197 relations: 'Asir Region, Ab (Semitic), Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf, Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai, Abd-al-Uzza ibn Qusai, Abdul-Muttalib, Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Abraham, Abu al-'As ibn Umayyah, Abu Bakr, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Al Bahah, Al Bahah Region, Al Baydha Project, Al Madinah Region, Al Wajh, Al-Abwa', Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As, Ali, Ali al-Hadi, Ali al-Ridha, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Aminah, Ammar ibn Yasir, An-Nadr ibn Kinanah, Anas ibn Malik, Ansar (Islam), Arab Revolt, Arabia Petraea, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Asad ibn Abd-al-Uzza, Atikah bint Murrah, Ayyubid dynasty, Badr, Saudi Arabia, Banu 'Adiy, Banu Hashim, Banu Khuza'a, Banu Thaqif, Barrah bint Abdul Uzza, Battle of Badr, Battle of Hunayn, Battle of the Trench, Bdellium, Book of Genesis, Books of Chronicles, Boston University, ..., Caliphate, Common Era, Desert of Paran, Dolmen, Eber, Egypt, Family tree of Ali, Family tree of Muhammad, Fatimah, Fatimah bint Musa, Fihr ibn Malik, Great Mosque of Mecca, Hagar, Hajj, Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib, HarperCollins, Hasan al-Basri, Hasan ibn Ali, Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, Hegira, Hejaz railway, Hejaz Vilayet, Hejazi Arabic, Hejazi turban, Hijaz Mountains, Hijazi script, Holiest sites in Islam, Holy city, Hubba bint Hulail, Husayn ibn Ali, Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, Ibn Saud, Ishmael, Islam, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jahiliyyah, Jeddah, Jordan, Jurhum, Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy, Kaaba, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Kingdom of Hejaz, Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, List of expeditions of Muhammad, Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib, Ma'ad ibn Adnan, Mada'in Saleh, Mahd adh Dhahab, Makkah Region, Malay language, Malik ibn Anas, Maliki, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Martyr, McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, Mecca, Medina, Megalith, Midian, Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mizmar (dance), Mosque, Mount Arafat, Muhajirun, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad al-Jawad, Muhammad's wives, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, Murrah ibn Ka'b, Musa al-Kadhim, Muslim, Nabataeans, Nafi ibn al-Harith, Nahor, son of Serug, Najd, Ottoman Empire, Peleg, Persecution of Muslims by Meccans, Petra, Phrygian dominant scale, Physician, Pilgrim, Pilgrimage, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qasim ibn Muhammad, Qom, Quran, Quraysh, Qusai ibn Kilab, Rabigh, Rashidun Caliphate, Red Sea, Red Sea Rift, Regions of Saudi Arabia, Reu, Rite, Roman Empire, Roman province, Sabr, Sahabah, Salah (biblical figure), Saleh, Salma bint Amr, Sand, Sarawat Mountains, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Vision 2030, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sharif Ali, Sharifate of Mecca, Shia Islam, Sulaiman (Brunei), Sultan Ahmad of Brunei, Sumayyah bint Khayyat, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Ta'if, Tabuk Region, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Taym ibn Murrah, Terah, Thamud, Tihamah, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith, Umar, Umar II, Umayya ibn Abd Shams, Umayyad Caliphate, Ummah, Umrah, UNESCO, Urwah ibn Mas'ud, Uthman, Uthman Abu Quhafa, Volcano, W. W. Norton & Company, Wadi Al-Batin, Wadi al-Rummah, Wahb ibn Abd Manaf, Wahhabism, World Heritage site, Yanbu, Yasir ibn Amir, Zayd ibn Ali, Zuhrah ibn Kilab. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
The Asir Region (or Aseer, عسير) is a region of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country that is named after the ʿAsīr tribe.
Ab or Av (ʾĀḇ; related to Akkadian abu), sometimes Aba or Abba, means "father" in most Semitic languages.
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Marwān (عبد العزيز بن مروان; died 705) was the Umayyad governor and de facto viceroy of Egypt between 685 and his death.
‘Abd Manāf al-Mughirah ibn Quṣai (عبد مناف المغيرة بن قصي) was a Quraishi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf (عبد شمس بن عبد مناف) was a prominent member of the Quraish tribe of Mecca in modern-day Saudi Arabia.
Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai forms an important link between his father, Qusai ibn Kilab (c. 400–480), the great-great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim (Abdul-Mutallib) and his own sons, since he is the progenitor of the Banu Abd-al-dar.
In Islam, ʻAbdu l-ʻUzzá ibn Qusai (عبدالعزى) forms an important link between his father, Qusai ibn Kilab (c. 400–480), the great-great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim (ʻAbdu l-Mutallib) and his son Asad ibn Abd-Al-Uzza.
Shaybah ibn Hāshim c. 497 – 578), better known as ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib, since he was raised by his uncle Muṭṭalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) (c.546–570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abu al'As ibn Umayya was the son of Umayya ibn Abd Shams.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
Al-Bahah (اَلْـبَـاحَـة) is a city in the south west of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Bahah Region is a region of Saudi Arabia.
The Al Baydha Project, in rural, western Saudi Arabia, is a land restoration, poverty-alleviation, and heritage preservation program, based on principles of permacultural and hydrological design.
The Madinah Region (المدينة المنورة Al-Madīnah al-Munawarah) is a region of Saudi Arabia, located on the country's west side, along the Red Sea coast.
Al Wajh (الوجه), also written Al Wejh, is a coastal city in north-western Saudi Arabia, situated on the coast of the Red Sea.
Al-Abwā' is a village belonging to Rabigh, western coast of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-`As ibn Umayyah (/ ALA-LC: al-Ḥakam bin Abī al-‘As) was the father of the Umayyad Caliph Marwan I, and an uncle of Uthman.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alī ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Alī (علي بن محمد بن علي; 828-868 C.E.) commonly called Ali al-Hadi and Alī an-Naqī was known as al-Hadi. He was the tenth of the Twelve Imams after his father Muhammad al-Jawad and before his son Hasan al-Askari. He remained in Medina teaching until the age of 30 when he was summoned to Samarra by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. There he was treated roughly by the caliph and his successors until, according to Shiite accounts, he was poisoned through intrigue of Al-Mu'tazz the Abbasid caliph, in 254/868, and was buried in Samarra.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Aminah bint Wahb (آمنة بنت وهب; died 577 AD) was the mother of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
In Islamic tradition, an-Nadhr (النضر) was the ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Anas ibn Malik ibn Nadar al-Khazraji Al-Ansari (أنس بن مالك الخزرجي الأنصاري, died 709Finding the Truth in Judging the Companinons, 1. 84-5; EI2, 1. 482 A. J. WensinckJ. Robson) was a well-known sahabi (companion) of the Prophet of Islam Muhammad.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Asad ibn `Abd al-`Uzza (أسد بن عبدالعزى Asad ibn ‘Abd al-‘Uzzá) was a grandson of Qusai ibn Kilab and the matrilineal great-great-grandfather of the prophet of Islam Muhammad.
Ātikah bint Murrah ibn Hilāl ibn Fālij ibn Dhakwān (عاتكة بنت مرة) (fl. 5th century CE) was a Hawazin heiress, and the mother of Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf, thus the great-great-grandmother of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Badr (بَـدْر, full name: Badr Hunayn, بدر حنین) is a town in Al Madinah Province, Al-Hijaz, Saudi Arabia.
Banu 'Adiy was a clan of the Quraysh tribe descended from 'Adiy ibn Ka'b.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banū Khuza’ah (Arabic بنو خزاعة singular خزاعيّ Khuzā’ī) is the name of an Azdite, Qaḥṭānite tribe (some say Muḑarite ‘Adnānite), which is one of the main ancestral tribes of the Arabian Peninsula.
Banū Thaqīf is a Saudi tribe that inhabit the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.
Barrah bint Abdul Uzza (برة بنت عبد العزى) ibn Uthman ibn Abd-al-Dar ibn Qusai ibn Kilab (of the Banu Abd ad-Dar) was the maternal grandmother of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.
The Battle of the Trench (Ghazwat al-Khandaq) also known as the Battle of the Confederates (Ghazwat al-Ahzab), was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman Farsi, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender and enslavement or execution. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.
Bdellium, also bdellion, is a semi-transparent oleo-gum resin extracted from Commiphora wightii and from Commiphora africana trees growing in Ethiopia, Eritrea and sub-saharan Africa.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
Boston University (commonly referred to as BU) is a private, non-profit, research university in Boston, Massachusetts.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Desert of Paran or Wilderness of Paran (also sometimes spelled Pharan or Faran; מִדְבַּר פָּארָן, Midbar Pa'ran), is a location mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Eber (ISO 259-3 ʕeber, Standard Hebrew Éver, Tiberian Hebrew ʻĒḇer, Arabic ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Israelites and the Ishmaelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in and.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Alī ibn Abī Tālib (عَـلِي ابـن أَﺑِﻲ طَـالِـب, 599 – 661 ACE) was an early Islamic leader.
This article is about the family tree of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fātimah bint Mūsā al-Kādhim (فاطمة بنت موسى الكاظم), commonly known as Fātimah al-Ma‘sūmah (فاطمة المعصومة) or Fatemeh Ma'sumeh (فاطمه معصومه, "Fatimah the Innocent"), Masuma-e-Qum (معصومه قم), and Hadrat Masumah (1st Dhul Qi‘dah 173 AH – 10th or 12th of Rabī’ al-Thānī 201 AH; approximately March 22, 790 CE – November 7 or 9, 816 CE), was the daughter of the seventh Twelver Shī‘ah Imām, Mūsā' al-Kādhim and sister of the eighth Twelver Shī‘ah Imām, ‘Ali ar-Ridhā.
Fihr ibn Malik (فهر بن مالك, Fihr ibn Mālik), or simply Fihr (فهر), is counted among the direct ancestors of Muhammad.
The Great Mosque of Mecca, also called Al-Haram Mosque (al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, "the Forbidden Mosque" or "the Sacred Mosque") or Grand Mosque of Makkah, is the largest mosque in the world, and surrounds the Islamic Qiblah (قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Prayer), that is the Kaaba in the Hejazi city of Mecca (مَـكَّـة, Makkah), Saudi Arabia.
Hagar (of uncertain origin هاجر Hājar; Agar) is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب) (c.570–625)Muhammad ibn Saad.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Abū Saʿīd b. Abi ’l-Ḥasan Yasār al-Baṣrī, often referred to as Ḥasan of Basra (Arabic: حسن البصري, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī; 642 - 15 October 728) for short, or reverentially as Imam Ḥasan al-Baṣrī in Sunni Islam, was an early Muslim preacher, ascetic, theologian, exegete, scholar, judge, and mystic.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf al Mughirah (هاشم بن عبد مناف المغيرة; ca. 464 – 497) was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.
The Vilayet of the Hejaz (Wilayat al-Ḥijāz; ولايت حجاز Vilâyet-i Hijaz) refers to the Hejaz region of Arabia when it was administered as a first-level province (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
The Hejazi turban (ʿEmāmah) is a type of the turban headdress native to the region of Hejaz in modern-day western Saudi Arabia.
The Hijaz Mountains (Jibāl al-Ḥijāz), or Hejaz Range, is a mountain range located in the Hejazi region of western Saudi Arabia.
Hijazi script, also Hejazi; خط حجازي, literally "Hejazi writing", is the collective name for a number of early Arabic alphabets that developed in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula, which includes the cities of Mecca and Medina.
There are sites, which are mentioned or referred to in the Quran, that are considered holy to Islam.
Holy city is a term applied to many cities, all of them central to the history or faith of specific religions.
Hubba bint Hulail (حبة بنت هليل) was the grandmother of Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf, thus the great-great-great-grandmother of the Islamic ''Nabī'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad ibn Abdullah.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1853/18544 June 1931) was a Hashemite Arab leader who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
Ishmael Ἰσμαήλ Ismaēl; Classical/Qur'anic Arabic: إِسْمَٰعِيْل; Modern Arabic: إِسْمَاعِيْل ʾIsmāʿīl; Ismael) is a figure in the Tanakh and the Quran and was Abraham's first son according to Jews, Christians and Muslims. Ishmael was born to Abraham and Sarah's handmaiden Hagar (Hājar).. According to the Genesis account, he died at the age of 137. The Book of Genesis and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael to be the ancestor of the Ishmaelites and patriarch of Qaydār. According to Muslim tradition, Ishmael the Patriarch and his mother Hagar are said to be buried next to the Kaaba in Mecca.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jahiliyyah (جَاهِلِيَّة / "ignorance") is an Islamic concept of the period of time and state of affairs in Arabia before the advent of Islam.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Jurhum (also Banu Jurhum) was a Qahtani tribe in the Arabian peninsula.
In Islamic tradition, Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy is an ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Khadijah, Khadījah bint Khuwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadījah al-Kubra (Khadijah the Great) 555 – 22 November 619 CE) was the first wife and follower of the Islamic Prophet (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad. She is commonly regarded by Muslims as the "Mother of the Believers". Khadijah is regarded as one of the most important female figures in Islam, like her daughter, Fatimah. Muhammad was monogamously married to her for 25 years. After the death of Khadijah, Muhammad married at least nine women. Khadijah was the closest to Muhammad and he confided in her the most out of all his following wives. It is narrated in many hadiths that Khadijah was Muhammad's most trusted and favorite among all his marriages. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim: The messenger of Allah said: "God Almighty never granted me anyone better in this life than her. She accepted me when people rejected me; she believed in me when people doubted me; she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me; and Allah granted me children only through her." ‘A’ishah narrated of Muhammed and Khadijah in Sahih Bukhari: "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on Earth except Khadijah," he would say, "Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children." It is also narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: "The best of its women is Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and the best of its women is Maryam bint ‘Imran." Muhammad said about her "She believed in me when the whole world refuted me and she attested to my veracity when the whole world accused me of falsehood. She offered me compassion and loyalty with her wealth when everyone else had forsaken me." Khadijah was the first female and person to become a follower of Muhammad. Muhammad was married to her until her death and Khadijah was the only wife to be married to Muhammad in monogamy, thus sometimes regarded as Muhammad's most beloved. She is regarded as one of the most important women in Islam, and in terms of the progression of Islam, the most important out of all of Muhammad's wives.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāzyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.
The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd (مملكة الحجاز ونجد), initially the Kingdom of Hejaz and Sultanate of Nejd (مملكة الحجاز وسلطنة نجد), was a dual monarchy ruled by Ibn Saud following the victory of the Saudi Sultanate of Nejd over the Hashemite Kingdom of the Hejaz in 1925.
The list of expeditions of Muhammad includes the expeditions undertaken by the Muslim community during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
In Islamic tradition Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib was an ancestor of Muhammad.
Ma'ad ibn Adnan is an ancient ancestor of Qusai ibn Kilab and his descendant the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Mada'in Saleh (مدائن صالح, madāʼin Ṣāliḥ, "Cities of Saleh"), also called "Al-Hijr" or "Hegra", is an archaeological site located in the Sector of Al-`Ula within Al Madinah Region, the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia.
The Mahd adh-Dhahab (مَـهـد الـذّهـب, "Cradle of (the) Gold"), is the leading gold mining area in the Arabian Peninsula.
The Makkah Region or Mecca Region (مِـنْـطَـقَـة مَـكَّـة الـمُـكَـرَّمَـة) is the most populous region (minṭaqah) in Saudi Arabia.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was a series of letters exchanged during World War I in which the British government agreed to recognize Arab independence after the war in exchange for the Sharif of Mecca launching the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Midian (מִדְיָן), Madyan (مَـدْيَـن), or Madiam (Μαδιάμ) is a geographical place mentioned in the Torah and Qur’an.
Mina (also known as the Tent City) is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.
Mizmar (مزمار) is an African dance..
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Arafat or Mount Arafah (جبل عرفات transliterated Jabal ‘Arafāt) is a granite hill east of Mecca in the plain of Arafat.
Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā (Arabic: محمد ابن علی ابن موسی) (circa April 12, 811 - c. November 29, 835) was the ninth of the Twelve Imams and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources is a 1983 biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by Martin Lings.
Murrah ibn Ka'b (مرة بن كعب) ibn Luay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik was a man from Quraish tribe, supposed to have lived in the 4th century.
Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (موسى بن جعفر الكاظم), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nāfi‘ ibn Al-Ḥārith ibn Kaladah ath-Thaqafī (نَـافِـع ابْـن الْـحَـارِث ابْـن كَـلَـدة الـثَّـقَـفِي) (died 13 AH / 634 – 635 CE)) was an Arab physician of the Banu Thaqif. He was recommended by Muhammad, and treated Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas and Abu Bakr. When the latter was he was dying, he designated his illness as poisoning.
Nahor, Nachor, or Naghor (Heb. נָחֹור Nāḥōr) is the son of Serug according to the Hebrew Bible.
Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Peleg is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as one of the two sons of Eber, an ancestor of the Israelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in and.
In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
In music, the Phrygian dominant scale is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale, the fifth being the dominant.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Qasim ibn Muhammad (قاسم بن محمد) was one of the sons of Muhammad and Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah (قُـصَيّ ابْـن كِـلَاب ابْـن مُـرَّة; ca. 400 – 480), also known as Qusai, Kusayy or Cossai, né Zayd (زَيْـد), was the great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim, who was the paternal grandfather of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Rabigh (رابغ) is an ancient town on the western coast of Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea in the Makkah Region.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The Red Sea Rift is a spreading center between two tectonic plates, the African Plate and the Arabian Plate.
Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions (مناطق إدارية; manātiq idāriyya, sing. منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya).
Reu or Ragau (ISO 259-3 Rˁu) in Genesis was the son of Peleg and the father of Serug, thus being Abraham's great-great-grandfather.
A rite is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Sabr (ṣabr) is "endurance" or more accurately "perseverance" and "persistence".
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Salah (שלח, Shelach, ISO 259-3 Šelḥ) is an ancestor of the Israelites according to the Table of Nations in.
The name, Salih, originate from ancient Egyptian: means Upright Saleh or Salih (صالح Ṣāliḥ "Pious") was a prophet of pre-Islamic Arabia mentioned in the Qur'an who prophesied to the tribe of Thamud.
Salma bint ‘Amr (سلمى بنت عمرو) was the wife of Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf, thus the great-grandmother of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
The Sarawat Mountains (Jibāl as-Sarawāṫ), also known as the Sarat, is a mountain range running parallel to the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Vision 2030 (رؤية السعودية 2030) is a plan to reduce Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil, diversify its economy, and develop public service sectors such as health, education, infrastructure, recreation and tourism.
Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.
Sharīf ‘Alī ibn ‘Ajlān ibn Rumaithah ibn Muḥammad (الـشـريـف عـلي ابـن عـجـلان ابـن رمـيـثـة ابـن مـحـمـد) (also known as Barkat Ali or Blessed Ali) was the third Sultan of Brunei, and son-in-law of the second Sultan Ahmad. He was also a scholar of Arab descent, originating from Ta'if in the Hejaz.
The Sharifate of Mecca Sharāfa Makka) or Emirate of Mecca was a state, non-sovereign for much of its existence, ruled by the Sharifs of Mecca. A sharif is a descendant of Hasan ibn Ali, Prophet Muhammad's grandson. In Western sources, the prince of Mecca was known as Grand Sherif, but Arabs have always used the appellation "Emir". The Sharifate existed from about 968 to 1925. From 1201, the descendants of the Sharifian patriarch Qutada ruled over Mecca, Medina and the Hejaz in unbroken succession until 1925.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sultan Sulaiman ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Ajlan (الـسـلـطـان سـلـيـمـان ابـن عـلي ابـن عـجـلان) was the fourth Sultan of Brunei according to Silsilah Raja-Raja Berunai.
Ahmad of Brunei (also known as Awang Pateh Berbai or Pateh Berbai) was the second Sultan of Brunei.
Sumayyah bint Khayyat (سمية بنت خياطّ) (c.550-c.615) was the first member of the Ummah (أمّـة, Community) of Muhammad to become a shahidah (شـهـيـدة, female martyr).
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).
Tabuk Region (تبوك), also spelled Tabouk, is a region of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the country, facing Egypt across the Red Sea.
Tabuk (تبوك), also spelled Tabouk, is the capital city of the Tabuk Region in northwestern Saudi Arabia.
Taym ibn Murrah ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah (تـيـم ابـن مُـرة ابـن كـعـب ابـن لـؤي ابـن غـالـب ابـن فـهـر ابـن مـالـك ابـن الـنـضـر ابـن كـنـانـة) was an uncle of Qurayshi Chief Qusai ibn Kilab.
Terah or Térach (תֶּרַח, Téraḥ, "Ibex, wild goat", or "Wanderer; loiterer") is a biblical figure in the Book of Genesis, son of Nahor, son of Serug and father of the Patriarch Abraham, all descendants of Shem's son Arpachshad.
The Thamūd (ثـمـود) is the name of an ancient civilization in the Hejaz known from the 8th century BCE to near the time of Muhammad.
Tihamah or Tihama (تهامة) refers to the Red Sea coastal plain of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gulf of Aqaba to the Bab el Mandeb.
Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (عبيدة بن الحارث) (c.562-624) was a cousin and a companion of Muhammad.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
Umayya ibn Abd Shams (أمية بن عبد شمس) was the son of Abd Shams and is the progenitor of the line of the Umayyad Caliphs.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The ʿUmrah (عُمرَة) is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Hijaz, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Ḥajj (حَـجّ) which has specific dates according to the Islamic lunar calendar.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Urwah ibn Mas'ud (‘Urwah ibn Mas‘ūd) was a Thaqifi chieftain of Taif who became a companion of Muhammad.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
'Uthman ibn 'Amir, also known as Abu Quhafa (540635 CE)Al-Suyuti, Jalal ad-Din.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Wadi Al-Batin (وادي الباطن) is an intermittent river in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
Wadi Al-Rummah or ar-Rummah (ar: وادي الرمة) is one of the Arabian Peninsula's longest river valleys, at a length of almost.
Wahb ibn 'Abd Manaf (وهب بن عبد مناف) ibn Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah was the chief of Banu Zuhrah, and the father of Aminah bint Wahb.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yanbu' al Bahr (ينبع البحر,, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah Province of western Saudi Arabia.
Yasir ibn Amir al-ʿAnsī (ياسر بن عامر العنسي.) (sixth/seventh century C.E.) was an early companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
Zuhrah ibn Kilab ibn Murrah (زهيرة بن كلاب بن مُرة) was the great-grandfather of Aminah bint Wahb, and was thus the great-great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.