piano sonata

A piano sonata is a sonata written for a solo piano.

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Pierre Boulez

Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE (26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and founder of institutions.

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Pierre Monteux

Pierre Benjamin Monteux (4 April 18751 July 1964) was a French (later American) conductor.

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Place de la Bastille

The Place de la Bastille is a square in Paris where the Bastille prison stood until the storming of the Bastille and its subsequent physical destruction between 14 July 1789 and 14 July 1790 during the French Revolution.

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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.

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Prix de Rome

The Prix de Rome or Grand Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France.

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Prix de Rome cantatas (Berlioz)

The French composer Hector Berlioz made four attempts at winning the Prix de Rome music prize, finally succeeding in 1830.

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Program music

Program music or programme music is a type of art music that attempts to musically render an extra-musical narrative.

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Promenade concert

Although the term promenade concert is often associated today with the Proms summer classical music concert series founded in 1895 by Robert Newman and the conductor Henry Wood, the term originally referred to concerts in the pleasure gardens of London, where the audience could stroll about while listening to the music (French se promener.

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A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.

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Rafael Kubelík

Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (29 June 191411 August 1996) was a Czech-born conductor and composer.

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Random House

Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.

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Recitative (also known by its Italian name "recitativo") is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.

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Requiem (Berlioz)

The Grande Messe des morts (or Requiem), Op.

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Richard Pohl

Richard Pohl (September 12, 1826 – December 17, 1896) was a German music critic, writer, poet, and amateur composer.

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Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 – 8 September 1949) was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

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Richard Wagner

Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").

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Rob Roy (novel)

Rob Roy (1817) is a historical novel by Walter Scott.

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Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romantic poetry

Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Roméo et Juliette (Berlioz)

Roméo et Juliette is a symphonie dramatique, a large-scale choral symphony by French composer Hector Berlioz, which was first performed on 24 November 1839.

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Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.

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Royal Opera House

The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint Petersburg Conservatory

The N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory (Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) is a music school in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Sainte-Trinité, Paris

The Église de la Sainte-Trinité is a Roman Catholic church located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Sarcasm is "a sharp, bitter, or cutting expression or remark; a bitter gibe or taunt".

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Sheet music

Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.

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Sinfonia concertante

Sinfonia concertante (also called symphonie concertante) is an orchestral work, normally in several movements, in which there are parts of solo instruments, generally two or more, contrasting of a group of soloists with the full orchestra.

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Song cycle

A song cycle (Liederkreis or Liederzyklus) is a group, or cycle, of individually complete songs designed to be performed in a sequence as a unit.

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A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.

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St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.

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Stanley Kubrick

Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Steinway & Sons

Steinway & Sons, also known as Steinway, is an American-German piano company, founded in 1853 in Manhattan, New York City, the United States, by German piano builder Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg (later known as Henry E. Steinway).

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Stephen King

Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, and fantasy.

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String quartet

A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.

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Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.

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Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Symphonic poem

A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, usually in a single continuous movement, which illustrates or evokes the content of a poem, short story, novel, painting, landscape, or other (non-musical) source.

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Symphonie fantastique

(Fantastical Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts) Op. 14, is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830.

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A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

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Symphony No. 3 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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Tannhäuser (opera)

Tannhäuser (full title Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf Wartburg, "Tannhäuser and the Minnesingers' Contest at Wartburg") is an 1845 opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on two German legends; Tannhäuser, the legendary medieval German Minnesänger and poet, and the tale of the Wartburg Song Contest.

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Te Deum (Berlioz)

The Te Deum (Op. 22 / H.118) by Hector Berlioz (1803–1869) was completed in 1849.

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A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.

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Théâtre du Châtelet

The Théâtre du Châtelet is a theatre and opera house, located in the place du Châtelet in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Théâtre Lyrique

The Théâtre Lyrique was one of four opera companies performing in Paris during the middle of the 19th century (the other three being the Opéra, the Opéra-Comique, and the Théâtre-Italien).

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Théophile Gautier

Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.

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The Five (composers)

The Five, also known as the Mighty Handful and the New Russian School, were five prominent 19th-century Russian composers who worked together to create distinct Russian classical music.

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The Shining (film)

The Shining is a 1980 horror film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick and co-written with novelist Diane Johnson.

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The Tempest

The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–1611, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone.

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Theatre Royal, Drury Lane

The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, is a West End theatre and Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London, England.

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Thomas De Quincey

Thomas Penson De Quincey (15 August 17858 December 1859) was an English essayist, best known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).

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Thomas Moore

Thomas Moore (28 May 1779 – 25 February 1852) was an Irish poet, singer, songwriter, and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of "The Minstrel Boy" and "The Last Rose of Summer".

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Three Bs

"The Three Bs" is an English-language phrase derived from an expression coined by Peter Cornelius in 1854, which added Hector Berlioz as the third B to occupy the heights already occupied by Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven.

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Timpani or kettledrums (also informally called timps) are musical instruments in the percussion family.

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Tivoli, Lazio

Tivoli (Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.

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Treatise on Instrumentation

Grand traité d’instrumentation et d’orchestration modernes, abbreviated in English as the Treatise on Instrumentation (sometimes Treatise on Orchestration) is a technical study of Western musical instruments, written by Hector Berlioz.

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Tristia (Berlioz)

Tristia, Op.

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Tutti is an Italian word literally meaning all or together and is used as a musical term, for the whole orchestra as opposed to the soloist.

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University of California, Davis

The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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A vial (also known as a phial or flacon) is a small glass or plastic vessel or bottle, often used to store medication as liquids, powders or capsules.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Villa Medici

The Villa Medici is a Mannerist villa and an architectural complex with a garden contiguous with the larger Borghese gardens, on the Pincian Hill next to Trinità dei Monti in Rome, Italy.

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The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.

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Viola concerto

A viola concerto is a concerto contrasting a viola with another body of musical instruments such as an orchestra or chamber music ensemble.

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Violin Concerto (Beethoven)

Ludwig van Beethoven composed a Violin Concerto in D major, Op. 61, in 1806.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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A virtuoso (from Italian virtuoso or, "virtuous", Late Latin virtuosus, Latin virtus, "virtue", "excellence", "skill", or "manliness") is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability in a particular art or field such as fine arts, music, singing, playing a musical instrument, or composition.

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Vladimir Stasov

Vladimir Vasilievich Stasov (sometimes transliterated as Stassov; Влади́мир Васи́льевич Ста́сов; 14 January 1824, Saint Petersburg – 23 October 1906, Saint Petersburg), son of Russian architect Vasily Petrovich Stasov (1769–1848), was probably the most respected Russian critic during his lifetime.

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W. H. Auden

Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.

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Walter Scott

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.

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Waverley Novels

The Waverley Novels are a long series of novels by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).

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Weimar (Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany.

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Wendy Carlos

Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos; November 14, 1939) is an American musician and composer best known for her electronic music and film scores.

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Will and testament

A will or testament is a legal document by which a person, the testator, expresses their wishes as to how their property is to be distributed at death, and names one or more persons, the executor, to manage the estate until its final distribution.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Work of art

A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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Berlioz, Berlioz, Hector, Hector Berlios, Louis Hector Berlioz, Louis-Hector Berlioz.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector_Berlioz

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