159 relations: Abd al-Rahman, Abdur Rahman Khan, Achaemenid Empire, Afghan Border Police, Afghan Local Police, Afghan National Army, Afghan National Police, Afghan National Security Forces, Afghanistan, Afsharid dynasty, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Alakozai, Alexander the Great, Ancient history of Afghanistan, Anglo-Afghan War, Arabs, Arachosia, Aramaic language, Ashoka, Asia, Avesta, Babur, Baghran District, Bahramcha, Baloch people, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bampur, Barack Obama, Barakzai, BBC, Bost Airport, British Army, Bronze Age, Camel, Camp Leatherneck, Camp Shorabak, Central Asia, Child sexual abuse, Company rule in India, Corruption in Afghanistan, Dadullah, Dari language, Dasht-e Margo, Daykundi Province, Dishu District, Districts of Afghanistan, Drainage, Durand Line, Embedded Training Teams, ..., Farah Province, Garmsir, Garmsir District, Genghis Khan, Ghaznavids, Ghor Province, Ghurid dynasty, Girishk, Greek language, Hamid Karzai, Hazaras, Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority, Helmand River, Hinduism in Afghanistan, Hotak dynasty, Hussain Hotak, India, Indo-Aryan migration, Indus Valley Civilisation, International Security Assistance Force, Islamization, Jiroft culture, Kabul, Kajaki Dam, Kajaki District, Kandahar, Kandahar Province, Khanashin District, Korean War, Languages of Afghanistan, Lashkargah, Lashkargah District, Law enforcement in Afghanistan, List of dams and reservoirs in Afghanistan, List of heads of state of Afghanistan, List of Presidents of the United States, Mahmud of Ghazni, Marjah, Medes, Mehrgarh, Ministry of Interior Affairs (Afghanistan), Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (Afghanistan), Mirwais Hotak, Mohammad Daoud (governor), Mughal Empire, Mundigak, Musa Qala, Musa Qala District, Muslim, Myanmar, Nad Ali District, Nahri Saraj District, Nawa-I-Barakzayi District, Nawzad District, Nawzad, Afghanistan, Nimruz Province, Nurzai, Old Kandahar, Operation Herrick, Operation Mountain Thrust, Operation Strike of the Sword, Opium, Oregon Army National Guard, Pajhwok Afghan News, Pakistan, Papaver somniferum, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Pashto, Pashtun tribes, Pashtuns, Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir, Politics of Afghanistan, Provinces of Afghanistan, Rigveda, Routledge, Safavid dynasty, Saffarid dynasty, Sangin, Sangin District, Sarasvati River, Seleucid Empire, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Shepherds of Helmand, Shia Islam, Sikhism, Sikhism in Afghanistan, South Asia, Soviet–Afghan War, Spillway, Sunni Islam, Tajiks, The New York Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, Timur, Timurid dynasty, United States Agency for International Development, United States Armed Forces, United States Marine Corps, Urozgan Province, Washir District, Western Asia, Zabulistan, Zaranj, Zee News, Zoroastrianism, Zunbils, 16 Air Assault Brigade, 2007 Helmand Province airstrikes, 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Abd al-Rahman or Abd ar-Rahman or Abdul Rahman or Abdurrahman (عبد الرحمن or occasionally عبد الرحمان; DMG ʿAbd ar-Raḥman) is a male Muslim given name, and in modern usage, surname.
Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Afghan Border Police (ABP) secure Afghanistan's border with neighboring countries and all its international airports.
The Afghan Local Police (ALP) is a US-UK sponsored local law enforcement agency, defence force and militia in Afghanistan as part of the Afghan Ministry of Interior Affairs.
The Afghan National Army (ANA) is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces.
The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.
The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), also known as the Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDSF), consist of.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Afsharid dynasty (افشاریان) were members of an Iranian dynasty that originated from the Turkic Afshar tribe in Iran's north-eastern province of Khorasan, ruling Persia in the mid-eighteenth century.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
Alakozai ('''الکوزی'''. - meaning descendant of Alako in Pashto) is the name of a Pashtun tribe in Afghanistan.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Archaeological exploration of the pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the late 1970s when the nation was invaded by the Soviet Union.
Anglo-Afghan War may refer to.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Baghrān (بغران) is the northernmost district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Bahrāmcha (Pashto/بھرامچه) is the center of Dishu District in the southern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Bampur (Bonpur) (بمپور, also Romanized as Bampūr and Bampoor) is a city in and capital of Bampur County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Bārakzai (بارکزی, bārakzay, plur. bārakzī) is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bost Airport (د بوست هوايي ډګر) is an airport serving Lashkargah, a city in Helmand Province in Afghanistan.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Camp Leatherneck is a 1,600 acre Afghan Armed Forces base in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Camp Shorabak (formerly Camp Bastion) is a former British Army airbase, located northwest of the city of Lashkar Gah in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, until 27 October 2014 when the British Army handed over control to the Afghan Ministry of Defense.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Corruption in Afghanistan is a widespread and growing problem in Afghan society.
Maulavi or Mullah Dadullah or Dadullah Akhund (ملا دادالله آخوند) (1966 – May 13, 2007) was the Taliban's senior military commander until he was killed by British and American special forces in Afghanistan in 2007.
Darī (دری) or Dari Persian (فارسی دری Fārsī-ye Darī) or synonymously Farsi (فارسی Fārsī) is the variety of the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan.
Dasht-e Margo (Persian: دشت مارگو), also Dasht-e Mārgow or Dasht-e Margoh, is a desert region in the southern provinces of Helmand and Nimruz in Afghanistan.
Daykundi (دایکندی, دایکنډي) sometimes spelled as Daikundi, Dāykondī, Daikondi or Daykundi, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the central part of the country.
Dishu is a district in the south of Helmand Province, Afghanistan, bordering Pakistan.
This is a list of districts of Afghanistan, known as wuleswali (ولسوالۍ or wuləswāləi; شهرستان), which are one level below the provinces.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
The Durand Line (د ډیورنډ کرښه) is the international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Embedded Training Teams or ETT is the term used by the US military since 2003 to describe conventional forces used to train and mentor Afghan forces (ANA and ANP primarily).
Farah (Pashto/Persian: فراه) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the western part of the country next to Iran.
Garmsir (ګرمسير) is the center of Garmsir District in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Garmsir District (or Garmser) is located in the southern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.
Ghōr (Pashto/غور), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
The Ghurids or Ghorids (سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Eastern Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, presumably Tajik, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain, and it has been argued that they were Pashtun.
Girishk (ګرشک, also Gereshk) is a town in Nahri Saraj District in Helmand province on the Helmand River in Afghanistan, some northwest of Kandahar, at altitude.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hamid Karzai, (Pashto/حامد کرزی, born 24 December 1957) is an Afghan politician who was the leader of Afghanistan from 22 December 2001 to 29 September 2014, originally as an interim leader and then as President for almost ten years, from 7 December 2004 to 2014.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
The Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority (HAVA) based in Lashkar Gah, Afghanistan, originally named the Helmand Valley Authority (HVA) until its expansion in 1965, C Clapp-Wicek & E Baldwin, U.S. Agency for International Development, published December 1983 was established on December 4, 1952 as an agency of the Afghan Government.
The Helmand River (also spelled Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand; Pashto/Persian: هیرمند, هلمند Hīrmand, Helmand, Greek: Ἐτύμανδρος (Etýmandros), Latin: Erymandrus) is the longest river in Afghanistan and the primary watershed for the endorheic Sistan Basin.
Hinduism in Afghanistan is practiced by a tiny minority of Afghans, believed to be about 1,000 individuals who live mostly in Kabul and other major cities of the country.
The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.
Shah Hussain Hotak, (Pashto شاه حسين هوتک), son of Mirwais Hotak, was the fifth and last ruler of the Hotak dynasty.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Balochistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran.
Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.
The Kajaki Dam is one of the two major hydroelectric power dams of Helmand province in southern Afghanistan.
Kajaki is a district in the east of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Kandahar (کندھار; قندهار) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country next to Pakistan.
Reg (Khanashin) District is situated in the southeastern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan along the Helmand River on its western bank.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages – Pashto and Dari – are both official and most widely spoken.
Lashkargāh (لښکرګاه; لشکرگاه), historically called Bost or Boost (بست، بوست), is a city in southwestern Afghanistan and the capital of Helmand Province.
Lashkargah is a district in the east of Helmand Province, Afghanistan, surrounding the provincial capital of Lashkargah.
Law enforcement in Afghanistan is one of three major components of the nation's criminal justice system, along with courts and corrections.
Dams and reservoirs in Afghanistan are used for irrigation, water supply, hydro-electric power generation or combination of these.
This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.
The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (یمینالدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین), more commonly known as Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی; November 971 – 30 April 1030), also known as Mahmūd-i Zābulī (محمود زابلی), was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid Empire.
Marjah (also spelled Marjeh; Pashto/مارجه) is an agricultural town in southern Afghanistan.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
The Ministry of Interior Affairs (د افغانستان د کورنیو چارو وزارت) is headquartered in Kabul, Afghanistan, and is responsible for law enforcement in Afghanistan.
The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) is a ministry of the Afghan government.
Mīrwais Khān Hotak (مير ويس خان هوتک), also known as Shāh Mirwais Ghiljī (شاه ميرويس غلجي) (1673 – November 1715), was an influential tribal chief of the Ghilji Pashtuns from Kandahar, Afghanistan, who founded the Hotak dynasty that existed from 1709 to 1738.
Mohammad Daoud (born 1957) was the governor of Helmand in Afghanistan until he was removed from his post for his ties to the opium trade.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mundigak (مونډي ګاګ), in Kandahar, Afghanistan, is an archaeological site in Kandahar province in Afghanistan.
Musa Qala (موسی کلا; "Fortress of Moses") is a town and the district centre of Musa Qala District in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Musa Qala is a district in the north of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nad Ali or Nad-e Ali is a district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Nahri Saraj District (نهر سراج ولسوالۍ) (population 114,200), also called Nahre Saraj, is a district in Helmand Province in southern Afghanistan.
Nāwa-I-Barakzāyi District (ناوۀ بارکزائی /ناوۀ بارکزائی) is an administrative district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan located south of the provincial capital of Lashkar Gah along the Helmand River.
Nawzad is a district in the north of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Nawzad (نوزاد; also Now Zad) is a small town, the centre of Nawzad District in Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Nimruz (Balochi/ولایت نیمروز; نيمروز ولايت) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country.
The name Nurzai or Noorzai, linguistically, is a combination of Arabic and Pashto meaning son of the light.
Old Kandahar (locally known as Zorr Shaar; زوړ ښار, meaning "Old City") is a historical section of the city of Kandahar in southern Afghanistan.
Operation Herrick is the codename under which all British operations in the War in Afghanistan were conducted from 2002 to the end of combat operations in 2014.
Operation Mountain Thrust was a NATO and Afghan-led operation in the war in Afghanistan, with more than 3,300 British troops, 2,300 U.S., 2,200 Canadian troops, about 3,500 Afghan soldiers and large air support.
Operation Strike of the Sword or Operation Khanjar was a US-led offensive in Helmand province in southern Afghanistan.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The Oregon Army National Guard is a federally mandated and equipped military organization under the civilian direction of the Oregon Military Department, with the Governor of Oregon as its Commander-in-Chief.
Pajhwok Afghan News (پژواک خبري اژانس) (آژانس خبرى پژواک) is Afghanistan's largest independent news agency.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashtun tribes, or Afghan tribes (پښتانه ټبرونه يا پښتانه قبايل), are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir (c. 1374 – 22 February 1407) was a Timurid prince and briefly succeeded as King of Timurid Empire after the death of his grandfather Timur the Lame.
The politics of Afghanistan consists of the council of ministers, provincial governors and the national assembly, with a president serving as the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Afghan Armed Forces.
Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces (ولايت wilåyat).
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).
Sangin (سنگين) is a town in Helmand province of Afghanistan, with population of approximately 14,000 people.
Sangin is a district in the east of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी, IAST: sárasvatī nadī) is one of the Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Shahr-e Sūkhté (شهرِ سوخته, meaning " Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.
Shepherds of Helmand is a war film directed by Gary Mortensen.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sikhism in Afghanistan is limited to small populations, primarily in major cities, with the largest numbers of Afghan Sikhs living in Jalalabad, Ghazni, Kabul, and to a lesser extent Kandahar.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically the riverbed of the dammed river itself.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid dynasty (تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineageB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006Encyclopædia Britannica, "", Online Academic Edition, 2007.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Urōzgān (اروزګان، روزګان; اروزگان), also spelled as Uruzgan, Oruzgan, Orozgan, or Rozgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
Washir (also spelt Washer or Washar) is a district in the west of Helmand Province, Afghanistan.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Zabulistan (Persian/Pashto: زابلستان; Zabul + -stan), originally known as "Zavolistan", is a historical region roughly corresponding to today's Zabul Province in southern Afghanistan.
Zaranj or Zarang (Persian/Pashto/زرنج) is a city in southwestern Afghanistan, near the border with Iran, which has a population of 160,902 people as of 2015.
Zee News is an Indian news channel launched in 6 July 1999 and is the flagship property of Zee Media Corporation Limited, company and a subsidiary of Essel Group.The channel is owned by Subhash Chandra, an independent member of the Rajya Sabha.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zunbil, also written as Zhunbil, was a royal dynasty south of the Hindu Kush in present southern Afghanistan region.
16 Air Assault Brigade (16 Air Asslt Bde) is a formation of the British Army based in Colchester in the county of Essex.
The 2007 Helmand province airstrikes were a set of airstrikes conducted by NATO and resulted in death of at least 45 Afghan civilians.
The 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines (2/7) is a light infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps.