264 relations: Ace of spades, Adolf Galland, Aerobatics, Agriculture, Ahlen, Amberg, Ashford, Kent, Babruysk, Bad Aibling, Ballantine Books, Battle of Britain, Battle of France, Battle of Lechfeld (955), Béthune, Bell P-39 Airacobra, Benelux, Beriev MBR-2, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Braunschweig, Braunschweig LF-1 Zaunkönig, Bristol Beaufighter, Calais, Call sign, Canterbury, Cap Bon, Chartres, Confirmation and overclaiming of aerial victories during World War II, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Crimea, Crimean Campaign, Curtiss P-36 Hawk, Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, De Havilland Mosquito, Defence of the Reich, Deutsche Luft Hansa, Deventer, Dietrich Peltz, Douglas A-20 Havoc, Dungeness (headland), Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Front Medal, Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe, Eindhoven, Eindhoven Airport, El Agheila, El Alamein, English Channel, Ergänzungs-Jagdgeschwader, Fallersleben, Fatnassa, ..., Federated state, Feldwebel, Fighter aircraft, Flight lieutenant, Flight officer, Flight sergeant, Flying ace, Flying officer, Focke-Wulf Fw 190, Fouka, Egypt, Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller, Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe, Gabès, Günther Lützow, Günther Rall, Gefreiter, General officer, Generalmajor, German Cross, German Empire, German Federal Archives, Germersheim, Geschwaderkommodore, Glider (sailplane), Gliding, Gordon Gollob, Great Depression, Grevenbroich, Gruppenkommandeur, Hajo Herrmann, Halberstadt, Hanover, Hans-Jürgen von Arnim, Hans-Joachim Marseille, Hauptmann, Hawker Hurricane, Hawker Typhoon, Hawkinge, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Heinkel He 111, Heinrich Hoffmann (pilot), Herbert Ihlefeld, Hermann Göring, Hero of the Soviet Union, Hildesheim, History of the Armée de l'Air (1909–1942), Hugo Sperrle, Ilyushin DB-3, Ilyushin Il-2, Inspector of Fighters, Instrument flight rules, Iron Cross, Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War II), Jagdgeschwader 3, Jagdgeschwader 51, Jagdgeschwader 77, Jagdverband 44, Joachim Müncheberg, Johannes Steinhoff, Junkers, Junkers Ju 86, Karl Koller (general), Kerch Strait, Killed in action, Kingdom of Saxony, Klaus Neumann, Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Latitude, Lauterbourg, Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3, Le Touquet, Leipzig, Leutnant, Libya, Lieutenant, Lieutenant colonel, Lieutenant general, Lingen, Germany, List of aviators who became ace in a day, List of German World War II jet aces, List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (Schu–Sz), List of World War II flying aces, Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Longitude, Lower Saxony, Ludwigslust, Luftwaffe, Major (Germany), Major general, Manfred von Richthofen, Margate, Marsaxlokk, Martin B-26 Marauder, Medenine, Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II, Merger (politics), Messerschmitt Me 262, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3, Military reserve force, Minute and second of arc, MK 108 cannon, Mologino, Tver Oblast, Neuburg an der Donau, No. 112 Squadron RAF, No. 185 Squadron RAF, No. 3 Squadron RAAF, No. 450 Squadron RAAF, No. 601 Squadron RAF, No. 92 Squadron RAF, Non-commissioned officer, Norman Franks, North Africa, North African Campaign, North American B-25 Mitchell, North American P-51 Mustang, Oberfeldwebel, Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, Oberleutnant, Oberst, Oberstleutnant, Oldenburg, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Bodenplatte, Organization of the Luftwaffe (1933–45), Osnabrück, Osprey Publishing, Petlyakov Pe-2, Phoney War, Pilot/Observer Badge, Polikarpov I-153, Polikarpov I-16, Polikarpov R-5, Prague, Reichsmarschall, Reichswehr, Republic Aviation, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, Royal Air Force, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Sallum, Salzburg, Salzwedel, Samer, Saxony, Söllingen, Self-sealing fuel tank, Sergeant, Sheepskin boots, Siege of Malta (World War II), Soviet Air Forces, Squadron leader, St. Paul's Bay, Stadthagen, Staffelkapitän, Starnice, Strafing, Strait of Dover, Stuttgart, Supermarine Spitfire, Taucha, Terespol, Test pilot, Thames Estuary, Thélepte, Tripolitania, Trudering-Riem, Tunisia, Tunisian Campaign, Tupolev SB, Tupolev TB-3, Uniforms of the Heer (1935–45), United States Army, United States Army Air Forces, Unteroffizier, Upper Saxon German, Valletta, Veliky Novgorod, Verden an der Aller, Volksschule, Walter Krupinski, Walter Oesau, Warrant officer, Wehrmachtbericht, Werner Mölders, Werner Schröer, West Germany, Western Front (World War I), Western Front (World War II), Wilhelm Herget, Wing commander (rank), Wingman, Wissembourg, World War I, World War II, Wound Badge, Wurzen, Zwolle, 1 Squadron SAAF, 1st Operations Group, 21 Squadron SAAF, 2nd Air Corps (Germany), 31st Operations Group, 33d Operations Group, 4 Squadron SAAF, 438 Tactical Helicopter Squadron, 458th Air Expeditionary Group, 65th Aggressor Squadron, 66th Weapons Squadron, 81st Fighter-Bomber Group, 97th Operations Group, 9th Air Corps (Germany), 9th Air Division (Germany). Expand index (214 more) » « Shrink index
The ace of spades (also known as the spadille) is traditionally the highest card in the deck of playing cards, at least in English-speaking countries.
Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Galland (19 March 1912 – 9 February 1996) was a German Luftwaffe general and flying ace who served throughout the Second World War in Europe.
Aerobatics (a portmanteau of aerial-acrobatics) is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahlen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Amberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany.
Ashford is a town in the county of Kent, England.
Babruysk, Babrujsk, or Bobruisk (Бабру́йск, Łacinka: Babrujsk, Бобру́йск, Bobrujsk, באברויסק) is a city in the Mogilev Region of eastern Belarus on the Berezina river.
Bad Aibling is a spa town and former district seat in Bavaria on the river Mangfall, located some southeast of Munich.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr.
Béthune (archaic and Bethwyn historically in English) is a city in northern France, sub-prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais department.
The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal American fighter aircraft in service when the United States entered World War II.
The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
The Beriev MBR-2 was a Soviet multi-purpose (including reconnaissance) flying boat which entered service with the Soviet Navy in 1935.
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC).
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
The Braunschweig LF-1 Zaunkönig, (LF – Langsames Flugzeug – literally, slow aircraft), is a STOL single-seat light aircraft designed in 1939 by Prof.
The Bristol Type 156 Beaufighter (often referred to simply as the "Beau") is a multi-role aircraft developed during the Second World War by the Bristol Aeroplane Company in the United Kingdom.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a unique designation for a transmitter station.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Cap Bon (الرأس الطيب), also Watan el-kibli, is a peninsula in far northeastern Tunisia.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
In aerial warfare, the term overclaiming describes a combatant (or group) that claims the destruction of more enemy aircraft than actually achieved.
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator is an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimea Campaign was an eight-month-long campaign by Axis forces to conquer the Crimea peninsula, and was the scene of some of the bloodiest battles on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also known as the Curtiss Hawk Model 75, is an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s.
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938.
The de Havilland DH.98 Mosquito is a British twin-engine shoulder-winged multi-role combat aircraft.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Nazi Germany during World War II.
Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (from 1933 styled as Deutsche Lufthansa and also known as Luft Hansa, Lufthansa, or DLH) was a German airline, serving as flag carrier of the country during the later years of the Weimar Republic and throughout Nazi Germany.
Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
Dietrich Peltz (9 June 1914 – 10 August 2001) was a German World War II Luftwaffe bomber pilot and youngest general of the Wehrmacht.
The Douglas A-20 Havoc (company designation DB-7) is a United States attack, light bomber, intruder, and reconnaissance aircraft of World War II.
Dungeness is a headland on the coast of Kent, England, formed largely of a shingle beach in the form of a cuspate foreland.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Front Medal was a World War II German military decoration awarded to both German and Axis personnel.
The Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe (Honor Goblet of the Luftwaffe) was a Luftwaffe award established on 27 February 1940 by ''Reichsmarschall'' Hermann Göring, the Reich Minister of Aviation and Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe.
Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.
Eindhoven Airport is an airport located west of Eindhoven, Netherlands.
El Agheila (العقيلة al-'Uqaylah) is a coastal city at the bottom of the Gulf of Sidra in far western Cyrenaica, Libya.
El Alamein (العلمين.,, literally "the two worlds") is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
A Ergänzungs-Jagdgeschwader (EJG) was a Luftwaffe replacement training unit which was part of a larger operational Jagdgeschwader.
Fallersleben is a district in the City of Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany, with a population of 11,269 (as of 2010).
Fatnassa is a small village in the Kebili Governorate in the south west of Tunisia.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
Feldwebel (Fw or F), literally "field usher", is a non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank in several countries.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Flight Lieutenant (Flt Lt in the RAF and IAF; FLTLT in the RAAF and RNZAF—formerly sometimes F/L in all services) is a junior commissioned air force rank that originated in the Royal Naval Air Service and is still used in the Royal Air Force and many other countries, especially in the Commonwealth.
The title flight officer was a military rank used by the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Flight sergeant (commonly abbreviated to Flt Sgt, F/Sgt, FSGT or, currently correctly in the RAF, FS) is a senior non-commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and several other air forces which have adopted all or part of the RAF rank structure.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Würger (Shrike) is a German single-seat, single-engine fighter aircraft designed by Kurt Tank in the late 1930s and widely used during World War II.
Fouka or Fukah (Arabic: فوكة) is a locale in the Matrouh Governorate in northern Egypt.
Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller (25 December 1916 – 29 May 1944) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1935 until his death on 29 May 1944.
The Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe (Frontflugspange) was a World War II German military decoration awarded to aircrew and certain other Luftwaffe personnel in recognition of the number of operational flights flown.
Gabès (قابس), also spelled Cabès, Cabes, Kabes, Gabbs and Gaps, is the capital city of the Gabès Governorate in Tunisia.
Günther Lützow (4 September 1912 – 24 April 1945) was a German Luftwaffe aviator and fighter ace credited with 110 enemy aircraft shot down in over 300 combat missions.
Günther Rall (10 March 1918 – 4 October 2009) was a German lieutenant-general, the third most successful fighter ace in history and later head of the West German Air Force during the Cold War.
Gefreiter (abbr. Gefr.) is a German, Swiss and Austrian military rank that has existed since the 16th century.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
The German Cross (Deutsches Kreuz) was instituted by Adolf Hitler on 28 September 1941.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Federal Archives or Bundesarchiv (BArch) (Bundesarchiv) are the National Archives of Germany.
Germersheim is a town in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, of around 20,000 inhabitants.
Geschwaderkommodore (short also Kommodore) is a Luftwaffe position or appointment (not rank), originating during World War II.
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding.
Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive air sport in which pilots fly unpowered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes using naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne.
Gordon Max "Mac" Gollob (16 June 1912 – 7 September 1987) was a German fighter pilot during World War II.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Grevenbroich (known as the "Capital of Energy") is a town in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Gruppenkommandeur is a Luftwaffe position (not rank), that is the equivalent of a commander of a group or wing in other air forces.
Hans-Joachim "Hajo" Herrmann (1 August 1913 – 5 November 2010) was a German lawyer whose high-profile cases included the defense of neo-Nazis and genocide deniers.
Halberstadt is a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, the capital of Harz district.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.
Hans-Joachim Walter Rudolf Siegfried Marseille (13 December 1919 – 30 September 1942) was a German fighter pilot during World War II.
Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian and Swiss armies.
The Hawker Hurricane is a British single-seat fighter aircraft of the 1930s–1940s that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd.
The Hawker Typhoon (Tiffy in RAF slang) is a British single-seat fighter-bomber, produced by Hawker Aircraft.
Hawkinge is now a town and civil parish in the Folkestone and Hythe district of Kent, England.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Heinkel He 111 was a German aircraft designed by Siegfried and Walter Günter at Heinkel Flugzeugwerke in 1934.
Heinrich Hoffmann (8 March 1913 – 3 October 1941) was a German fighter ace in the Luftwaffe during World War II.
Herbert Ihlefeld (1 June 1914 – 8 August 1995) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during the Spanish Civil War and World War II, a fighter ace listed with 130 enemy aircraft shot down in over 1,000 combat missions.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
Hildesheim (Eastphalian: Hilmessen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany with 103,804 inhabitants.
The Armée de l'Air (literally, "army of the air") is the name used for the French Air Force in its native language since it was made independent of the Army in 1933.
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Ilyushin DB-3, where "DB" stands for Dalniy Bombardirovschik (Russian: Дальний бомбардировщик) meaning "long-range bomber", was a Soviet bomber aircraft of World War II.
The Ilyushin Il-2 (Cyrillic: Илью́шин Ил-2) Shturmovik (Cyrillic: Штурмови́к, Shturmovík) was a ground-attack aircraft produced by the Soviet Union in large numbers during the Second World War.
Inspector of Fighters (German language: Inspekteur der Jagdflieger redesignated to General der Jagdflieger (General of Fighters)) was not a rank but a leading position within the High Command of the German Luftwaffe in Nazi Germany.
Instrument flight rules (IFR) is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations; the other is visual flight rules (VFR).
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
2./JG 13./JG 14./JG 1gruppenStab./JG 1 --> Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1) was a German World War II fighter unit or "wing" which used the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190 aircraft, between 1940 and 1944.
Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3) "Udet" was a Luftwaffe fighter-wing of World War II.
Jagdgeschwader 51 (JG 51) was a German fighter wing during World War II.
Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77) Herz As ("Ace of Hearts") was a Luftwaffe fighter wing during World War II.
Jagdverband 44 (JV 44) was a German air unit during World War II.
Joachim Müncheberg (31 December 1918 – 23 March 1943) was a German Luftwaffe fighter pilot during World War II and an ace credited with 135 air victories.
Johannes "Macky" Steinhoff (15 September 1913 – 21 February 1994) was a Luftwaffe fighter ace during World War II, German general, and NATO official.
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.
The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s, and employed by various air forces on both sides during World War II.
Karl Koller (22 February 1898 – 22 December 1951) was a German General der Flieger and the Chief of the General Staff of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Kerch Strait (Керченский пролив, Керченська протока, Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
Klaus Neumann (born 4 January 1942) is a German athlete.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lauterbourg (historically in English: Lauterburgh) is a commune and Bas-Rhin department in the Grand Est administrative region in north-eastern France.
The Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 (Лавочкин-Горбунов-Гудков ЛаГГ-3) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II.
Le Touquet-Paris-Plage, commonly referred to as Le Touquet, is a commune near Etaples,in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leutnant (OF-1b) is the lowest Lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany (Bundeswehr), Austrian Armed Forces, and military of Switzerland.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lingen is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The term "ace in a day" is used to designate a pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day, based on usual definition of an "ace" as one with five or more aerial victories.
This list of German World War II jet aces has a sortable table of notable German jet ace pilots during World War II.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
This is a list of World War II flying aces.
The Lockheed P-38 Lightning is a World War II-era American piston-engined fighter aircraft.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Ludwigslust is a central castle town of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, 40 km south of Schwerin.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Major is the lowest staff officer rank in the German Army (Heer), German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen (2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also known as the "Red Baron", was a fighter pilot with the German Air Force during World War I. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories.
Margate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in Kent, England.
Marsaxlokk is a traditional fishing village in the South Eastern Region of Malta, with a population of 3,534 as of March 2014.
The Martin B-26 Marauder was an American World War II twin-engined medium bomber built by the Glenn L. Martin Company in Middle River, Maryland (just east of Baltimore) from 1941 to 1945.
Medenine (مدنين) is the major town in south-eastern Tunisia, south of the port of Gabès and the Island of Djerba, on the main route to Libya.
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
A merger, consolidation or amalgamation, in a political or administrative sense, is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities, such as municipalities (in other words cities, towns, etc.), counties, districts, etc., into a single entity.
The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe (German: "Swallow") in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel (German: "Storm Bird") in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1 (Микоян-Гуревич МиГ-1) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II that was designed to meet a requirement for a high-altitude fighter issued in 1939.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-3) was a Soviet fighter and interceptor aircraft used during World War II.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The MK 108 (German: Maschinenkanone—"machine cannon") was a 30 mm caliber autocannon manufactured in Germany during World War II by Rheinmetall‑Borsig for use in aircraft.
Mologino (Мологино) is a village in Rzhevsky District of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Neuburg an der Donau, literally Newcastle on the river Danube, is a town which is the capital of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district in the state of Bavaria in Germany.
No. 92 Squadron, also known as No 92 (East India) Squadron, of the Royal Air Force was formed as part of the Royal Flying Corps at London Colney as a fighter squadron on 1 September 1917. It deployed to France in July 1918 and saw action for just four months, until the end of the war. During the conflict it flew both air superiority and direct ground support missions. It was disbanded at Eil on 7 August 1919. Reformed on 10 October 1939, the unit was supposed to be equipped with medium bombers but in the spring of 1940 it became one of the first RAF units to receive the Supermarine Spitfire.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
Norman Leslie Robert Franks (born 1940) is an English militaria writer who specialises in aviation topics.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The North American B-25 Mitchell is an American twin-engine, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation (NAA).
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.
Oberfeldwebel (OFw or OF) is the fourth-lowest non-commissioned officer (NCO) rank in German Army and German Air Force.
The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL), translated as the High Command of the Air Force in English, was the high command of the Luftwaffe.
Oberleutnant (OF-1a) is the highest lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany (Bundeswehr), Austrian Armed Forces, and Military of Switzerland.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.
Oberstleutnant is a German Army and German Air Force rank equal to lieutenant colonel, above Major, and below Oberst.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Bodenplatte (Baseplate), launched on 1 January 1945, was an attempt by the Luftwaffe to cripple Allied air forces in the Low Countries during the Second World War.
Between 1933 and 1945, the organization of the Luftwaffe underwent several changes.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
The Petlyakov Pe-2 (Петляков Пе-2) was a Soviet light bomber used during World War II.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
The Pilot/Observer Badge (Flugzeugführer- und Beobachterabzeichen) was a World War II German military decoration awarded to Luftwaffe service personnel who had already been awarded the Pilot's Badge and Observer Badge.
The Polikarpov I-153 Chaika (Russian Чайка, "Seagull") was a late 1930s Soviet biplane fighter.
The Polikarpov I-16 was a Soviet fighter aircraft of revolutionary design; it was the world's first low-wing cantilever monoplane fighter with retractable landing gear to attain operational status and as such "introduced a new vogue in fighter design."Green, William.
The Polikarpov R-5 was a Soviet reconnaissance bomber aircraft of the 1930s.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Reichsmarschall, Marshal of the Reich (literal translation: Empire or Realm), was the highest rank in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
The Republic Aviation Corporation was an American aircraft manufacturer based in Farmingdale, Long Island, New York.
The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt was a World War II era fighter aircraft produced by the United States from 1941 through 1945.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (lit.: Saint Marys of the Sea, Provençal Occitan: Lei Santei Marias de la Mar) is the capital of the Camargue (Provençal Occitan Camarga) in the south of France.
Sallum, As Sallum, or Sollum (السلوم "Alternative") is a village in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
Salzwedel (officially known as Hansestadt Salzwedel, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is the capital of the district (Kreis) of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel, and has a population of approximately 21,500. Salzwedel is located on the German Timber-Frame Road.
Samer (Samé) is a commune and in the Pas-de-Calais department in the Hauts-de-France region of France.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Not to be confused with Solingen, North Rihine Westphalia. Söllingen is a municipality in the district of Helmstedt, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Used primarily in aviation, self-sealing is a technology—in wide use since World War II—that prevents fuel tanks or bladders from leaking fuel and igniting after being damaged by enemy fire.
Sergeant (abbreviated to Sgt and capitalized when used as a named person's title) is a rank in many uniformed organizations, principally military and policing forces.
Sheepskin boots are boots made from sheepskin.
The Siege of Malta in the Second World War was a military campaign in the Mediterranean Theatre.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
Squadron leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF; SQNLDR in the RAAF and RNZAF; formerly sometimes S/L in all services) is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence.
Saint Paul's Bay (San Pawl il-Baħar, Baia di San Paolo) is a town in the Northern Region of Malta, sixteen kilometres northwest of the capital Valletta.
Stadthagen is the capital of the district of Schaumburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Staffelkapitän is a position (not a rank) in flying units (''Staffel'') of the German Luftwaffe that is the equivalent of RAF/USAF Squadron Commander.
Starnice, Starnitz, is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dębnica Kaszubska, within Słupsk County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.
Strafing is the military practice of attacking ground targets from low-flying aircraft using aircraft-mounted automatic weapons Less commonly, the term can be used—by extension—to describe high-speed firing runs by any land or naval craft (e.g. fast boats) using smaller-caliber weapons and targeting stationary or slow-moving targets.
The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
Taucha is a town in the district of Nordsachsen, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Terespol is a town in eastern Poland on the border with Belarus.
A test pilot is an aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques or FTTs, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
Thelepte (تلابت) was a city in the Roman province of Byzacena, now in western Tunisia.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Trudering-Riem is the 15th borough of Munich, Bavaria, consisting of the districts Trudering and Riem.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB (Скоростной бомбардировщик – Skorostnoi Bombardirovschik – high speed bomber) and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934.
The Tupolev TB-3 (Тяжёлый Бомбардировщик, Tyazholy Bombardirovschik, Heavy Bomber, civilian designation ANT-6) was a heavy bomber aircraft which was deployed by the Soviet Air Force in the 1930s and during World War II.
The following is a general overview of the Heer main uniforms, though there were so many specialist uniforms and variations that not all (such as camouflage, Luftwaffe, tropical, extreme winter) can be included.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
Unteroffizier is a military rank of the Bundeswehr and of former German-speaking armed forces (Heer and Luftwaffe).
Upper Saxon (Obersächsisch) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern German State of Saxony and in the adjacent parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" (lit. "The City") in Maltese.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Verden an der Aller, also called Verden (Aller) or simply Verden, is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the river Aller.
The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person (i.e. the people, Volk) is required to attend.
Walter Krupinski (11 November 1920 – 7 October 2000) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace in World War II and a senior West German Air Force officer during the Cold War.
Walter "Gulle" Oesau (28 June 1913 – 11 May 1944) was a German fighter pilot during World War II.
A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organisation who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, and a non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer, often by virtue of seniority.
Wehrmachtbericht (literally: "Armed forces report", usually translated as Wehrmacht communiqué or Wehrmacht report) was the daily Wehrmacht High Command mass-media communiqué and a key component of Nazi propaganda during World War II.
Werner Mölders (18 March 1913 – 22 November 1941) was a German fighter pilot during World War II and a leading German fighter ace.
Werner Schröer (12 February 1918 – 10 February 1985) was a German World War II fighter ace credited with shooting down 114 enemy aircraft.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
Wilhelm Herget (30 June 1910 – 27 March 1974) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a night fighter ace credited with 73—15 daytime and 58 nighttime—enemy aircraft shot down in over 700 combat missions.
Wing commander (Wg Cdr in the RAF, the IAF, and the PAF, WGCDR in the RNZAF and RAAF, formerly sometimes W/C in all services) is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including many Commonwealth countries but not including Canada and South Africa.
A wingman (or wingmate) is a pilot who supports another in a potentially dangerous flying environment.
Wissembourg (South Franconian: Weisseburch, pronounced; German) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in northeastern France.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wound Badge (Verwundetenabzeichen) was a military decoration first promulgated by Wilhelm II, German Emperor on 3 March 1918, which was awarded to wounded or frostbitten soldiers of the Imperial German Army, during World War I. Between the world wars, it was awarded to members of the German armed forces who fought on the Nationalist side of the Spanish Civil War, 1938–39, and received combat related wounds.
Wurzen is a town in the Leipzig district, in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital.
1 Squadron SAAF was an air force squadron of the South African Air Force and was formed at Air Force Station Swartkop in February 1920, equipped with De Havilland DH.9's part of the Imperial Gift donation to South Africa by Britain.
The 1st Operations Group (1 OG) is the flying component of the 1st Fighter Wing, assigned to the USAF Air Combat Command.
21 Squadron SAAF is a squadron of the South African Air Force.
2nd Air Corps (II. Fliegerkorps) was formed on 11 October 1939 in Frankfurt am Main from the 2. Flieger-Division.
The 31st Operations Group is the flying component of the 31st Fighter Wing, assigned to the United States Air Forces in Europe.
The 33d Operations Group is the flying component of the 33d Fighter Wing, assigned to Air Education and Training Command of the United States Air Force.
4 Squadron SAAF was a South African Air Force unit which served during World War II.
438 "City of Montreal" Tactical Helicopter Squadron (French: 438e Escadron tactique d'hélicoptères) is a unit of the Royal Canadian Air Force.
The 458th Air Expeditionary Group (458 AEG) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to the United States Air Forces in Europe.
The 65th Aggressor Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit.
The United States Air Force's 66th Weapons Squadron is a United States Air Force Weapons School Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II instructional flying unit, at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.
The 81st Fighter-Bomber Group (81 FBG) is an inactive United States Air Force unit.
The 97th Operations Group (97 OG) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the 97th Air Mobility Wing of Air Education and Training Command.