297 relations: A Season in Hell, Aaru, Abaddon, Abrahamic religions, Abyss (religion), Adam of Eynsham, Adlivun, Aeneid, Afterlife, Ahura Mazda, Ainu people, Akkadian Empire, Allegory of the long spoons, Ammit, Ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, Anglican Communion, Anglo-Saxon paganism, Annihilationism, Anubis, Apocalypse, Apocalypse of Paul, Appeal to fear, Arabic, Arthur Rimbaud, As-Sirāt, Atmosphere, Augustine of Hippo, Avīci, Azazel, Aztec religion, Aztecs, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í literature, Bede, Bible Student movement, Bipartite (theology), Blizzard, Bodhisattva, Book of Arda Viraf, Book of Daniel, Book of Enoch, Brahma Kumaris, Buddhism, C. S. Lewis, Cartoon, Cartoonist, Catechism of the Catholic Church, Catholic Church, Celtic mythology, China, ..., Chinese mythology, Chinvat Bridge, Chitragupta, Christadelphians, Christian, Christian anthropology, Christian conditionalism, Christian mortalism, Christian universalism, Christian views on Hades, Christian views on Hell, Cocytus, Copts, Cornell University Library, Dakar, Damnation, Danish language, Dante Alighieri, Death, Deity, Demon, Destroying angel (Bible), Devadatta, Divine Comedy, Divine retribution, Divinity, Diyu, Dragon, Dryhthelm, Dudael, Dumah (angel), Dumuzid, Dust, Earth, East Semitic languages, Egyptian mythology, Elric of Melniboné, Emanuel Swedenborg, Ereshkigal, Eternity, Ethics of Jainism, Evangelical Alliance, Fallen angel, Fantasy, Folklore, Frashokereti, Fredric Brown, Gallu, Gathas, Ge'ez, Gehenna, God in Islam, God in Judaism, Gothic language, Grave, Greek mythology, Greek Orthodox Church, Guru Arjan, Hades, Haida mythology, HarperCollins, Harrowing of Hell, Heaven, Hebrew language, Hel (being), Hel (location), Hellenistic period, Hellenistic religion, Henry Gravrand, Hindu mythology, Holism, Horned God, Human, Hunefer, Ibis, Iblis, Icelandic language, Iliad, Immortality, Inanna, Incarnation, Incarnations of Immortality, Inferno (Dante), Inuit religion, Islam, Issa Laye Thiaw, Jaguar, Jahannam, Jain cosmology, Jannah, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus, Jimmy Hatlo, Jinn, Job: A Comedy of Justice, John Bunyan, John Ciardi, John Milton, Jonathan Edwards (theologian), Judaism, Kabbalah, Karma, Karma in Jainism, Kaurava, Kṣitigarbha, King James Version, Lake of fire, Last Judgment, Libation, Liberal Christianity, Limbo, Lois McMaster Bujold, Loka, Lotus Sutra, Lumad, Lutheranism, Maalik, Maat, Mahabharata, Majjhima Nikaya, Martin Luther, Maya Hero Twins, Maya religion, Meng Po, Michael Moorcock, Mictlan, Middle Dutch, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Millennialism, Mortal sin, Myth of Er, Mythology, N. T. Wright, Namtar, Naraka, Naraka (Buddhism), Nergal, Neti (deity), New International Version, New Testament, New York City, Nirvana, No Exit, Norwegian language, Old Frisian, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Norse religion, Old Saxon, Osiris, Oxford University Press, Pandava, Paradise, Paradise Lost, Piers Anthony, Plato, Poetic Edda, Pontus (mythology), Pope John Paul II, Popol Vuh, Problem of Hell, Prometheus Books, Prose Edda, Protestantism, Proto-Germanic language, Punishment, Puranas, Purgatory, Qliphoth, Quran, Reformation, Reincarnation, Religion, Repentance in Judaism, Resurrection, Resurrection of the dead, Rich man and Lazarus, Robert A. Heinlein, Robert Barnhart, Sami shamanism, Samuele Bacchiocchi, Satan, Scribe, Second Coming, Second Temple, Septuagint, Seraph, Serer people, Serer religion, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Shade (mythology), Sharia, Sheol, Shirk (Islam), Sin, Sky, Slavic paganism, Snorri Sturluson, Soul, St Patrick's Purgatory, Sumer, Svarga, Swedish language, Taoism, Tartarus, Tattvartha Sutra, Tehom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Curse of Chalion, The Eternal Champion (novel), The Fortnightly Review, The Great Divorce, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Third Dynasty of Ur, Thomas Boston, Thomas Hobbes, Thoth, Tophet, Torah, Torture, Tripartite (theology), Tuonela, Tzoah Rotachat, Underworld, Unitarian Universalism, Universal reconciliation, Universal resurrection, Virgil, Visio Tnugdali, Vulgate, Well to Hell hoax, Wicca, Wiccan views of divinity, William Blake, Xibalba, Yama, Yama (Buddhism), Yama (Hinduism), Yamuna in Hinduism, Yanomami, Yasna, Yin and yang, Zabaniyya, Zagros Mountains, Zoroastrianism, 28 Fundamental Beliefs. Expand index (247 more) » « Shrink index
A Season in Hell (Une Saison en Enfer) is an extended poem in prose written and published in 1873 by French writer Arthur Rimbaud.
In ancient Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (jꜣrw "Reeds, rushes"), known also as sḫt-jꜣrw or the Field of Reeds, are the heavenly paradise where Osiris rules once he had displaced Anubis in the Ogdoad.
The Hebrew term Abaddon (אֲבַדּוֹן ’Ǎḇaddōn), and its Greek equivalent Apollyon (Ἀπολλύων, Apollýōn) appear in the Bible as both a place of destruction and an angel of the abyss.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
In religion, an abyss is a bottomless pit, or also a chasm that may lead to the underworld or hell.
Adam of Eynsham (died after 1233) was a medieval English chronicler and writer.
In Inuit mythology, Adlivun (those who live beneath us,Boas 1888, Sedna and the fulmar p. 589 from at ~ al below, -lirn in a certain direction, -vun possessive first person plural; also known as Idliragijenget) refers to both the spirits of the departed who reside in the underworld, and that underworld itself, located beneath the land and the sea.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
The allegory of the long spoons is a parable that shows the difference between heaven and hell by means of people forced to eat with long spoons.
The ancient Mesopotamian Underworld, known in Sumerian as Kur and in Akkadian as Irkalla, was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth".
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglo-Saxon paganism, sometimes termed Anglo-Saxon heathenism, Anglo-Saxon pre-Christian religion, or Anglo-Saxon traditional religion, refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Anglo-Saxons between the 5th and 8th centuries AD, during the initial period of Early Medieval England.
Annihilationism (also known as extinctionism or destructionism) is a belief that after the final judgment some human beings and all fallen angels (all of the damned) will be totally destroyed so as to not exist, or that their consciousness will be extinguished, rather than suffer everlasting torment in hell (often synonymized with the lake of fire).
Anubis (Ἄνουβις, Egyptian: jnpw, Coptic: Anoup) is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head.
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
The Apocalypse of Paul (Apocalypsis Pauli, more commonly known in the Latin tradition as the Visio Pauli or Visio sancti Pauli) is a third-century text of the New Testament apocrypha.
An appeal to fear (also called argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by attempting to increase fear towards an alternative.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.
As-Sirāt (الصراط aṣ-ṣirāṭ) is, according to Islam, the hair-narrow bridge which every person must pass on the Yawm ad-Din ("Day of the Way of Life" i.e. Day of Judgment) to enter Paradise.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
In Buddhism, (Sanskrit and Pali for "without waves" – Chinese and Japanese: 無間地獄, Wújiàn dìyù and 阿鼻地獄, Ābí dìyù) or Avichi is the lowest level of the Naraka or "hell" realm, into which the dead who have committed grave misdeeds may be reborn.
Azazel (ʿAzazel; ʿAzāzīl) appears in the Bible in association with the scapegoat rite.
The Aztec religion is the Mesoamerican religion of the Aztecs.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Bahá'í literature, like the literature of many religions, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
The Bible Student movement is the name adopted by a Millennialist Restorationist Christian movement that emerged from the teachings and ministry of Charles Taze Russell, also known as Pastor Russell.
In Christian theology and Christian anthropology, bipartite refers to the view that a human being is a composite of two distinct components, material and immaterial; for example, body and soul.
A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong sustained winds of at least and lasting for a prolonged period of time—typically three hours or more.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Book of Ardā Wīrāz (Middle Persian Ardā Wīrāz nāmag,, sometimes called the "Arda Wiraf") is a Zoroastrian religious text of the Sasanian era written in Middle Persian.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mets’iḥāfe hēnoki) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah.
The Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University (Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya or BKWSU) is a new religious movement that originated in Hyderabad, Sindh, during the 1930s.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style.
A cartoonist (also comic strip creator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae; commonly called the Catechism or the CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, the religion of the Iron Age Celts.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
The Chinvat Bridge (Avestan Cinvatô Peretûm, "bridge of judgement" or "beam-shaped bridge") or the Bridge of the Requiter in Zoroastrianism is the sifting bridge which separates the world of the living from the world of the dead.
Chitragupta (Sanskrit: चित्रगुप्त, 'rich in secrets' or 'hidden picture') is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth.
The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
In the context of Christian theology, Christian anthropology refers to the study of the human ("anthropology") as it relates to God.
In Christian theology, conditionalism or conditional immortality is a concept of special salvation in which the gift of immortality is attached to (conditional upon) belief in Jesus Christ.
Christian mortalism incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal;.
Christian universalism is a school of Christian theology focused around the doctrine of universal reconciliation – the view that all human beings will ultimately be "saved" and restored to a right relationship with God.
Hades, according to various Christian denominations, is "the place or state of departed spirits".
In Christian theology, Hell is the place or state into which by God's definitive judgment unrepentant sinners pass either immediately after death (particular judgment) or in the general judgment.
Cocytus or Kokytos (Κωκυτός, literally "lamentation") is a river in the underworld in Greek mythology.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
The Cornell University Library is the library system of Cornell University.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
Damnation (from Latin damnatio) is the concept of divine punishment and torment in an afterlife for actions that were committed on Earth.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
The destroying angel or angel of death in the Hebrew Bible is an entity sent out by Yahweh on several occasions to kill enemies of the Israelites.
Devadatta was by tradition a Buddhist monk, cousin and brother-in-law of Gautama Siddhārtha, the Sākyamuni Buddha, and brother of Ānanda, a principal student of the Buddha.
The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.
Divine retribution is supernatural punishment of a person, a group of people, or everyone by a deity in response to some action.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
Diyu is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Dryhthelm (fl. c. 700), also known as Drithelm or Drythelm, was a monk associated with the monastery of Melrose known from the Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede.
Dudael (Heb. דּוּדָאֵל, compd. of dud דּוּד "kettle", "cauldron", "pot" + El אֵל "deity", "divinity" — lit. "cauldron of God") is the place of imprisonment for Azazel (one of the "fallen" angels), cohort of Samyaza.
Dumah (Heb. דומה "silence") is an angel mentioned in Rabbinical literature.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world.
Elric of Melniboné is a fictional character created by Michael Moorcock and the protagonist of a series of sword and sorcery stories taking place on an alternate Earth.
Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.
In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal (lit. "Queen of the Great Earth") was the goddess of Kur, the land of the dead or underworld in Sumerian mythology.
Eternity in common parlance is an infinitely long period of time.
Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct.
The Evangelical Alliance (EA) seeks to represent evangelical Christians in the UK.
Fallen angels are angels who were expelled from Heaven.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Frashokereti (frašō.kərəti) is the Avestan-language term (corresponding to Middle Persian frašagird) for the Zoroastrian doctrine of a final renovation of the universe, when evil will be destroyed, and everything else will be then in perfect unity with God (Ahura Mazda).
Fredric Brown (October 29, 1906 – March 11, 1972) was an American science fiction and mystery writer.
In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, the Gallus (also called gallu demons or gallas) were great demons/devils of the underworld.
The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
Gehenna (from Γέεννα, Geenna from גיא בן הינום, Gei Ben-Hinnom; Mishnaic Hebrew: /, Gehinnam/Gehinnom) is a small valley in Jerusalem.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
A grave is a location where a dead body (typically that of a human, although sometimes that of an animal) is buried.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
The Haida are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
In Christian theology, the Harrowing of Hell (Latin: Descensus Christi ad Inferos, "the descent of Christ into hell") is the triumphant descent of Christ into Hell (or Hades) between the time of his Crucifixion and his Resurrection when he brought salvation to all of the righteous who had died since the beginning of the world.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
In Norse mythology, Hel is a being who presides over a realm of the same name, where she receives a portion of the dead.
In Norse mythology, Hel, the location, shares a name with Hel, a being who rules over the location.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE).
Father Henry Gravrand (France, 1921 - Abbey of Latrun, Palestine, 11 July 2003) was a French Catholic missionary to Africa and an anthropologist who has written extensively on Serer religion and culture.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
The Horned God is one of the two primary deities found in Wicca and some related forms of Neopaganism.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hunefer was a scribe during the 19th Dynasty (fl. c. 1300 BCE).
The ibises (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains.
(or Eblis) is the Islamic equivalent of Satan.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.
Incarnations of Immortality is the name of an eight-book fantasy series by Piers Anthony.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Issa Laye Thiaw (born 1943 at Sangué, Thies region of Senegal, died 10 September 2017, SenegalObituary of Professor Issa Laye Thiaw: "Our special tribute to Professor Issa Laye Thiaw", by The Seereer Resource Centre, Seereer Radio and Seereer Heritage Press. Published: 11th September 2017) is a Senegalese historian, theologian, and author on Serer religion, Serer tradition and history.
The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.
Jahannam (جهنم (etymologically related to Hebrew גיהנום. Gehennom and Greek: γέεννα) refers to an afterlife place of punishment for evildoers. The punishments are carried in accordance with the degree of evil one has done during his life. In Quran, Jahannam is also referred as al-Nar ("The Fire"), Jaheem ("Blazing Fire"), Hatamah ("That which Breaks to Pieces"), Haawiyah ("The Abyss"), Ladthaa, Sa’eer ("The Blaze"), Saqar. and also the names of different gates to hell. Suffering in hell is both physical and spiritual, and varies according to the sins of the condemned. As described in the Quran, Hell has seven levels (each one more severe than the one above it); seven gates (each for a specific group of sinners); a blazing fire, boiling water, and the Tree of Zaqqum. Not all Muslims and scholars agree whether hell is an eternal destination or whether some or even all of the condemned will eventually be forgiven and allowed to enter paradise.
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe (loka) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism.
Jannah (جنّة; plural: Jannat), lit.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
James Cecil Hatlo (September 1, 1897 – December 1, 1963), better known as Jimmy Hatlo, was an American cartoonist who created in 1929 the long-running comic strip and gag panel They'll Do It Every Time, which he wrote and drew until his death in 1963.
Jinn (الجن), also romanized as djinn or anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source)Tobias Nünlist Dämonenglaube im Islam Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2015 p. 22 (German) are supernatural creatures in early Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology.
Job: A Comedy of Justice is a novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1984.
John Bunyan (baptised November 30, 1628August 31, 1688) was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.
John Anthony Ciardi (June 24, 1916 – March 30, 1986) was an Italian-American poet, translator, and etymologist.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.
Kaurava (कौरव) is a Sanskrit term for the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahābhārata.
Kṣitigarbha (Sanskrit क्षितिगर्भ /) is a bodhisattva primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually depicted as a Buddhist monk.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
A lake of fire appears, in both ancient Egyptian and Christian religion, as a place of after-death destruction of the wicked.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid (ex: milk or other fluids such as corn flour mixed with water), or grains such as rice, as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have "passed on".
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
In Catholic theology, Limbo (Latin limbus, edge or boundary, referring to the "edge" of Hell) is a speculative, non-scriptural idea about the afterlife condition of those who die in original sin without being assigned to the Hell of the Damned.
Lois McMaster Bujold (born November 2, 1949) is an American speculative fiction writer.
Loka is a Sanskrit word for "world".
The Lotus Sūtra (Sanskrit: सद्धर्मपुण्डरीक सूत्र, literally "Sūtra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma") is one of the most popular and influential Mahayana sutras, and the basis on which the Tiantai, Tendai, Cheontae, and Nichiren schools of Buddhism were established.
The Lumad are a group of non-Muslim indigenous people in the southern Philippines.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
In Islamic belief, Maalik (مالك / mālik) denotes an angel in Hell/Purgatory (جهنم / jahannam) who administrates the Hellfire, assisted by 19 mysterious guards known as Zabaniyya (az-zabānīya; الزبانية.). In the Qur'an, Maalik is mentioned in Sura as the chief of angels of hell.
Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
The Majjhima Nikaya (-nikāya; "Collection of Middle-length Discourses") is a Buddhist scripture, the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three baskets" that compose the Pali Tipitaka (lit. "Three Baskets") of Theravada Buddhism.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
The Maya Hero Twins are the central figures of a narrative included within the colonial K'iche' document called Popol Vuh, and constituting the oldest Maya myth to have been preserved in its entirety.
The traditional Maya religion of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán regions of Mexico is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion.
Meng Po is the Lady of Forgetfulness in Chinese mythology.
Michael John Moorcock (born 18 December 1939) is an English writer and musician, primarily of science fiction and fantasy, who has also published literary novels.
Mictlan was the underworld of Aztec mythology.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Millennialism (from millennium, Latin for "a thousand years"), or chiliasm (from the Greek equivalent), is a belief advanced by some Christian denominations that a Golden Age or Paradise will occur on Earth in which Christ will reign for 1000 years prior to the final judgment and future eternal state (the "World to Come") of the New Heavens and New Earth.
A mortal sin (peccatum mortale), in Catholic theology, is a gravely sinful act, which can lead to damnation if a person does not repent of the sin before death.
The Myth of Er is a legend that concludes Plato's Republic (10.614–10.621).
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nicholas Thomas Wright (born 1 December 1948) is a leading English New Testament scholar, Pauline theologian, and retired Anglican bishop.
Namtar (or Namtaru, or Namtara; meaning destiny or fate), was a chthonic minor deity in Mesopotamian mythology, god of death, and minister and messenger of An, Ereshkigal, and Nergal.
Naraka (नरक) is the Sanskrit word for the underworld; literally, of man.
Naraka (नरक; निरय Niraya) is a term in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology usually referred to in English as "hell" (or "hell realm") or "purgatory".
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
In Sumerian, Babylonian, and Akkadian mythology, Neti is a minor god of the Underworld.
The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1978 by Biblica (formerly the International Bible Society).
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
No Exit (Huis Clos) is a 1944 existentialist French play by Jean-Paul Sartre.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).
Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic text, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri, who was the princess of Madra.
Paradise is the term for a place of timeless harmony.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob (born 6 August 1934 in Oxford, England) is an English American author in the science fiction and fantasy genres, publishing under the name Piers Anthony.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, which is different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson.
In Greek mythology, Pontus (Πόντος, Póntos, "Sea") was an ancient, pre-Olympian sea-god, one of the Greek primordial deities.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Popol Vuh (also Popol Wuj) is a cultural narrative that recounts the mythology and history of the K'iche' people who inhabit the Guatemalan Highlands northwest of present-day Guatemala City.
The problem of Hell is an ethical problem in religion in which the existence of Hell for the punishment of souls is regarded as inconsistent with the notion of a just, moral, and omnibenevolent God.
Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by the philosopher Paul Kurtz (who was also the founder of the Council for Secular Humanism, Center for Inquiry, and co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).
The Prose Edda, also known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda (Snorra Edda) or, historically, simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
The Qliphoth/Qlippoth/Qlifot or Kelipot (the different English spellings are used in the alternative Kabbalistic traditions of Hermetic Qabalah and Jewish Kabbalah respectively), literally "Peels", "Shells" or "Husks" (from singular: qlippah "Husk"), are the representation of evil or impure spiritual forces in Jewish mysticism, the polar opposites of the holy Sefirot.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Repentance (תשובה, literally, "return", pronounced "tshuva" or "teshuva") is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Resurrection of the dead, or resurrection from the dead (Koine: ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν, anastasis nekron; literally: "standing up again of the dead"; is a term frequently used in the New Testament and in the writings and doctrine and theology in other religions to describe an event by which a person, or people are resurrected (brought back to life). In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, the three common usages for this term pertain to (1) the Christ, rising from the dead; (2) the rising from the dead of all men, at the end of this present age and (3) the resurrection of certain ones in history, who were restored to life. Predominantly in Christian eschatology, the term is used to support the belief that the dead will be brought back to life in connection with end times. Various other forms of this concept can also be found in other eschatologies, namely: Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian eschatology. In some Neopagan views, this refers to reincarnation between the three realms: Life, Death, and the Realm of the Divine; e.g.: Christopaganism. See Christianity and Neopaganism.
The parable of the rich man and Lazarus (also called the Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives) is a well-known parable of Jesus appearing in the Gospel of Luke.
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
Robert K. Barnhart (1933 – April 2007) was an American lexicographer and editor of various specialized dictionaries.
Traditional Sámi spiritual practices and beliefs can vary considerably from region to region within Sápmi.
Samuele R. Bacchiocchi (29 January 1938, Rome, Italy – 20 December 2008) was a Seventh-day Adventist author and theologian, best known for his work on the Sabbath in Christianity, particularly in the historical work From Sabbath to Sunday, based on his doctoral thesis from the Pontifical Gregorian University.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
A seraph ("the burning one"; pl. seraphs or seraphim, in the King James Version also seraphims (plural); Hebrew: שָׂרָף śārāf, plural שְׂרָפִים śərāfîm; Latin: seraphim and seraphin (plural), also seraphus (-i, m.); σεραφείμ serapheím Arabic: مشرفين Musharifin) is a type of celestial or heavenly being in Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
The Serer people are a West African ethnoreligious group.
The Serer religion, or a ƭat Roog ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal in West Africa.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
In literature and poetry, a shade (translating Greek σκιά, Latin umbra) is the spirit or ghost of a dead person, residing in the underworld.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
She'ol (Hebrew ʃeʾôl), in the Hebrew Bible, is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life and from God.
In Islam, shirk (شرك širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
St Patrick's Purgatory is an ancient pilgrimage site on Station Island in Lough Derg, County Donegal, Ireland.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Svarga also known as Swarga or Svarga Loka, is one of the eight higher (Vyahrtis) lokas (esotericism plane) in Hindu cosmology.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
In Greek mythology, Tartarus (Τάρταρος Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.
Tattvartha Sutra (also known as Tattvarth-adhigama-sutra) is an ancient Jain text written by Acharya Umaswami, sometime between the 2nd- and 5th-century AD.
Tehom (תְּהוֹם), literally the Deep or Abyss (Greek Septuagint: ábyssos), refers to the Great Deep of the primordial waters of creation in the Bible.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Curse of Chalion is a 2001 fantasy novel by American writer Lois McMaster Bujold.
The Eternal Champion is a fantasy novel by Michael Moorcock.
The Fortnightly Review was one of the most prominent and influential magazines in nineteenth-century England.
The Great Divorce is a theological dream vision by C. S. Lewis, in which he reflects on the Christian conceptions of Heaven and Hell.
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is a book by the English poet and printmaker William Blake.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
Thomas Boston (17 March 1676 – 20 May 1732) was a Scottish church leader, theologian and philosopher.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thoth (from Greek Θώθ; derived from Egyptian ḏḥw.ty) is one of the deities of the Egyptian pantheon.
In the Hebrew Bible, Tophet or Topheth (תוֹפֶת; Ταφεθ; Topheth) was a location in Jerusalem in the Gehinnom where worshipers influenced by the ancient Canaanite religion engaged in the human sacrifice of children to the gods Moloch and Baal by burning them alive.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
In Christian theology, the tripartite view (trichotomy) holds that humankind is a composite of three distinct components: body, soul and spirit.
Tuonela is the realm of the dead or the Underworld in Finnish mythology.
Tzoah Rotachat (Hebrew: צוֹאָה רוֹתֵחַת, tsoah rothachath — "boiling excrement") in the Talmud and Zohar is a location in Gehenna (Gehinnom) where the souls of Jews who committed certain sins are sent for punishment.
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living.
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, Christian universalism, or in context simply universalism) is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.
Universal resurrection or general resurrection is a doctrine held by some Christian denominations which posits that all of the dead who have ever lived will be resurrected from the dead, generally to stand for a Last Judgment.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The Visio Tnugdali ("Vision of Tnugdalus") is a 12th-century religious text reporting the otherworldly vision of the Irish knight Tnugdalus (later also called "Tundalus", "Tondolus" or in English translations, "Tundale").
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The "Well to Hell" is an urban legend regarding a putative borehole in Russia which was purportedly drilled so deep that it broke through into Hell.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
Xibalba, roughly translated as "place of fear", is the name of the underworld in K'iche' Maya mythology, ruled by the Maya death gods and their helpers.
Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, and the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities.
In East Asian and Buddhist mythology, Yama (sometimes known as the King of Hell, King Yan or Yanluo) is a dharmapala (wrathful god) said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hells" or "Purgatories") and the cycle of afterlife saṃsāra.
In Hinduism, Yama (यम) is the lord of death.
Yamuna is a sacred river in Hinduism and the main tributary of the Goddess Ganga (Ganges), the holiest river of Hinduism.
The Yanomami, also spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of approximately 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil.
Yasna (𐬫𐬀𐬯𐬥𐬀) is the Avestan name of Zoroastrianism's principal act of worship.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Zabaniyya (الزبانية) are the forces of hell, who torment the sinners, also called the Angels of punishment or Guardians of Hell.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 28 fundamental beliefs are the core beliefs of Seventh-day Adventist theology.
Cold day in Hell, Empiyerno, Eternal Hell, Eternal punishment, Eternal torment, Everlasting fire, Everlasting punishment, H word, H-word, HELL, Haguel, Halja, HelL, Hell has frozen over, Hell hath frozen over, Hell judaism, Hellish, Helll, Kuzimu, Masak Mabdil, Masak Mavdil, Nature of Hell, Punishment, Everlasting, Realm of Darkness, The Levels of Hell.