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Hedge fund

Index Hedge fund

A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques. [1]

259 relations: Absolute return, Accounting, Accounting standard, Accredited investor, Activist shareholder, Alfred Winslow Jones, Alpha (finance), Alternative investment, Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive 2011, Appaloosa Management, Arbitrage, Arthur J. Samberg, Asset, Asset-backed security, Assets under management, Autocorrelation, Back office, Bankruptcy, Barclays, Ben Bernanke, Benjamin Graham, Bermuda, Bernard Madoff, Bill Ackman, Bloomberg L.P., BlueCrest Capital Management, Board of directors, Bond market, Brevan Howard, Brexit, Bridgewater Associates, British Virgin Islands, CalPERS, Carl Levin, Cayman Islands, Charitable trust, Chief executive officer, Chief investment officer, Closed-end fund, Commodity, Commodity Exchange Act, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Commodity trading advisor, Concentration risk, Connecticut, Convertible arbitrage, Convertible security, Corporate governance, CQS (Asset Manager), Currency, ..., Custodian bank, Daniel Och, David Einhorn (hedge fund manager), David Tepper, Debt, Derivative (finance), Deutsche Bank, Distressed securities, Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Domicile (law), Dot-com bubble, Drawdown (economics), Dublin, Economies of scale, Elliott Management Corporation, Emerging markets, Europe, European Central Bank, European Union, Event-driven investing, Exchange-traded fund, Federal Reserve System, Financial Conduct Authority, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial endowment, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Financial instrument, Financial risk management, Financial Services Authority, Financial signal processing, Financial Times, Fixed income, Fixed income arbitrage, Flow-through entity, Forbes, Foreign exchange market, France, Frank Partnoy, Frankfurt, Fund governance, Fund of funds, Fundamental analysis, Futures contract, Gary J. Aguirre, General partner, George Soros, Glenn Dubin, Global macro, Government Accountability Project, Great Recession in the United States, Greenlight Capital, Hedge (finance), Hedge Fund Standards Board, Highbridge Capital Management, Index (economics), Index fund, Insider trading, Institutional investor, Internal Revenue Service, International Financial Reporting Standards, International Organization of Securities Commissions, International standard, Investment Advisers Act of 1940, Investment banking, Investment fund, Investment management, Ireland, Irish Stock Exchange, Israel Englander, Jamie Dinan, Jensen's alpha, John J. Mack, John Meriwether, John Paulson, Julian Robertson, La Défense, Larry Robbins, Legal Affairs, Legal person, Lehman Brothers, Leon G. Cooperman, Leverage (finance), Libor, Limited liability company, Limited partnership, Liquidity risk, List of hedge funds, Listing (finance), Lone Pine Capital, Long (finance), Long-Term Capital Management, Long/short equity, Luxembourg, Macroeconomics, Man Group, Management fee, Margin (finance), Market anomaly, Market liquidity, Market neutral, Market sector, Market trend, Mathematics, Mergers and acquisitions, Michael Hintze, Michael Platt (financier), Modern portfolio theory, More Money Than God, Morgan Stanley, Museum of American Finance, Mutual fund, Naked Capitalism, National Bureau of Economic Research, Net asset value, New York (magazine), New York City, Normal distribution, Och-Ziff Capital Management, Offering circular, Offshore financial centre, Offshore fund, Omega ratio, Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan, Open-end fund, Operational due diligence, Operations management, Option (finance), Paul Singer (businessman), Paul Tudor Jones, Paulson & Co., Pension, Pension fund, Pequot Capital Management, Performance fee, Pershing Square Capital Management, Point72 Asset Management, Ponzi scheme, Portugal, Position (finance), Private equity fund, Private placement, Pro rata, Quantum Group of Funds, Questia Online Library, Questionnaire, Ray Dalio, Recession of 1969–70, Relative value (economics), Renaissance Technologies, Restructuring, Return on investment, Risk, Risk (magazine), Risk arbitrage, Risk parity, S&P 500 Index, Securities Act of 1933, Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Security (finance), Selection bias, Self-selection bias, Sharpe ratio, Short (finance), Software, South Africa, Special situation, Statistical arbitrage, Statistics, Stephen Mandel (hedge fund manager), Steven A. Cohen, Stock, Stock exchange, Stock market, Subscription (finance), Swap (finance), Systematic trading, Systemic risk, Tax exemption, Taxable income, Technical analysis, The Journal of Wealth Management, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Tiger Management, Too big to fail, Trader (finance), Transparency (market), Trend following, Treynor ratio, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Underlying, Unit trust, United Kingdom, United States, United States dollar, United States House Committee on Financial Services, United States Senate Committee on Finance, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate Homeland Security Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Valuation (finance), Valuation risk, Value at risk, Volatility (finance), Volatility arbitrage, Vulture fund, Warren Buffett, Western Connecticut, 130–30 fund, 1973–74 stock market crash. Expand index (209 more) »

Absolute return

The absolute return or simply return is a measure of the gain or loss on an investment portfolio expressed as a percentage of invested capital.

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Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations.

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Accounting standard

Financial statements prepared and presented by a company typically follow an external standard that specifically guides their preparation.

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Accredited investor

An accredited or sophisticated investor is an investor with a special status under financial regulation laws.

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Activist shareholder

An activist shareholder is a shareholder that uses an equity stake in a corporation to put pressure on its management.

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Alfred Winslow Jones

Alfred Winslow Jones (9 September 1900 – 2 June 1989) was an Australian investor, hedge fund manager, and sociologist.

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Alpha (finance)

Alpha is a measure of the active return on an investment, the performance of that investment compared with a suitable market index.

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Alternative investment

An alternative investment or alternative investment fund (AIF) is an investment in asset classes other than stocks, bonds, and cash.

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Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive 2011

The Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (or "AIFMD" for short) is an EU law on the financial regulation of hedge funds, private equity, real estate funds, and other "Alternative Investment Fund Managers" (AIFMs) in the European Union.

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Appaloosa Management

Appaloosa Management is an American hedge fund founded in 1993 by David Tepper and Jack Walton specializing in distressed debt.

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In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices.

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Arthur J. Samberg

Arthur J. Samberg (born 1941) was the chief executive officer, president and chairman of Pequot Capital Management, a hedge fund which at one point was the largest in the world at over $15 billion.

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In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.

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Asset-backed security

An asset-backed security (ABS) is a security whose income payments and hence value are derived from and collateralized (or "backed") by a specified pool of underlying assets.

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Assets under management

In finance, assets under management (AUM), sometimes called funds under management (FUM), measures the total market value of all the financial assets which a financial institution such as a mutual fund, venture capital firm, or brokerage house manages on behalf of its clients and themselves.

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Autocorrelation, also known as serial correlation, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay.

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Back office

A back office in most corporations is where tasks building layout of early companies where the front office would contain the sales and other customer-facing staff and the back office would be those manufacturing or developing the products or those involved in administration without being seen by customers.

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Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Barclays plc is a British multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in London.

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Ben Bernanke

Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, from 2006 to 2014.

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Benjamin Graham

Benjamin Graham (né Grossbaum; May 9, 1894 – September 21, 1976) was a British-born American investor, economist, and professor.

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Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.

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Bernard Madoff

Bernard "Bernie" Lawrence Madoff (born April 29, 1938) is an American former stockbroker, investment advisor, financier, and admitted fraudster.

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Bill Ackman

William Albert Ackman (born May 11, 1966) is an American billionaire investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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BlueCrest Capital Management

BlueCrest Capital Management is an American hedge fund which was founded by American William Reeves and Brit Michael Platt in 2000.

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Board of directors

A board of directors is a recognized group of people who jointly oversee the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency.

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Bond market

The bond market (also debt market or credit market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market.

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Brevan Howard

Brevan Howard (Brevan Howard Asset Management LLP) is a European hedge fund management company based in Jersey with its funds domiciled in the Cayman islands.

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Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).

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Bridgewater Associates

Bridgewater Associates is an American investment management firm founded by Ray Dalio in 1975.

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British Virgin Islands

The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.

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The California Public Employees' Retirement System (CalPERS) is an agency in the California executive branch that "manages pension and health benefits for more than 1.6 million California public employees, retirees, and their families".

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Carl Levin

Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1979 - 2015.

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Cayman Islands

The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.

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Charitable trust

A charitable trust is an irrevocable trust established for charitable purposes and, in some jurisdictions, a more specific term than "charitable organization".

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Chief executive officer

Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.

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Chief investment officer

The chief investment officer (CIO) is a job title for the board level head of investments within an organization.

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Closed-end fund

A closed-end fund (CEF) or closed-ended fund is a collective investment model based on issuing a fixed number of shares which are not redeemable from the fund.

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Commodity Exchange Act

Commodity Exchange Act (ch. 545,, enacted June 15, 1936) is a federal act passed in 1936 by the U.S. Government (replacing the Grain Futures Act of 1922).

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Commodity Futures Trading Commission

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.

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Commodity trading advisor

A Commodity trading advisor (CTA) is US financial regulatory term for an individual or organization who is retained by a fund or individual client to provide advice and services related to trading in futures contracts, commodity options and/or swaps.

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Concentration risk

Concentration risk is a banking term denoting the overall spread of a bank's outstanding accounts over the number or variety of debtors to whom the bank has lent money.

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Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Convertible arbitrage

Convertible arbitrage is a market-neutral investment strategy often employed by hedge funds.

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Convertible security

A convertible security is a security that can be converted into another security.

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.

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CQS (Asset Manager)

CQS is a London-based global multi-strategy credit-focused asset management firm.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Custodian bank

A custodian bank, or simply custodian, is a specialized financial institution responsible for safeguarding a firm's or individual's financial assets and is not engaged in "traditional" commercial or consumer/retail banking such as mortgage or personal lending, branch banking, personal accounts, automated teller machines (ATMs) and so forth.

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Daniel Och

Daniel Och (born 1961) is an American billionaire investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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David Einhorn (hedge fund manager)

David M. Einhorn (born November 20, 1968) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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David Tepper

David Alan Tepper (born September 14, 1957) is an American billionaire businessman, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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Derivative (finance)

In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.

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Deutsche Bank

Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.

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Distressed securities

Distressed securities are securities over companies or government entities that are experiencing financial or operational distress, default, or are under bankruptcy.

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Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by US President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.

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Domicile (law)

In law, domicile is the status or attribution of being a lawful permanent resident in a particular jurisdiction.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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Drawdown (economics)

The drawdown is the measure of the decline from a historical peak in some variable (typically the cumulative profit or total open equity of a financial trading strategy).

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Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

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Elliott Management Corporation

Elliott Management Corporation is an American investment management firm.

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Emerging markets

An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Event-driven investing

Event-driven investing is a hedge fund investment strategy that seeks to exploit pricing inefficiencies that may occur before or after a corporate event, such as an earnings call, bankruptcy, merger, acquisition, or spinoff.

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Exchange-traded fund

An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.

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Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.

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Financial Conduct Authority

The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) is a financial regulatory body in the United Kingdom, but operates independently of the UK Government, and is financed by charging fees to members of the financial services industry.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial endowment

A financial endowment is a donation of money or property to a nonprofit organization for the ongoing support of that organization.

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Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA) is a private corporation that acts as a self-regulatory organization (SRO).

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Financial instrument

Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.

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Financial risk management

Financial risk management is the practice of economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk: operational risk, credit risk and market risk, foreign exchange risk, shape risk, volatility risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk, business risk, legal risk, reputational risk, sector risk etc.

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Financial Services Authority

The Financial Services Authority (FSA) was a quasi-judicial body responsible for the regulation of the financial services industry in the United Kingdom between 2001 and 2013.

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Financial signal processing

Financial signal processing is a branch of signal processing technologies which applies to financial signals.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Fixed income

Fixed income refers to any type of investment under which the borrower or issuer is obliged to make payments of a fixed amount on a fixed schedule.

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Fixed income arbitrage

Fixed-income arbitrage is an investment strategy generally associated with hedge funds, which consists of the discovery and exploitation of inefficiencies in the pricing of bonds, i.e. instruments from either public or private issuers, yielding a contractually fixed stream of income.

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Flow-through entity

A flow-through entity (FTE) is a legal entity where income "flows through" to investors or owners; that is, the income of the entity is treated as the income of the investors or owners.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frank Partnoy

Frank Partnoy is the George E. Barrett Professor of Law and Finance and is the founding director of the Center on Corporate and Securities Law at the University of San Diego. He is one of the world’s leading experts on the complexities of modern finance and financial market regulation. He worked as a derivatives structurer at Morgan Stanley and CS First Boston during the mid-1990s and wrote, a best-selling book about his experiences there.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Fund governance

Fund governance refers to a system of checks and balances and work performed by the governing body (board) of an investment fund to ensure that the fund is operated in the best interests of the fund and its investors.

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Fund of funds

A "fund of funds" (FOF) is an investment strategy of holding a portfolio of other investment funds rather than investing directly in stocks, bonds or other securities.

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Fundamental analysis

Fundamental analysis, in accounting and finance, is the analysis of a business's financial statements (usually to analyze the business's assets, liabilities, and earnings); health; and its competitors and markets.

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Futures contract

In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

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Gary J. Aguirre

Gary J. Aguirre is an American lawyer, former investigator with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and whistleblower.

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General partner

General partner is a person who joins with at least one other person to form a business.

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George Soros

George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.

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Glenn Dubin

Glenn Russell Dubin (born April 13, 1957) is the Principal of Dubin & Co.

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Global macro

Global macro is an investment strategy based on the interpretation and prediction of large-scale events related to national economies, history, and international relations.

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Government Accountability Project

The Government Accountability Project (GAP) is a whistleblower protection and advocacy organization in the United States.

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Great Recession in the United States

The Great Recession in the United States was a severe financial crisis combined with a deep recession.

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Greenlight Capital

Greenlight Capital is a hedge fund founded in 1996 by David Einhorn.

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Hedge (finance)

A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.

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Hedge Fund Standards Board

The Standards Board for Alternative Investments (SBAI), formerly known as the Hedge Fund Standards Board, is an international standard-setting body for the alternative investment industry and sets the voluntary standard of best practices and practices endorsed by its members.

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Highbridge Capital Management

Highbridge Capital Management, LLC is a US$9.13 billion multi-strategy alternative investment management firm founded by Glenn Dubin and Henry Swieca in 1992.

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Index (economics)

In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points.

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Index fund

An index fund (also index tracker) is a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF) designed to follow certain preset rules so that the fund can a specified basket of underlying investments.

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Insider trading

Insider trading is the trading of a public company's stock or other securities (such as bonds or stock options) by individuals with access to nonpublic information about the company.

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Institutional investor

An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans.

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Internal Revenue Service

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.

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International Financial Reporting Standards

International Financial Reporting Standards, usually called IFRS, are standards issued by the IFRS Foundation and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to provide a common global language for business affairs so that company accounts are understandable and comparable across international boundaries.

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International Organization of Securities Commissions

The International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) is an association of organisations that regulate the world’s securities and futures markets.

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International standard

International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations.

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Investment Advisers Act of 1940

The Investment Advisers Act of 1940, codified at through, is a United States federal law that was created to monitor and regulate the activities of investment advisers (also spelled "advisors") as defined by the law.

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Investment banking

An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.

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Investment fund

An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group.

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Investment management

Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish Stock Exchange

The Irish Stock Exchange (ISE; Stocmhalartán na hÉireann) is Ireland's main stock exchange, and has been in existence since 1793.

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Israel Englander

Israel Englander (born 1948) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Jamie Dinan

James Gerard Dinan (born 1959) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, philanthropist.

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Jensen's alpha

In finance, Jensen's alpha (or Jensen's Performance Index, ex-post alpha) is used to determine the abnormal return of a security or portfolio of securities over the theoretical expected return.

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John J. Mack

John J. Mack (born November 17, 1944) is a Senior Advisor and the former CEO & Chairman of the Board at Morgan Stanley, the New York-based investment bank and brokerage firm.

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John Meriwether

John William Meriwether (born August 10, 1947) is an American hedge fund executive, seen as a pioneer of fixed income arbitrage.

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John Paulson

John Alfred Paulson (born December 14, 1955) is an American investor, hedge fund manager and philanthropist.

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Julian Robertson

Julian Hart Robertson Jr. (born June 25, 1932) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, philanthropist and signatory of The Giving Pledge.

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La Défense

La Défense is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris.

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Larry Robbins

Larry Robbins (born 1969) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Legal Affairs

Legal Affairs was an American magazine that was launched under the auspices of Yale Law School, and which later became an independent non-profit venture with an educational mission.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Lehman Brothers

Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. (former NYSE ticker symbol LEH) was a global financial services firm.

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Leon G. Cooperman

Leon G. "Lee" Cooperman (born April 25, 1943) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Leverage (finance)

In finance, leverage (sometimes referred to as gearing in the United Kingdom and Australia) is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost.

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The London Inter-bank Offered Rate is the average of interest rates estimated by each of the leading banks in London that it would be charged were it to borrow from other banks.

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Limited liability company

A limited liability company (LLC) is the United States of America-specific form of a private limited company.

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Limited partnership

A limited partnership (LP) is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners (GPs), a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner.

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Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is a financial risk that for a certain period of time a given financial asset, security or commodity cannot be traded quickly enough in the market without impacting the market price.

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List of hedge funds

Here are the ten largest hedge funds in the world ranked by assets under management as of mid 2016.

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Listing (finance)

In corporate finance, a listing refers to the company's shares being on the list (or board) of stock that are officially traded on a stock exchange.

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Lone Pine Capital

Lone Pine Capital is an American-based hedge fund, based in Greenwich, Connecticut, established in 1997 by its president and portfolio manager, Stephen Mandel.

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Long (finance)

In finance, a long position in a financial instrument, means the holder of the position owns a positive amount of the instrument.

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Long-Term Capital Management

Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund management firmA financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001, Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank Consolidation", M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002 based in Greenwich, Connecticut that used absolute-return trading strategies combined with high financial leverage.

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Long/short equity

Long/short equity is an investment strategy generally associated with hedge funds, and more recently certain progressive traditional asset managers.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Man Group

Man Group plc is an active management business initially founded as a sugar cooperage and brokerage by James Man in 1783.

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Management fee

In the investment advisory industry, a management fee is a periodic payment that is paid by an investment fund to the fund's investment adviser for investment and portfolio management services.

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Margin (finance)

In finance, margin is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty (most often their broker or an exchange) to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty.

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Market anomaly

A market anomaly (or market inefficiency) in a financial market is a price and/or rate of return distortion that seems to contradict the efficient-market hypothesis.

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Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.

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Market neutral

An investment strategy or portfolio is considered market-neutral if it seeks to avoid some form of market risk entirely, typically by hedging.

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Market sector

The term market sector is used in economics and finance to describe a part of the economy.

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Market trend

A market trend is a perceived tendency of financial markets to move in a particular direction over time.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.

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Michael Hintze

Sir Michael Hintze, (born 27 July 1953) is a British-Australian businessman, philanthropist and Conservative Party patron, based in the United Kingdom.

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Michael Platt (financier)

Michael Edward Platt (born 12 December 1968) is an English investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Modern portfolio theory

Modern portfolio theory (MPT), or mean-variance analysis, is a mathematical framework for assembling a portfolio of assets such that the expected return is maximized for a given level of risk.

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More Money Than God

More Money Than God: Hedge Funds and the Making of a New Elite (2010) is a financial book by Sebastian Mallaby published by Penguin Press.

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Morgan Stanley

Morgan Stanley is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered at 1585 Broadway in the Morgan Stanley Building, Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Museum of American Finance

The Museum of American Finance is the United States's only independent public museum dedicated to preserving, exhibiting and teaching about American finance and financial history.

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Mutual fund

A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities.

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Naked Capitalism

Naked Capitalism is an American financial news and analysis blog that "chronicles the large scale, concerted campaign to reduce the bargaining power and pay of ordinary workers relative to investors and elite technocrats".

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National Bureau of Economic Research

The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.

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Net asset value

Net asset value (NAV) is the value of an entity's assets minus the value of its liabilities, often in relation to open-end or mutual funds, since shares of such funds registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission are redeemed at their net asset value.

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New York (magazine)

New York is an American biweekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

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Och-Ziff Capital Management

Och-Ziff Capital Management Group (OZ Management) is an American hedge fund manager and global alternative asset management firm.

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Offering circular

An offering memorandum (OM) or offering circular (OC) is a type of prospectus (finance) for a bond or other security.

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Offshore financial centre

An offshore financial centre (OFC) is a jurisdiction specializing in providing corporate and commercial services, such as offshore banking licenses (international banking license) or the incorporation of offshore companies (international business companies).

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Offshore fund

An offshore fund is a term which generally refers to a collective investment scheme domiciled in an offshore jurisdiction.

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Omega ratio

The Omega ratio is a risk-return performance measure of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy.

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Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan

The Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan Board (Ontario Teachers'; French: Régime de retraite des enseignantes et des enseignants de l'Ontario or RREO), is an independent organization responsible for administering defined-benefit pensions for school teachers of the Canadian province of Ontario.

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Open-end fund

Open-end fund (or open-ended fund) is a collective investment scheme that can issue and redeem shares at any time.

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Operational due diligence

Operational due diligence (ODD) is the process by which a potential purchaser reviews the operational aspects of a target company during mergers and acquisitions.

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Operations management

Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services.

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Option (finance)

In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.

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Paul Singer (businessman)

Paul Elliott Singer (born August 22, 1944) is an American billionaire hedge fund manager, activist investor, and philanthropist.

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Paul Tudor Jones

Paul Tudor Jones II (born September 28, 1954) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Paulson & Co.

Paulson & Co.

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A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments.

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Pension fund

A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.

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Pequot Capital Management

Pequot Capital Management was a multibillion-dollar hedge fund sponsor founded in 1998 by Arthur J. Samberg that announced it was closing in 2009.

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Performance fee

A performance fee is a fee that a client account or an investment fund may be charged by the investment manager that manages its assets.

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Pershing Square Capital Management

Pershing Square Capital Management is an American hedge fund management company founded and run by Bill Ackman, located at 888 7th Avenue in New York.

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Point72 Asset Management

Point72 Asset Management, L.P., is an American hedge fund managing the assets of its founder, Steven A. Cohen, and eligible employees.

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Ponzi scheme

A Ponzi scheme (also a Ponzi game) is a form of fraud in which a purported businessman lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors using funds obtained from newer investors.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Position (finance)

In finance, a position is the amount of a particular security, commodity or currency held or owned by a person or entity.

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Private equity fund

A private equity fund is a collective investment scheme used for making investments in various equity (and to a lesser extent debt) securities according to one of the investment strategies associated with private equity.

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Private placement

Private placement (or non-public offering) is a funding round of securities which are sold not through a public offering, but rather through a private offering, mostly to a small number of chosen investors.

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Pro rata

Pro rata is an adverb or adjective, meaning in proportion.

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Quantum Group of Funds

The Quantum Group of Funds are privately owned hedge funds based in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles) and Cayman Islands.

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Questia Online Library

Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.

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A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

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Ray Dalio

Raymond Dalio (born August 8, 1949) is an American billionaire investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Recession of 1969–70

The Recession of 1969–1970 was a relatively mild recession in the United States.

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Relative value (economics)

In finance, relative value is the attractiveness measured in terms of risk, liquidity, and return of one financial instrument relative to another, or for a given instrument, of one maturity relative to another.

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Renaissance Technologies

Renaissance Technologies LLC is an East Setauket, New York-based American hedge fund firm founded in 1982 by James Simons, an award-winning mathematician and former Cold War code breaker, which specializes in systematic trading using quantitative models derived from mathematical and statistical analyses.

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Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present needs.

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Return on investment

Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resource.

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Risk (magazine)

Risk magazine provides news and analysis covering the financial industry, with a particular focus on risk management, derivatives and complex finance.

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Risk arbitrage

Risk arbitrage, also known as merger arbitrage, is a hedge fund investment strategy that speculates on the successful completion of mergers and acquisitions.

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Risk parity

Risk parity (or risk premia parity) is an approach to investment portfolio management which focuses on allocation of risk, usually defined as volatility, rather than allocation of capital.

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S&P 500 Index

The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.

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Securities Act of 1933

The United States Congress enacted the Securities Act of 1933, also known as the 1933 Act, the Securities Act, the Truth in Securities Act, the Federal Securities Act, or the '33 Act, Title I of Pub.

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Securities Exchange Act of 1934

The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (also called the Exchange Act, '34 Act, or 1934 Act) (codified at et seq.) is a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America.

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Security (finance)

A security is a tradable financial asset.

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Selection bias

Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.

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Self-selection bias

In statistics, self-selection bias arises in any situation in which individuals select themselves into a group, causing a biased sample with nonprobability sampling.

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Sharpe ratio

In finance, the Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) is a way to examine the performance of an investment by adjusting for its risk.

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Short (finance)

In finance, a short sale (also known as a short, shorting, or going short) is the sale of an asset (securities or other financial instrument) that the seller does not own.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Special situation

Special situation in finance is an event turning business to go not as usual and materially impacting a company's value.

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Statistical arbitrage

In finance, statistical arbitrage (often abbreviated as Stat Arb or StatArb) is a class of short-term financial trading strategies that employ mean reversion models involving broadly diversified portfolios of securities (hundreds to thousands) held for short periods of time (generally seconds to days).

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stephen Mandel (hedge fund manager)

Stephen Frank Mandel, Jr (born March 12, 1956) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Steven A. Cohen

Steven A. Cohen (born June 11, 1956) is an American investor, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.

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Stock exchange

A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.

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Stock market

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

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Subscription (finance)

Subscription refers to the process of investors signing up and committing to invest in a financial instrument, before the actual closing of the purchase.

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Swap (finance)

A swap is a derivative contract where two parties exchange financial instruments.

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Systematic trading

Systematic trading (also known as mechanical trading) is a way of defining trade goals, risk controls and rules that can make investment and trading decisions in a methodical way.

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Systemic risk

In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market, as opposed to risk associated with any one individual entity, group or component of a system, that can be contained therein without harming the entire system.

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Tax exemption

Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.

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Taxable income

Taxable income refers to the base upon which an income tax system imposes tax.

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Technical analysis

In finance, technical analysis is an analysis methodology for forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume.

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The Journal of Wealth Management

The Journal of Wealth Management is a quarterly academic journal covering the management of high-net-worth taxable portfolios.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Tiger Management

Tiger Management Corp., also known as "The Tiger Fund," is an American hedge fund and family office founded by Julian Robertson.

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Too big to fail

The "too big to fail" theory asserts that certain corporations, particularly financial institutions, are so large and so interconnected that their failure would be disastrous to the greater economic system, and that they therefore must be supported by government when they face potential failure.

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Trader (finance)

A trader is person or entity, in finance, who buys and sells financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, commodities, derivatives, and mutual funds in the capacity of agent, hedger, arbitrageur, or speculator.

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Transparency (market)

In economics, a market is transparent if much is known by many about: What products and services or capital assets are available, market depth (quantity available), what price, and where.

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Trend following

Trend following or trend trading is a trading strategy according to which one should buy an asset when its price trend goes up, and sell when its trend goes down, expecting price movements to continue.

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Treynor ratio

The Treynor ratio (sometimes called the reward-to-volatility ratio or Treynor measure), named after Jack L. Treynor, is a measurement of the returns earned in excess of that which could have been earned on an investment that has no diversifiable risk (e.g., Treasury bills or a completely diversified portfolio), per each unit of market risk assumed.

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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.

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In finance, the underlying of a derivative is an asset, basket of assets, index, or even another derivative, such that the cash flows of the (former) derivative depend on the value of this underlying.

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Unit trust

A unit trust is a form of collective investment constituted under a trust deed.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States House Committee on Financial Services

The United States House Committee on Financial Services (also referred to as the House Banking Committee) is the committee of the United States House of Representatives that oversees the entire financial services industry, including the securities, insurance, banking, and housing industries.

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United States Senate Committee on Finance

The United States Senate Committee on Finance (or, less formally, Senate Finance Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary

The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 21 U.S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice (DOJ), consider executive nominations, and review pending legislation.

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United States Senate Homeland Security Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations

The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI), stood up in March 1941 as the "Truman Committee," is the oldest subcommittee of the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (formerly the Committee on Government Operations).

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Valuation (finance)

In finance, valuation is the process of determining the present value (PV) of an asset.

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Valuation risk

Valuation risk is the financial risk that an asset is overvalued and is worth less than expected when it matures or is sold.

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Value at risk

Value at risk (VaR) is a measure of the risk of loss for investments.

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Volatility (finance)

In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

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Volatility arbitrage

In finance, volatility arbitrage (or vol arb) is a type of statistical arbitrage that is implemented by trading a delta neutral portfolio of an option and its underlying.

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Vulture fund

A vulture fund is a hedge fund, private equity fund or distressed debt fund, that invests in debt considered to be very weak or in default, known as distressed securities.

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Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.

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Western Connecticut

Western Connecticut is a geographic region of Connecticut, defined by the Connecticut Council of Governments as being located in the southwest corner of the state.

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130–30 fund

A 130–30 fund or a ratio up to 150/50 is a type of collective investment vehicle, often a type of specialty mutual fund, but which allows the fund manager simultaneously to hold both long and short positions on different equities in the fund.

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1973–74 stock market crash

The 1973–74 stock market crash caused a bear market between January 1973 and December 1974.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedge_fund

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