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Hen Ogledd

Index Hen Ogledd

Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages. [1]

163 relations: Aeron (kingdom), Ammianus Marcellinus, Ancient Germanic law, Aneirin, Angles, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon law, Anglo-Saxons, Annales Cambriae, Annals of Tigernach, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Archaism, Ayrshire, Áedán mac Gabráin, Bard, Battle of Arfderydd, Battle of Catraeth, Bede, Bernicia, Bo'ness, Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd, Books of authority, Breton language, Brittonic languages, Burgh, Cadrawd Calchfynydd, Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Calchfynydd, Celtic Britons, Celtic law, Celts, Chivalric romance, Civitas, Clackmannan, Clackmannanshire, Coel Hen, Common law, Cornish language, Court (royal), Cumbria, Cumbric, Cunedda, Dalmeny, Danelaw, Dál Riata, De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, Deira, Dent, Cumbria, Dumbarton, Dynod Bwr, ..., Early Irish law, Early Middle Ages, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Edinburgh, Edward Anwyl, Edwin of Northumbria, Elegy, Elmet, England in the Middle Ages, English law, Epigraphy, Ergyng, Firth of Clyde, Firth of Forth, Gaels, Galloway, Genealogies from Jesus College MS 20, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Germanic peoples, Gildas, Glywysing, Gododdin, Harleian genealogies, Henry II of England, Historia Brittonum, Historia Regum Britanniae, Historicity of King Arthur, History of Anglo-Saxon England, House of Lancaster, House of York, Humber, Iolo Morganwg, John Davies (historian), John Edward Lloyd, Kelso, Scottish Borders, Kenneth H. Jackson, King Arthur, Kingdom of Gwent, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Kinship, Leges inter Brettos et Scottos, Llywarch Hen, Lothian, Manaw Gododdin, Matter of Britain, Medieval Welsh literature, Mercia, Middle Ages, Middle Irish, Military of ancient Rome, Myrddin Wyllt, Nennius, Neologism, Norman law, Norsemen, North Yorkshire, Northern England, Novantae, Old English, Old Welsh, Oswiu, Owain mab Urien, Paean, Penda of Mercia, Pictish language, Picts, Pseudohistory, Rachel Bromwich, Rheged, Ribble and Alt Estuaries, River Tees, River Tyne, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman law, Scoti, Scotland, Scotland in the Early Middle Ages, Scottish Borders, Scottish Lowlands, Slamannan, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Solway Firth, Southwestern Brittonic languages, Stirlingshire, Studia Celtica, Sub-Roman Britain, Taliesin, Talorgan I, The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglie, Tragedy, Tribe, University of Wales Press, Urien, Vita Sancti Wilfrithi, Votadini, Wales, Wales in the Early Middle Ages, Wars of the Roses, Welsh language, Welsh law, Welsh mythology, Welsh Triads, William Forbes Skene, Y Cymmrodor, Y Gododdin, Yan Tan Tethera, Yorkshire, 11th century. Expand index (113 more) »

Aeron (kingdom)

Aeron was a kingdom of the Brythonic-speaking Hen Ogledd (Old North), presumed to have been located in the region of the River Ayr in what is now southwestern Scotland.

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Ammianus Marcellinus

Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).

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Ancient Germanic law

Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.

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Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.

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The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.

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Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Anglo-Saxon law

Anglo-Saxon law (Old English ǣ, later lagu "law"; dōm "decree, judgment") is a body of written rules and customs that were in place during the Anglo-Saxon period in England, before the Norman conquest.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Annales Cambriae

Annales Cambriae (Latin for The Annals of Wales) is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales.

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Annals of Tigernach

The Annals of Tigernach (abbr. AT) is a chronicle probably originating in Clonmacnoise, Ireland.

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Archaeologia Cambrensis

Archaeologia Cambrensis is an archaeological and historical scholarly journal that is published annually by the Cambrian Archaeological Association.

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In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

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Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir) is an historic county and registration county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde.

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Áedán mac Gabráin

Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from c. 574 until c. 609.

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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional story teller, verse-maker and music composer, employed by a patron (such as a monarch or noble), to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.

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Battle of Arfderydd

The Battle of Arfderydd (also known as Arderydd) was fought, according to the Annales Cambriae, in 573.

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Battle of Catraeth

The Battle of Catraeth was fought around AD 600 between a force raised by the Gododdin, a Brythonic people of the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain, and the Angles of Bernicia and Deira.

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Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.

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Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Bryneich, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.

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Borrowstounness (commonly known as Bo'ness) is a coastal parish in the Central Lowlands of Scotland.

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Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd

Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd (The Descent of the Men of the North) is a brief Middle Welsh tract which claims to give the pedigrees of twenty 6th century rulers of the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking parts of southern Scotland and northern England.

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Books of authority

Books of authority is a term used by legal writers to refer to a number of early legal textbooks that are excepted from the rule that textbooks (and all books other than statute or law report) are not treated as authorities by the courts of England and Wales and other common law jurisdictions.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.

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Cadrawd Calchfynydd

Cadrawd Calchfynydd was king of the Brythonic kingdom of Calchfynydd in the 6th century.

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Cadwallon ap Cadfan

Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.

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Calchfynydd (Welsh calch "lime" + mynydd "mountain") was an obscure Britonnic kingdom or sub-kingdom of sub-Roman Britain.

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Celtic Britons

The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).

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Celtic law

A number of law codes have in the past been in use in the various Celtic nations since the Middle Ages.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Chivalric romance

As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

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In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).

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Clackmannan (Clach Mhanainn, perhaps meaning "Stone of Manau"), is a small town and civil parish set in the Central Lowlands of Scotland.

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Clackmannanshire (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Chlach Mhannainn) is a historic county and council area in Scotland, bordering the council areas of Stirling, Fife and Perth & Kinross.

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Coel Hen

Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.

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Court (royal)

A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.

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Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.

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Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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Cunedda ap Edern or Cunedda Wledig (5th century) was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd.

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Dalmeny is a village and parish in Scotland.

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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Dál Riata

Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.

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De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae

De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (Latin for "On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain", sometimes just "On the Ruin of Britain") is a work by the 6th-century AD British cleric St Gildas.

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Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a Celtic kingdom – first recorded (but much older) by the Anglo-Saxons in 559 AD and lasted til 664 AD, in Northern England that was first recorded when Anglian warriors invaded the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.

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Dent, Cumbria

Dent is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, England.

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Dumbarton is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the north bank of the River Clyde where the River Leven flows into the Clyde estuary.

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Dynod Bwr

Dynod son of Pabo (Dynod or Dunod ap Pabo; Dunaunt; died c. 595), better known as Dynod the Stout (Dynod Bwr) or Dynod Fawr was the ruler of a small kingdom in the North Pennines in the post-Roman Hen Ogledd ("Old North").

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Early Irish law

Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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Ecclesiastical History of the English People

The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edward Anwyl

Sir Edward Anwyl (5 August 1866 – 8 August 1914) was a Welsh academic, specializing in the Celtic languages.

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Edwin of Northumbria

Edwin (Ēadwine; c. 586 – 12 October 632/633), also known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which later became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death.

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In English literature, an elegy is a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead.

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Elmet (Elfed) was an area of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire, and an independent Brittonic kingdom between about the 5th century and early 7th century.

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England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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Ergyng (or Erging) was a Welsh kingdom of the sub-Roman and early medieval period, between the 5th and 7th centuries.

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Firth of Clyde

The Firth of Clyde is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Scotland, named for the River Clyde which empties into it.

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Firth of Forth

The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.

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The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.

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Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.

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Genealogies from Jesus College MS 20

The genealogies from Jesus College MS 20 are a medieval Welsh collection of genealogies preserved in a single manuscript, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Jesus College, MS 20, folios 33r–41r.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.

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Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.

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The Gododdin were a P-Celtic-speaking Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period.

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Harleian genealogies

The Harleian genealogies are a collection of Old Welsh genealogies preserved in British Library, Harleian MS 3859.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Historia Brittonum

The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.

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Historia Regum Britanniae

Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.

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Historicity of King Arthur

The historical basis for King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among historians.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.

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House of Lancaster

The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.

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House of York

The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.

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The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.

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Iolo Morganwg

Edward Williams, better known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwg (10 March 1747 – 18 December 1826), was an influential Welsh antiquarian, poet, collector, and literary forger.

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John Davies (historian)

John Davies (25 April 1938 – 16 February 2015) was a Welsh historian, and a television and radio broadcaster.

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John Edward Lloyd

Sir John Edward Lloyd (who wrote as J. E. Lloyd) (5 May 1861 – 20 June 1947), was a Welsh historian, the author of the first serious history of the country's formative years, A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, 2 vols.

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Kelso, Scottish Borders

Kelso (Kelsae Cealsaidh) is a market town in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland.

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Kenneth H. Jackson

Prof Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson CBE FRSE FSA DLitt (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.

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King Arthur

King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

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Kingdom of Gwent

Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.

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Kingdom of Gwynedd

The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

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Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Kingdom of Strathclyde

Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud (and Strath-Clota in Anglo-Saxon), was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in Hen Ogledd ("the Old North"), the Brythonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Leges inter Brettos et Scottos

The Leges inter Brettos et Scottos or Laws of the Brets and Scots was a legal codification under David I of Scotland (reigned 1124 – 1153).

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Llywarch Hen

Llywarch Hen, meaning 'Llywarch the Old' (born c. 534, died c. 608), was a prince and poet of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a ruling family in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain (modern southern Scotland and northern England).

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Lothian (Lowden; Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.

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Manaw Gododdin

Manaw Gododdin was the narrow coastal region on the south side of the Firth of Forth, part of the Brythonic-speaking Kingdom of Gododdin in the post-Roman Era.

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Matter of Britain

The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.

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Medieval Welsh literature

Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.

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Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Irish

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.

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Military of ancient Rome

The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.

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Myrddin Wyllt

Myrddin Wyllt (—"Myrddin the Wild") is a figure in medieval Welsh legend.

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Nennius — or Nemnius or Nemnivus — was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.

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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Norman law

Norman law refers to the customary law of the Duchy of Normandy which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries and which survives today in the legal systems of Jersey and the other Channel Islands.

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Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.

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North Yorkshire

North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.

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The Novantae were a people of the late 2nd century who lived in what is now Galloway and Carrick, in southwestern-most Scotland.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Welsh

Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.

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Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.

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Owain mab Urien

Owain mab Urien (Middle Welsh Owein) (died c. 595) was the son of Urien, king of Rheged c. 590, and fought with his father against the Angles of Bernicia.

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A paean is a song or lyric poem expressing triumph or thanksgiving.

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Penda of Mercia

Penda (died 15 November 655)Manuscript A of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives the year as 655.

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Pictish language

Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.

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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.

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Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.

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Rachel Bromwich

Rachel Bromwich (30 July 1915 – 15 December 2010) was a British scholar.

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Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages.

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Ribble and Alt Estuaries

The Ribble and Alt Estuaries lie on the Irish Sea coast of the counties of Lancashire and Merseyside in north-west England, and form the boundaries of a number of nature preservation schemes.

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River Tees

The River Tees is in northern England.

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River Tyne

The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.

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Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scotland in the Early Middle Ages

Scotland was divided into a series of kingdoms in the early Middle Ages, i.e. between the end of Roman authority in southern and central Britain from around 400 CE and the rise of the kingdom of Alba in 900 CE.

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Scottish Borders

The Scottish Borders (The Mairches, "The Marches"; Scottish Gaelic: Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.

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Scottish Lowlands

The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.

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Slamannan (Sliabh Mhanainn) is a village in the south of the Falkirk council area in Central Scotland.

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Society of Antiquaries of Scotland

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is the senior antiquarian body of Scotland, with its headquarters in the National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh.

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Solway Firth

The Solway Firth (Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria (including the Solway Plain) and Dumfries and Galloway.

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Southwestern Brittonic languages

The Southwestern Brittonic languages are the Brittonic Celtic tongues spoken in South West England and Brittany since the Early Middle Ages.

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Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling (Coontie o Stirlin, Siorrachd Sruighlea) is a historic county and registration countyRegisters of Scotland.

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Studia Celtica

Studia Celtica is an annual journal published in Wales containing scholarly articles on linguistic topics, mainly in English but with some Welsh and German; it also contains book reviews and obituaries.

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Sub-Roman Britain

Sub-Roman Britain is the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around CE 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period.

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Taliesin (6th century AD) was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin.

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Talorgan I

Talorcan (or Talorgan) mac Enfret (died 657) was a King of the Picts from 653 to 657.

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The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales

The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales is a printed collection of medieval Welsh literature, published in three volumes by the Gwyneddigion Society between 1801 and 1807.

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Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglie

The Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglie (Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England), often called Glanvill, is the earliest treatise on English law.

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Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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University of Wales Press

The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.

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Urien, often referred to as Urien Rheged or Uriens, was a late 6th-century king of Rheged, an early British kingdom of the Hen Ogledd (today's northern England and southern Scotland).

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Vita Sancti Wilfrithi

The Vita Sancti Wilfrithi or Life of St Wilfrid (spelled "Wilfrid" in the modern era) is an early 8th-century hagiographic text recounting the life of the Northumbrian bishop, Wilfrid.

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The Votadini, also known as the Wotādīni, Votādīni or Otadini, were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Wales in the Early Middle Ages

Wales in the early Middle Ages covers the time between the Roman departure from Wales c. 383 and the rise of Merfyn Frych to the throne of Gwynedd c. 825.

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Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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Welsh law

Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Welsh mythology

Welsh mythology consists of both folk traditions developed in Wales, and traditions developed by the Celtic Britons elsewhere before the end of the first millennium.

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Welsh Triads

The Welsh Triads (Trioedd Ynys Prydein, "Triads of the Island of Britain") are a group of related texts in medieval manuscripts which preserve fragments of Welsh folklore, mythology and traditional history in groups of three.

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William Forbes Skene

William Forbes Skene (7 June 1809 – 29 August 1892), was a Scottish historian and antiquary.

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Y Cymmrodor

Y Cymmrodor ('The Welshman') was the annual journal of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, published between 1821 and 1951.

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Y Gododdin

Y Gododdin is a medieval Welsh poem consisting of a series of elegies to the men of the Brittonic kingdom of Gododdin and its allies who, according to the conventional interpretation, died fighting the Angles of Deira and Bernicia at a place named Catraeth circa AD 600.

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Yan Tan Tethera

Yan Tan Tethera is a sheep-counting rhyme/system traditionally used by shepherds in Northern England and earlier in some other parts of Britain.

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Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.

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11th century

The 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.

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Redirects here:

Cumbrians, Gwyr y Gogledd, Y Gogledd, Y Gogledd Hen, Y Hen Gogledd, Yr Hen Ogledd.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hen_Ogledd

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